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Technical Paper

The Modeling and Performance Analysis of the Retarder Thermal Management System

2012-09-24
2012-01-1929
In order to obtain the comprehensive evaluation of thermal management system for the retarder, the complete driveline thermal management model is built. The characteristic parameters for the thermal management system are determined and the hydromechanical characteristics for the retarder are fixed by the rig test. On the basis of the same whole vehicle driving cycle, comparing to the traditional mechanical-drive system, the independent-drive system makes the working temperature of the heat source more stable. Meanwhile the parasitic power caused by the radiator fan is decreased markedly on the condition that the heat reject requirement of the heat source is satisfied.
Technical Paper

Application of Wavelet Analysis in Truck Cab Vibration Signal Processing

2012-09-24
2012-01-2011
The basic principle of wavelet transform is presented and the method of wavelet theory is used in vibration signal analysis of vehicle in this paper. The vibration signals which generated in the locations such as cab floor, engine, transmission, band spring and frame under the usual work condition are measured by the vibration test system. The vibration signals are decomposed with the principle of wavelet decomposition at level six, and eigenvectors of signal energy are gained. According to the correlation coefficient of eigenvectors of signal energy distribution, two signals correlativity is determined. It could be an effective method that identificate the main vibration source.
Technical Paper

Study on Variable Combustion Chamber (VCC) Engines

2012-09-10
2012-01-1607
A patented VCC (variable combustion chamber) piston mechanism is presented, by which excess in-cylinder pressure would be able to be limited effectively based on each working cycle while a spark-ignition engine running with higher CR (compression ratio) of 12.0:1. A conventional engine can be converted to a VCC engine just by replacing its typical pistons with VCC pistons. Besides the benefits that VCR (Variable Compression Ratio) has been still pursued so far, there would be other advantages for VCC engine, such as excellent fuel economy at each load not only at light loads, and the improvement of cycle-by-cycle variation of in-cylinder pressure, and high reliability with simple structure. The innovative design of VCC piston is introduced. The main design features of VCC piston are a VCC mechanism assembled between the piston crown and the piston skirt, and a special reset cam assembled at the wrist-pin end of the connecting rod.
Technical Paper

The Selection of Working Fluid Used in the Organic Rankine Cycle System for Hydraulic Retarder

2016-04-05
2016-01-0187
With the improvement of occupants’ awareness on the driving safety, hydraulic retarder applications increase quickly. The traditional hydraulic retarder, on the one hand, exhausts the waste heat of transmission oil by the engine cooling system; on the other hand, the engine power should be consumed to drive the water pump and the engine cooling fan for maintaining the normal operation of the auxiliary braking system. In this study, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) instead of the traditional hydraulic retarder water-cooling system is applied to achieve the effective temperature control of the hydraulic retarder, while the waste heat of transmission oil could be recovered for saving vehicle energy consumption. The ORC fluid selection needs comprehensive consideration for the net power of the ORC and the optimal temperature range of the retarder transmission oil at both the inlet and outlet end, which is the key issue to ensure the stability and efficiency of the ORC system performance.
Technical Paper

Study on the Thermal-Magnetic Coupling Characteristics of Integrated Eddy Current Retarder

2016-04-05
2016-01-0185
As an auxiliary braking device of heavy-duty vehicle, eddy current retarder can reduce the brake failure due to the high temperature of the main brake. Nevertheless, the eddy current retarder will generate high temperature locally during the working process of it, leading to the decline of the brake power. The study on the heating characteristics of eddy current retarder is advantageous to the layout and parameter design of the liquid cooling channel of the retarder body and prolong the effective time of the auxiliary brake. In this research, a new kind of integrated eddy current retarder has been established. The thermal-magnetic coupling characteristics are studied and the laws of variation in torque output of auxiliary brake affected by the body temperature of retarder are analyzed. The boundary conditions are provided for the construction of the cooling channel. Firstly, the distribution of magnetic field and the characteristics of eddy current are simulated.
Technical Paper

Effects Analysis and Modeling of Different Transmission Running Conditions for Transmission Efficiency

