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Technical Paper

Experiment Study and Design of Self-excited Eddy Current Retarder

2013-11-27
2013-01-2825
Good braking performance is an important guarantee for the vehicle driving. In the condition of frequent or prolonged braking, the overheating problem for the traditional mechanical braking device causes the recession of the braking performance, which is a prominent problem especially for the commercial vehicle perennial traveling in the mountains. Eddy current retarder can reduce the mechanical brake load as a kind of auxiliary braking device. Thus, the temperature of the mechanical braking device would not be too high, and the traveling safety of the vehicle can be ensured. But eddy current retarder would cause an enormous impact for automobile battery when it starts up and huge electricity energy would be consumed which means that more automotive batteries are needed. Considering above, a kind of self-excited eddy current retarder is developed in the paper.
Journal Article

Study on the Unsteady Heat Transfer of Engine Exhaust Manifold Based on the Analysis Method of Serial

2014-04-01
2014-01-1711
In order to predict the thermal fatigue life of the internal combustion engine exhaust manifold effectively, it was necessary to accurately obtain the unsteady heat transfer process between hot streams and exhaust manifold all the time. This paper began with the establishment of unsteady coupled heat transfer model by using serial coupling method of CFD and FEA numerical simulations, then the bidirectional thermal coupling analysis between fluid and structure was realized, as a result, the difficulty that the transient thermal boundary conditions were applied to the solid boundary was solved. What's more, the specific coupling mode, the physical quantities delivery method on the coupling interface and the surface mesh match were studied. On this basis, the differences between strong coupling method and portioned treatment for solving steady thermal stress numerical analysis were compared, and a more convenient and rapid method for solving static thermal stress was found.
Journal Article

Cracking Failure Analysis and Optimization on Exhaust Manifold of Engine with CFD-FEA Coupling

2014-04-01
2014-01-1710
For fracture cracks that occurred in the tight coupling exhaust manifold durability test of a four-cylinder gasoline engine with EGR channel, causes and solutions for fracture failure were found with the help of CFD and FEA numerical simulations. Wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient of the exhaust manifold inside wall were first accurately obtained through the thermal-fluid coupling analysis, then thermal modal and thermoplastic analysis were acquired by using the finite element method, on account of the bolt pretightening force and the contact relationship between flange face and cylinder head. Results showed that the first-order natural frequency did not meet the design requirements, which was the main reason of fatigue fracture. However, when the first-order natural frequency was rising, the delta equivalent plastic strain was increasing quickly as well.
Journal Article

Research on Driving Posture Comfort Based on Relation between Drivers' Joint Angles and Joint Torques

2014-04-01
2014-01-0460
Driving comfort is one of the most important indexes for automobile comfort. Driving posture comfort is closely related to the drivers' joint angles and joint torques. In present research, a new method is proposed to identify the most comfortable driving posture based on studying the relation between drivers' joint angles and joint torques. In order to truly reflect a driving situation, the accurate human driving model of 50 percent of the size of Chinese male is established according to the human body database of RAMSIS firstly. Biomechanical model based on accurate human driving model is also developed to analyze and obtain dynamic equations of human driving model by employing Kane method. The joint torque-angle curves of drivers' upper and lower limbs during holding wheel or pedal operation can be obtained through dynamic simulation in the MATLAB. Through curve-fitting analysis, the minimum joint torque of a driver' limb and the optimal joint angel can be found.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear System Identification of Road Simulation Platform

2010-05-05
2010-01-1539
On road simulation, both the traditional iterative method based on frequency response function (FRF) and adaptive control method based on the CARMA model are realized by using linear model to identify the target test system. However the real test system is very complicated because of various nonlinear factors. Linear models approximately describe the system only in a small range. Therefore, system simulation methods can not be used to validate the developed control algorithm and the uncertainty of test accordingly increases. As mentioned above, this paper presents a model to identify the nonlinear test system using NARMA dynamic neural network and discusses how to make the model parameters in detail. Using the test input-output series data, this network was trained by Levenberg-Marquardt method. Results of verification simulation show the validation of the nonlinear model.
Technical Paper

