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Technical Paper

Emission Reductions and Operational Experiences With Heavy Duty Diesel Fleet Vehicles Retrofitted with Continuously Regenerated Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California

2001-03-05
2001-01-0512
Particulate emission control from diesel engines is one of the major concerns in the urban areas in California. Recently, regulations have been proposed for stringent PM emission requirements from both existing and new diesel engines. As a result, particulate emission control from urban diesel engines using advanced particulate filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in California. Although ceramic based particle filters are well known for high PM reductions, the lack of effective and durable regeneration system has limited their applications. The continuously regenerated diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) technology discussed in this presentation, solves this problem by catalytically oxidizing NO present in the diesel exhaust to NO2 which is utilized to continuously combust the engine soot under the typical diesel engine operating condition.
Technical Paper

A Continuously Variable Power Split Transmission for Automotive Applications

1997-02-24
970687
Continuously variable transmissions, commonly known as CVT's, have been shown to be feasible alternatives to the conventional multi-step gear transmissions (standard or automatic) typically used in automotive applications. Most CVT applications, however, rely on a shaft-to-shaft transmission arrangement, in which the belt-sheave action limits the load capacity of the transmission, particularly at the high power ranges (low speed, high torque). In this paper, a system based on a combined planetary gear train and a continuously variable pulley system is presented. The uniqueness of this arrangement is that the variable pulleys provide a power/torque split and recirculation function, which, when combined with the planetary gear train function, produces a continuously variable power split transmission system.
Technical Paper

Automobile Body Panel Color Measurement Test

1997-02-24
970995
It has been proposed that an automated remote color inspection of automobile body panels is possible with a reasonably precise color measurement. This paper outlines a test of a new 3D color measurement technology as applied to this task and presents the results of the first test. A camera is set up several feet away from a car body; a 3D orientation measuring system takes both 3D and color data from the car. The raw data is presented as a set of 3D graphs; the geometry-corrected data is also provided. Statistical analysis is presented to indicate system precision.
Technical Paper

A Double Planetary Gear Train-CVT Transmission with Multiple Applications

1995-02-01
950094
A family of transmission systems based on a “Planetary Gear - CVT” mechanism is presented here. The systems considered consist of two compound planetary gear trains connected through a CVT pulley system to provide the power/torque split and recirculation function, without the use of additional clutches and/or chain drives. A two degree of freedom system results in which one of the degrees of freedom is directly related to the CVT ratio. The mechanisms considered here combine the gear reduction function of compound planetary gear trains with the continuously variable trans- used as a circulating power control unit. The kinematics and dynamics of this family of systems is presented with emphasis on the belt forces, torques on the various shafts and the overall input/output velocity ratios through the CVT ratio span. Then a parametric analysis is conducted to characterize the effect of the various functional ratios and parameters of the system in terms of the overall performance.
Technical Paper

Measurement Delays and Modal Analysis for a Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory

1995-02-01
950218
Concern over atmospheric pollution has led to the development of testing procedures to evaluate the hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions from internal combustion engines. In order to perform emissions testing on vehicles, a chassis dynamometer capable of simulating expected driving conditions must be employed. West Virginia University has developed a Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory to perform chassis testing on trucks and buses. Emissions from the vehicle are monitored and recorded over the duration of a testing schedule. Usually the vehicle emissions from the whole test are reported as mass of emissions per unit distance driven. However, there is interest in relating the instantaneous emissions to the immediate conditions at specific points in the test, and in determining the emissions for discrete segments of the test (modal analysis).
Technical Paper

Use of the West Virginia University Truck Test Cycle to Evaluate Emissions from Class 8 Trucks

1995-02-01
951016
Emissions from light duty vehicles have traditionally been measured using a chassis dynamometer, while heavy duty testing has been based on engine dynamometers. However, the need for in-use vehicle emissions data has led to the development of two transportable heavy duty chassis dynamometers capable of testing buses and heavy trucks. A test cycle has been developed for Class 8 trucks, which typically have unsyncronized transmissions. This test cycle has five peaks, each consisting of an acceleration, cruise period, and deceleration, with speeds and acceleration requirements that can be met by virtually all vehicles in common service. Termed the “WVU 5 peak truck test”, this 8 km (5 mile) cycle has been used to evaluate the emissions from diesel and ethanol powered over-the-road tractors and from diesel and ethanol powered snow plows, all with Detroit Diesel 6V92 engines.
Technical Paper

The Design of a Bi-Fuel Engine Which Avoids the Penalties Associated with Natural Gas Operation

1995-02-01
950679
An alternative fuel that has demonstrated considerable potential in reducing emissions and crude oil dependence is compressed natural gas (CNG). A dedicated CNG vehicle suffers from the lack of an adequate number of fueling stations and the poor range limited by CNG storage technology. A vehicle capable of operating on either gasoline or natural gas allows alternative fuel usage without sacrificing vehicle range and mobility. Although many such bi-fuel vehicles are in existence, historically they have employed older engine designs and made compromises in engine control parameters that can degrade performance relative to gasoline and increase emissions. A modern production engine, a 1992 Saturn 1.9 liter 16 valve powerplant, is being optimized for operation on each fuel to realize the full potential of CNG in a bi-fuel system. CNG operation in an engine designed for gasoline typically suffers from reduced power, due in part to displacement of air by gaseous fuel.
Technical Paper