2016-04-05
2016-01-1096
Several factors including internal factors which are related to the structure and components of transmission and external factors which are related to the running condition influence transmission efficiency (TE) collectively. Selected one manual transmission as the research object, this paper mainly analyzes factors including gears and bearings power loss through theoretical calculation and the external factors, such as gears, temperature and torque. Firstly, with a methodology, the overall efficiency of the manual transmission is calculated based on factors. Then, this paper discusses efficiency through external factor. This transmission is experimented on transmission test bench. On the bench, the driving motor (DM) simulates the power input of engine and the load motor (LM) simulates the whole resistance of vehicle. The mechanical transmission is operating in different speeds, torques and work temperature, thus the corresponding data are obtained.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of the Effects of Butanol Addition on Aromatic Species in Premixed Butane Flames

2016-04-05
2016-01-0574
The motivation of the present work was to understand the mechanism by which alcohols produce less aromatic species in their combustion process than an equal amount of hydrocarbon with similar molecular structure does. Due to its numerous advantages over short-chain alcohols, butanol has been considered very promising in soot reduction. Excluding the influence of spray, vaporization and mixing process in engine cases, an adiabatic constant-pressure reactor model was applied to investigate the effect of butanol additives on aromatic species, which are known to be soot precursors, in fuel-rich butane flames. To keep the carbon flux constant, 5% and 10% oxygen by mass of the fuel were added to butane using butanol additive, respectively. Based on the soot reduction effects proposed in literature, effects on temperature, key radical concentrations and the carbon removal from the pathway to aromatic species were considered to identify the major mechanism of reduction in aromatic species.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation Research of Dual Clutch Transmission Based On Fuzzy Control

2007-08-05
2007-01-3754
Dual-Clutch-Transmission (DCT) is one kind new automatic transmission which has double clutch structure. The most important unit of DCT is Transmission-Control-Module (TCM).In the development process of TCM, simulation is an important research tools. We have analyzed the DCT principle of work, established its mathematical model, created the charge and discharge oil models of typical wet dual clutch transmission, established the control logic to unify and separate double clutch in turn, and also designed out the shift control using fuzzy control using MATLAB/Simulink software. Utilizing engine model, driver model, the DCT model, the TCM model, the vehicle model, established the vehicle simulation model, and implemented simulation; Result indicated that, the established model can correctly reflect the torque and speed change when shifted gears and can correctly realize the automatic shift gears.
Technical Paper

Research on cooling system for 4-cylinder diesel engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-2064
Coolant flow and its heat transfer directly affect the cooling efficiency, thermal load of heated components as well as thermal efficiency of diesel engine. An efficient approach to study cooling system for diesel engine is 3D CFD calculation for coolant jacket and 1D cooling system simulation. The velocity, pressure and heat transfer coefficients (HTC) distribution in the coolant jacket of a 4 cylinder diesel engine are computed by 3D CFD approach using AVL/FIRE software. The improved schemes can be put forward according to calculating results. The boundary condition of 1D cooling system for diesel engine can be obtained by averaging computed inlet and outlet total pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients from CFD calculation. The parameters of the engine, which are fitted with the vehicle such as capacity of radiator, fan and water pump, could be decided.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Evaluation of the Urban Bus Driving Cycle on Fuel Economy

2007-07-23
2007-01-2073
On-road testing of driving performance of the urban bus was carried out, and a representative urban bus driving cycle was developed after on-road testing, according to the test results. Then, the vehicle simulation software AVL CRUISE was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of the urban bus. It involves the simulation of complete drive train system and the driver behavior. The model is validated by comparing the results of the simulation to the results of the field test. Then the developed driving cycle is evaluated by fuel consumption resulted from the simulation and engine bench test on fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Application of the PUREM SCR System on YC6L350-40 HD Diesel Engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1935
In order to meet the Euro IV HD diesel engine emission standard legislation limits, an efficient SCR system is adopted for PM optimized YC6L350-40 HD diesel engine serving in China. This paper presents tests made on the engine. The engine had base NOx emission of 8.8g/kwh over the ESC and 8.7g/kwh over the ETC. Outfitted with a 24.7 liter 300cpsi SCR catalyst, the engine NOx emission dropped to 3.2g/kwh over the ESC and 3.5g/kwh over the ETC.
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Simulation of Transient Heat Transfer among Multi-Component Coupling System in Internal Combustion Chamber