The Shock Absorber of Energy Recovery Using Electrorheological Fluid

2012-04-16
2012-01-0981
When vehicle traveling on the bumpy road or vehicle acceleration and deceleration, which will cause the body vibration of vehicle, at the same time, a large part of energy would be absorbed by the shock absorber transforms the mechanical energy into heat energy dissipated. In order to recycle the energy of vibration and keep the stability of running car, this paper provides the shock absorber of energy recovery that recycling the energy dissipated from the traditional absorber. The shock absorber includes rod and rodless chamber cavity, the two parts contain oil outlet and oil inlet, which connected to a bridge type loop of hydraulic to make pulsating oil pressure towards one direction, when the shock absorber vibration causes pulsating oil pressure, it drives hydraulic pump operation. Because the output shaft of the hydraulic pump fixedly attached to the input shaft of generator, so the generator produces electricity for recycling energy[1].
Technical Paper

Vehicle Braking System Calculation and Simulation Software Platform

2012-09-24
2012-01-1895
The brake performance is one of the most important performances in the automotive active safety, and it is the main measure of automotive active safety. Thus, to develop a platform for the braking system is quite significant. Based on the object-oriented technology, the platform for braking system is developed by making use of Visual C++ 6.0 development tool. By using the VC++ development tool and doing secondary development on other softwares, the software possesses powerful features, such as brake plan selection, performance calculation, parametric modeling, finite element analysis and kinematics simulation, etc. An initial brake system can be designed, calculated and analyzed all in one. The living instance shows that the platform has friendly user interfaces, powerful functions and it can improve the precision and efficiency of brake design. The platform has been of great applied value and can also positively promote the design automation of vehicle's braking system.
Technical Paper

Evaporator Boiling Heat Transfer Analysis for Engine Exhaust Heat Recovery

2014-09-30
2014-01-2345
In the Rankine cycle, the pressure differential generated by the phase change of the working fluid produces turbine output power, which enables the recovery of waste heat from the internal combustion engine. The heat transfer ability of the evaporator is the key factor that determines the quality of turbine's mechanical work. In this paper, the performance of the evaporator with two-phase zone and preheated zone is studied. After obtaining the thermal characteristics of diesel engine exhaust from the experimental data, the mathematical model of the evaporator is built according to the specific working conditions of ORC and geometrical parameters of the evaporator. Three typical engine operating conditions are used to estimate the heat transfer characteristics of the evaporator. The result shows that, in the evaporator, the heat transfer coefficient of the Rankine working fluid is much greater than the exhaust side of the engine.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Braking Force and Pedal Force of a Pedal Controlled Parallelized Energy-Recuperation Retarder System

2014-04-01
2014-01-1783
Focusing the vehicle riding safety and global environmental problems, plenty of solutions on vehicle braking systems appeals during the recent period. Criteria and standards set up for commercial vehicles which should have equipped assisted braking systems were established by amounts of governments. Since eddy current retarders plays an important role in the area of assisted braking system, this article presents an energy-recuperation retarder, which is parallel connected with the driveline through a planet gear system. This paper offers a particular Energy-Recuperation Eddy Current Retarder (ERECR) system with a pedal control system and its characteristics is presented, either. Initially, the constitution of the energy-recuperation eddy current retarder system is established whereas the working principle of the energy-recuperation eddy current retarder is presented by modeling the system and simulation.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Modeling of Transmission Efficiency of Vehicle Driveline

2014-04-01
2014-01-1779
This work analyzes the transmission efficiency of vehicle driveline including the gearbox, universal transmission and differential. Based on the structure of transmission, mathematic models are built to analyze transmission's characteristics. However, an experiment reveals the limitation of this method. Then, the paper statistically analyzes the experimental data and mainly analyzes the influencing factors. Then Neural Network is used to build the efficiency model. A method called “filling data and gradually extrapolating” is used when building neural network model. Finally, the neural network model is used in the simulation of fuel consumption. The conclusion is Neural Network model can imitate the transmission efficiency of vehicle driveline efficiently, but its internal structure is not clear so other modeling methods are needed to be found.
Technical Paper