Transient Emissions Tests of Cummins N-14 Natural Gas Engine

1995-11-01
952653
A heavy-duty engine testing project involving Cummins Engine Company, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and West Virginia University (WVU) has been completed. This project evaluated the transient exhaust gas emissions rate of Cummins N-14 heavy-duty diesel engines converted to natural gas. Three heavy-duty N-14 diesel engines were converted to run on natural gas using a lean burn strategy by SwRI and are in field service in Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD). Two of the engines were tested under a steady-state cycle that simulates the U.S. heavy-duty transient cycle. The third engine was tested at the WVU Engine Research Laboratory following the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP). However, at WVU, lean burn combustion strategy was shifted rich of stoichiometric during idling time of the FTP test. This may have caused the engine to produce more total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO).
Technical Paper

Speciation of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960322
Growing concern over ground-level ozone and its role in smog formation has resulted in extensive investigation into identifying ozone sources. Motor vehicle exhaust, specifically oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons, have been identified as major ozone precursors in urban areas. Past research has concentrated on assessing the impact of emissions from gasoline fueled light duty vehicles. However, little work has been done on identifying ozone precursors from medium and heavy duty diesel fueled vehicles. This paper presents the results of testing performed on a Navistar T 444E 190 horsepower diesel engine which is certified as a light/heavy-duty emissions classification and is used in medium duty trucks up to 11,800 kg (26,000 lb) GVW. Regulated emissions and speciated hydrocarbon emissions were collected using a filter, bag and Tenax adsorption cartridges for both steady state and transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Radio Frequency Plasma Ignitor for Possible Internal Combustion Engine Use

1997-02-24
970071
This paper outlines the development process of a radio frequency (RF) plasma ignitor and its application to internal combustion engines. The system features a high Q quarter-wave coaxial cavity resonator that serves as an electric field magnifier and as a discharge device. The preliminary characteristics of the cavity have been studied by the construction and operation of larger scaled devices. Testing has been performed using these devices in a testing apparatus operating under ambient conditions. Once an analysis of the large-scale device is complete, a smaller device, more inclined to interfacing with a standard engine, will be constructed and tested on a full scale engine. The final device is intended to operate in the 800-1500 MHz range.
Technical Paper

Zero Dimensional Combustion Modeling of an Axial Vane Rotary Engine

1997-02-24
970069
A zero dimensional combustion model of an axial vane rotary engine has been developed. The engine is a positive displacement mechanism that permits the four “stroke” action to occur in one revolution of the shaft with a minimum number of moving components. Current modeling efforts for this engine require improved estimations of engine parameters such as chamber pressure, chamber wall temperature, gas temperature, and heat loss. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a zero dimensional combustion model that predicts the above-mentioned parameters in a quick and accurate manner for a spark ignition or compression ignition version of the engine. For this effort, NASA's ZMOTTO code was modified. Piston engine data and the results from the modified ZMOTTO code are in good agreement.
Technical Paper

Comparative Emissions from Natural Gas and Diesel Buses

1995-12-01
952746
Data has been gathered using the West Virginia University Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Laboratories from buses operating on diesel and a variety of alternate fuels in the field. Typically, the transportable chassis dynamo meter is set up at a local transit agency and the selected buses are tested using the fuel in the vehicle at the time of the test. The dynamometer may be set up to operate indoors or outdoors depending on the space available at the site. Samples of the fuels being used at the site are collected and sent to the laboratory for analysis and this information is then sent together with emissions data to the Alternate Fuels Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Emissions data are acquired from buses using the Central Business District cycle reported in SAE Standard J1376; this cycle has 14 ramps with 20 mph (32.2 km/h) peaks, separated by idle periods.
Technical Paper

Ideal Computer Analysis of a Novel Engine Concept

1996-02-01
960080
A novel engine concept, currently under study, addresses many of the problems commonly associated with conventional internal combustion engines. In its simplest form the novel engine consists of a single crankshaft operating both a piston compressor and a piston expander which are connected by a continuous flame combustion chamber. One might regard this as a Brayton piston engine which is similar to a previous engine investigated by Warren. Also, due to the use of piston cylinders as the compression and expansion devices, this engine varies little mechanically from current engine technology thus allowing for easy implementation. The main improvement from conventional engine design is that the expansion cylinder can have a larger displacement than that of the compression cylinder. This allows more power to be extracted by lowering the loss due to blowdown and this will increase the thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

An Approach to Simulate Chassis Dynamometer Test Cycles with Engine Dynamometer Test Cycles for Heavy-Duty Urban Buses

1996-10-01
962196
A mathematical model has been developed to transfer Chassis Dynamometer (CD) test cycles for heavy duty vehicles to the equivalent Engine Dynamometer (ED) test cycles. The model assumed a generalized drivetrain layout, and a variable drive line efficiency. An interactive computer code was written to represent the mathematical model for different drivetrain systems. Several CD test cycles were used to obtain equivalent ED test cycles for a sample based upon an urban bus equipped with an automatic transmission. Results showed the possibility of simulating CD test cycles with equivalent ED test cycles for heavy-duty urban buses under certain assumptions.
Technical Paper

