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Technical Paper

A Continuously Variable Power Split Transmission for Automotive Applications

Continuously variable transmissions, commonly known as CVT's, have been shown to be feasible alternatives to the conventional multi-step gear transmissions (standard or automatic) typically used in automotive applications. Most CVT applications, however, rely on a shaft-to-shaft transmission arrangement, in which the belt-sheave action limits the load capacity of the transmission, particularly at the high power ranges (low speed, high torque). In this paper, a system based on a combined planetary gear train and a continuously variable pulley system is presented. The uniqueness of this arrangement is that the variable pulleys provide a power/torque split and recirculation function, which, when combined with the planetary gear train function, produces a continuously variable power split transmission system.
Technical Paper

A Double Planetary Gear Train-CVT Transmission with Multiple Applications

A family of transmission systems based on a “Planetary Gear - CVT” mechanism is presented here. The systems considered consist of two compound planetary gear trains connected through a CVT pulley system to provide the power/torque split and recirculation function, without the use of additional clutches and/or chain drives. A two degree of freedom system results in which one of the degrees of freedom is directly related to the CVT ratio. The mechanisms considered here combine the gear reduction function of compound planetary gear trains with the continuously variable trans- used as a circulating power control unit. The kinematics and dynamics of this family of systems is presented with emphasis on the belt forces, torques on the various shafts and the overall input/output velocity ratios through the CVT ratio span. Then a parametric analysis is conducted to characterize the effect of the various functional ratios and parameters of the system in terms of the overall performance.
Technical Paper

An Approach to Simulate Chassis Dynamometer Test Cycles with Engine Dynamometer Test Cycles for Heavy-Duty Urban Buses

A mathematical model has been developed to transfer Chassis Dynamometer (CD) test cycles for heavy duty vehicles to the equivalent Engine Dynamometer (ED) test cycles. The model assumed a generalized drivetrain layout, and a variable drive line efficiency. An interactive computer code was written to represent the mathematical model for different drivetrain systems. Several CD test cycles were used to obtain equivalent ED test cycles for a sample based upon an urban bus equipped with an automatic transmission. Results showed the possibility of simulating CD test cycles with equivalent ED test cycles for heavy-duty urban buses under certain assumptions.
Technical Paper

Parametric Modeling and Analysis of a Planetary Gear-CVT Mechanism

The mechanism considered here, combines the functions of a planetary gear train and a continuously variable transmission (CVT) system, through a circulating power control unit, which results by connecting the sun-gear shaft and the ring-gear rotation through a variable pitch pulley system. The mechanism is simple and does not require clutches for its operation. Three basic configurations are presented, two of them produce a power feedback effect and a third one produces a power split forward, without a “geared neutral” condition. Parametric analysis is carried out in relation to the circulating power split feature in order to to assist in the design of an optimum configuration for light-weight applications. A parametric approach is used to generate a model that can be used to perform parametric sensitivity analysis.
Technical Paper

Defining the Hybrid Drive System for the WVU ClearVue Crossover Sport Utility Vehicle

West Virginia University (WVU) is a participant in EcoCAR - The NeXt Challenge, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, and General Motors Corporation. During the first year of the competition, the goal of the WVU EcoEvolution Team was to design a novel hybrid-electric powertrain for a 2009 Saturn Vue to increase pump-to-wheels fuel economy, reduce criteria tailpipe emissions and well-to-wheels greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) while maintaining or improving performance and utility. To this end, WVU designed a 2-Mode split-parallel diesel-electric hybrid system. Key elements of the hybrid powertrain include a General Motors 1.3L SDE Turbo Diesel engine, a General Motors Corporation 2-Mode electrically variable transmission (EVT) and an A123 Systems Lithium-Ion battery system. The engine will be fueled on a blend of 20% soy-derived biodiesel and 80% petroleum-derived ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (B20).
Technical Paper

Development of A Microwave Assisted Regeneration System for A Ceramic Diesel Particulate System

Specific aspects of a study aimed at developing a microwave assisted regeneration system for diesel particulate traps are discussed. Results from thermal and microwave characteristic studies carried out in the initial phase of the study are reported. The critical parameters that need to be optimized, for achieving controlled regeneration, are microwave preheating time period, regenerative air supply, regenerative air temperature, and soot deposition. Using a 1000 W magnetron, power measurements were made to select the best waveguide configuration for optimized transmission. A six cylinder naturally aspirated, indirect injection diesel engine was retrofitted with a customized exhaust system that included a Corning EX80 (5.66″ × 6.00″) type ceramic particulate trap. An automated exhaust bypass system enabled trap loading and subsequent regeneration with a customized microwave regeneration system. The paper discusses the salient details of both on-line and off-line regeneration setups.
Technical Paper

A Model for a Planetary - CVT Mechanism: Analysis and Synthesis

This paper describes the strategy for engineering design, modeling, and analysis of a planetary - CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) system. The uniqueness of this mechanism arrangement resides in the combination of features associated to two conventional systems, namely a planetary gear train and a CVT pulley system, acting as a power circulation control unit. The pulley system features a manually activated control over the variable pitch ratios of the CVT, by means of which the overall system input/output velocity and power ratios can be controlled according the operational requirements. By using the belt drive as a feedback control unit (as opposed to the main driveline), one of the major problems or limitations of conventional CVT arrangements is overcome, namely the belt capacity of the system. Specifically, the output torque obtained through the planetary output shaft is greater than the torque circulating through the pulleys.
Journal Article

Control and Testing of a 2-Mode Front-Wheel-Drive Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

The new General Motors 2-mode hybrid transmission for front-wheel-drive vehicles has been incorporated into a 2009 Saturn Vue by the West Virginia University EcoCAR team. The 2-mode hybrid transmission can operate in either one of two electrically variable transmission modes or four fixed gear modes although only the electrically variable modes were explored in this paper. Other major power train components include a GM 1.3L SDE turbo diesel engine fueled with B20 biodiesel and an A123 Systems 12.9 kWh lithium-ion battery system. Two additional vehicle controllers were integrated for tailpipe emission control, CAN message integration, and power train hybridization control. Control laws for producing maximum fuel efficiency were implemented and include such features as engine auto-stop, regenerative braking and optimized engine operation. The engine operating range is confined to a high efficiency area that improves the overall combined engine and electric motor efficiency.