Strength Analysis and Structural Optimization of Lever of Air Disc Brake

2014-09-28
2014-01-2507
Air disc brake (ADB) is the execution unit of automobile brake, which plays a vital role in traffic safety. Lever is a very important driving as well as stress part of ADB. However, seldom periodical or thesis has given specifications about the lever. In this paper, working principle of the lever is illustrated in detail. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the lever is conducted and some structural problems of the lever are found out. Finally, for the condition that the lever doesn't meet the strength requirement, topography optimization is introduced to improve the shape of lever. Simulation results show that the strength of the lever improved obviously with the optimization, and analysis method as well as optimization method in this paper is feasible.
Technical Paper

Research on Torsional Characteristic of Separate Frame Construction for a Light Off-Road Vehicle

2015-03-10
2015-01-0014
A key problem of designing a light off-road vehicle with separate frame construction is to improve its torsional characteristic, which has a significant influence on the performance of the vehicle. Inevitably, a certain distortion of the body would be produced by the vibration and impact passing from the road. In present research, an analysis model of light off-road vehicle is established based on the theories and methods of finite element (FEM). The static stiffness of the body is simulated and the deformation of openings on the body, mainly the windows and the doors of the vehicle is studied. On the working conditions of torsion and braking combination, torsion and cornering combination, diagonal dangling, ultimate torsion of unilateral wheels and diagonal wheels, the static strength of separate frame construction is studied as well. The stress concentration regions are obtained according to the results of simulation.
Technical Paper

Thermoelectric Module Temperature Stability Control for the Vehicle Engine Exhaust Heat Recovery

2015-04-14
2015-01-0350
The vehicle engine exhaust wastes heat. For the conventional scheme, the hot-end of the thermoelectric module is connected with the exhaust pipe, while the cold-end is cooled through the vehicle engine cooling cycle. The variation of vehicle engine operating conditions brings the instability of the hot-end temperature, which affects the power generation performance of thermoelectric materials and increases the damage risk to the thermoelectric materials caused by the high temperature. This research adopts the heat transfer oil circulation as the intermediate fluid to absorb the dynamic heat flux of the vehicle engine exhaust so as to release the heat steadily to the hot-end of the thermoelectric module. The thermal characteristics of the target diesel vehicle engine exhaust gas are evaluated based on the experimental data firstly.
Journal Article

Simulation of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Generation with Exhaust Heat Recovery from a 15 liter Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0339
The performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) that recovers heat from the exhaust of a heavy-duty diesel engine was simulated. The work was an extension of a prior study that simulated the performance of an experimental ORC system developed and tested at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL). The experimental data were used to set model parameters and validate the results of that simulation. For the current study the model was adapted to consider a 15 liter turbocharged engine versus the original 1.9 liter light-duty automotive turbodiesel studied by ORNL. Exhaust flow rate and temperature data for the heavy-duty engine were obtained from Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads without EGR. Because of the considerably higher exhaust gas flow rates of the heavy-duty engine, relative to the engine tested by ORNL, a different heat exchanger type was considered in order to keep exhaust pressure drop within practical bounds.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Thermal Deformation in an Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generator

2015-04-14
2015-01-0348
The potential for automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG) has been increasing with continuously advances in thermoelectric technology. In this paper, the thermal deformation of the TEG system is studied on the basis of the surface temperature distribution of the heat exchanger. The simulation result shows that thermoelectric modules (TMs) on different positions have different thermal performance which can significantly influence the power generation efficiency of the system. Meanwhile, in terms of the working performance of TMs, the clamping mechanism is considered to have some effects on both the cold side and the hot side of TEG. Following the simulation, bench tests are carried out to confirm the reasonability of the simulation results.
Technical Paper