Speciation of Heavy Duty Diesel Exhaust Emissions under Steady State Operating Conditions

1996-10-01
962159
This paper presents results from a study on speciation of the emission profiles and on the ozone forming potential of heavy-duty diesel exhaust under steady state engine operation. Very limited attempts have been made at determining the ozone forming potential of heavy duty diesel exhaust emissions. In this study a proportional sample of the dilute exhaust was drawn from a CFV-CVS system using a temperature controlled sampling line. The particulate matter was collected on a 70 mm Teflon coated glass fiber filter (TX40HI20WW), the semi-volatiles on XAD-2 copolymer resin and volatiles in Tedlar bags. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography after conditioning and chemical extractions. The initial phase of the study was directed towards developing techniques and establishing protocols to determine the ozone forming potential of heavy-duty diesel exhaust. A pre-chamber naturally aspirated engine was tested on steady-state modes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 of the ISO 8 mode cycle.
Technical Paper

The Rand-Cam Engine: A Pistonless Four Stroke Engine

1994-03-01
940518
The Rand-Cam engine is a positive displacement machine, operating on a four stroke cycle, which consists of a rotor with multiple axial vanes forming combustion chambers as the rotor and vanes rotate in a cam shaped housing. The cam housing, consisting of two “half-housings” or stators, contains a toroidal trough of varying depth machined into each stator. The two stators are phased so that the shallowest point on one trough corresponds to the deepest on the other. A set of six vanes, able to move axially through machined holes in the rotor, traverses the troughs creating six captured zones per side. These zones vary in volume with rotor rotation. Since each trough has two deep sections and two shallow sections with ramps in between, full four stroke operation is obtained between each pair of vanes in each trough, corresponding to twelve power “strokes” per revolution.
Technical Paper

Parametric Modeling and Analysis of a Planetary Gear-CVT Mechanism

1994-03-01
940519
The mechanism considered here, combines the functions of a planetary gear train and a continuously variable transmission (CVT) system, through a circulating power control unit, which results by connecting the sun-gear shaft and the ring-gear rotation through a variable pitch pulley system. The mechanism is simple and does not require clutches for its operation. Three basic configurations are presented, two of them produce a power feedback effect and a third one produces a power split forward, without a “geared neutral” condition. Parametric analysis is carried out in relation to the circulating power split feature in order to to assist in the design of an optimum configuration for light-weight applications. A parametric approach is used to generate a model that can be used to perform parametric sensitivity analysis.
Technical Paper

Performance of a High Speed Engine with Dual Fuel Capability

1994-03-01
940517
Concern over dwindling oil supplies has led to the adoption of alternate fuels to power fleet vehicles. However, during the interim period when alternate fuel supply stations are few and far between, dual fuel engines prove a necessity. In the light duty arena, these engines are typically gasoline engines modified to accommodate compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternate fuel, but they are seldom optimized with both fuels in mind. A Saturn 1.9 liter 4 cylinder dual overhead cam engine was selected as a base for developing an optimized gasoline/CNG powerplant. Baseline data on power and steady state emissions (CO2, CO, NOx, HC) were found using the standard Saturn controller. In addition to monitoring standard sensor measurements, real-time pressure traces were taken for up to 256 cycles using a modified head with embedded PCB piezoelectric pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Rotor Shaft Bearing Analysis for Selected Rand Cam™ Engine Configurations

1995-02-01
950449
Analysis of two types of bearings has been performed for the rotor shaft of the Rand Cam™ engine. Rolling element bearings and a combination of journal and thrust bearings for selected engine configurations have been considered. The engine configurations consist of four, five, six, seven, and eight vanes. The bearing geometry and orientation was also addressed. This analysis is crucial due to the potentially large axial loading on the bearings and the need for the bearing arrangement to be compact and reliable. An emphasis was placed on the combination of fluctuating axial and radial loads and the resulting effect upon the bearings. Tapered roller bearings were found to be effective. However, a combination of journal and thrust bearings is a more compact bearing arrangement for this application. The eight vane configuration is the most desirable configuration based upon the bearing analysis.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamic Mobility Analysis of the Vane Lift Mechanism for the Rand Cam™ Engine

1995-02-01
950450
In this paper, a new method for the hydro-dynamic analysis of a sliding cylinder in a fully lubricated parallel track is presented. The method is an extension of Booker's “Mobility Method” (developed for cylindrical journal bearings) to the case of sliding cylinders, in which the clearance between the track and the cylinder, the viscosity of the lubricant, the radius and length of the pin, the sliding velocity and the applied transverse load determine the hydrodynamic behavior of the cylinder. In the Rand Cam™ Engine [1]*, the axicycloidal motion of vanes is driven by a rotor and a cylindrical cam, and one of the alternative designs to provide this function is based on a cylindrical pin sliding within a track which follows the profile of the motion of the main cams of the engine. This function is very important for the engine, since it separates the load bearing function from the sealing function left to the apex-like seals.
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