Microwave-Steam Based Road Deicing Vehicle Focused on Thin Ice Layers

2015-04-14
2015-01-0502
For the thin ice on the road in winter, the traditional road deicing vehicle relies on mechanical and chemical methods for melting ice, which is inclined to damage the pavement and has insidious influence on environment. The thermal deicing vehicle has been adopted in recent years. Although the deicing method is available, the deicing efficiency is unacceptable while the energy consumption is huge. The study adopts the new idea of “bottom-to-top” for melting the intersection area between the road surface and the bottom ice layer by the microwave heating firstly and then cleaning them out using high pres. vapor cutting so as to save the cost of energy and enhance the traffic safety. First of all, the mathematical model of the melting process of the intersection of the pavement and the ice layer was established according to the microwave heating characteristics.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Soot Mechanism of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) with Various Oxygen Concentrations

2015-04-14
2015-01-0389
A multi-step acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) phenomenological soot model was proposed and implemented into KIVA-3V Release 2 code. Experiments were conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber to investigate the combustion and soot emission characteristics under the conditions of 1000 K initial temperature with various oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 11%). Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in conjunction under the same operation conditions. The predicted soot mass traces showed good agreement with experimental data. As ambient oxygen decreased from 21% to 11%, ignition delay retarded and the distribution of temperature became more homogenous. Compared to 21% ambient oxygen, the peak value of total soot mass at 16% oxygen concentration was higher due to the suppressed soot oxidation mechanism.
Technical Paper

A Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanism of Toluene Reference Fuel (toluene/n-heptane) for Diesel Engine Combustion Simulations

2015-04-14
2015-01-0387
In the present study, we developed a reduced chemical reaction mechanism consisted of n-heptane and toluene as surrogate fuel species for diesel engine combustion simulation. The LLNL detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane was chosen as the base mechanism. A multi-technique reduction methodology was applied, which included directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA), non-essential reaction elimination, reaction pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, and reaction rate adjustment. In a similar fashion, a reduced toluene mechanism was also developed. The reduced n-heptane and toluene mechanisms were then combined to form a diesel surrogate mechanism, which consisted of 158 species and 468 reactions. Extensive validations were conducted for the present mechanism with experimental ignition delay in shock tubes and laminar flame speeds under various pressures, temperatures and equivalence ratios related to engine conditions.
Technical Paper

The Finite Element Analysis and Optimization on a Special Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0473
According to the resonant pavement crusher's work principle, its front frame mounted with the resonance system must meet the needs of the structural requirements. To satisfy the strength and stiffness requirement and avoid the resonance, the natural frequency of the front frame should be designed away from the crusher's working frequency. In this paper, the author builds a finite element model of the front frame and analyses its modal. According to the modal analysis results, the fourth modal frequency is close to the working frequency of the crusher. So the front frame should be optimized. In the finite element model, the front frame has been divided into a number of components of shell elements. Through optimal Latin hypercube experimental design, the author analyses the different component thickness's relationship of the frequencies of the front frame. The components with higher correlation coefficient have been chosen as the variables of optimization.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation Research of Dual Clutch Transmission Based On Fuzzy Control

2007-08-05
2007-01-3754
Dual-Clutch-Transmission (DCT) is one kind new automatic transmission which has double clutch structure. The most important unit of DCT is Transmission-Control-Module (TCM).In the development process of TCM, simulation is an important research tools. We have analyzed the DCT principle of work, established its mathematical model, created the charge and discharge oil models of typical wet dual clutch transmission, established the control logic to unify and separate double clutch in turn, and also designed out the shift control using fuzzy control using MATLAB/Simulink software. Utilizing engine model, driver model, the DCT model, the TCM model, the vehicle model, established the vehicle simulation model, and implemented simulation; Result indicated that, the established model can correctly reflect the torque and speed change when shifted gears and can correctly realize the automatic shift gears.
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