2008-06-23
2008-01-1818
A 3-D numerical analysis model of transient heat transfer among the multi-component coupling system in combustion chamber of internal combustion engine has been developed successfully in the paper. The model includes almost all solid components in combustion chamber, such as piston assembly, cylinder liner, cylinder head gasket, cylinder head, intake valves and exhaust valves, etc. With two different coupling heat transfer modes, one is the lubricant film heat conduction between two moving components, another is the contact heat conduction between two immovable solid components, and with the direct coupled-field analysis method of FEM, the heat transfer relation among the components is established. The simulation result dedicates the transient heat transfer process among the components such as moving piston assembly and cylinder liner, moving valves and cylinder head. The effect of cylinder head gasket on heat transfer among the components is also studied.
Technical Paper

Body Load Identification for BEV Based on Power Spectrum Decomposition under Road Excitation

2014-06-30
2014-01-2044
As motor assembly of Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) replaces engine system of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicle, interior structure-borne noise induced by road random excitation becomes more prominent under middle and high speed. The research is focused on central driving type BEV. In order to improve interior noise in middle and low frequency range, dynamic load of BEV body must be identified. Consequently the structural noise induced by road excitation is conducted. The limitations of common identification method for dynamic body load are analyzed. The applied several identification methods are proposed for deterministic dynamic load such as engine or motor. Random dynamic load generated by road excitation is different from deterministic dynamic load. The deterministic load identification method cannot be applied to the random load directly. An identification method of dynamic body load for BEV is presented based on power spectrum decomposition.
Technical Paper

The Experimental Study and Performance Analysis of Air-Friction Reduction System for Hydraulic Retarder

2015-04-14
2015-01-1127
The hydraulic retarder is an important auxiliary braking device for the heavy vehicle, which has some characteristics, such as the big brake torque and long duration braking, when the vehicle is traveling in braking state. However, the transmission power loss will be produced when the vehicle is traveling in non-braking state. This transmission power loss is called Air-friction. Firstly, the air flow distribution characteristics of retarder cavity are studied by computational fluid mechanics, and the Air-friction characteristic in different conditions is analyzed. Then, according to the Air-friction characteristics for the condition of different filling density, a set of vacuum air loss reduction system is designed. Meanwhile, the test bench for retarder Air-friction is set up, the test data of the revolution speed, pressure in cavity and air loss resistance is obtained according to the test bench for hydraulic retarder.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Control of Metal-belt CVT Based on Fuzzy Logic

2009-04-20
2009-01-1535
Operating level of a metal-belt CVT mainly rest with the ECU. Conventional control strategies which were obtained from tests or PID controller can not correspond to the driver’s intention or provide various driving environments. It is considered that control targets of metal-belt CVT could be distinguished by a speed ratio, line pressure and starting element till now. Running performance of automobile with a CVT mainly depends on the speed ratio control. An adapted fuzzy logic ratio control algorithm is suggested and optimized. A throttle position and its changing rate will be inputs of the FLC to meet the driver’s intention and make the intelligent control come true. A fuzzy logic line pressure control algorithm is also suggested and optimized corresponding to the complicated high line pressure control.
Journal Article

A Wavelet Neural Network Method to Determine Diesel Engine Piston Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions

2012-09-10
2012-01-1760
This paper presents a method of calculating temperature field of the piston by using a wavelet neural network (WNN) to identify the unknown boundary conditions. Because of the complexity of the heat transfer and limitations of experimental conditions of heat transfer analysis of the piston in a diesel engine, boundary conditions of the piston temperature field were usually obtained empirically, and thus the result itself was uncertain. By employing the capability of resolution analysis from a wavelet neural network, the method obtains improved boundary heat transfer coefficients with a limited number of measured temperatures. Using FEA software iteratively, results show the proposed wavelet neural network analysis method improves the prediction of unknown boundary conditions and temperature distribution consistent with the experimental data with an acceptable error.
Technical Paper

Cold-end Temperature Control Method for the Engine Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Module

2014-09-30
2014-01-2343
To make full use of engine exhaust heat and further improve the utilization of the energy efficiency of the heavy truck, thermoelectric module is used to contribute to thermoelectric power generation. The hot-end temperature of the module varies with the engine operating condition because it is connected with the exhaust pipe. The cold-end of the thermoelectric module is mainly cooled by engine cooling system. Increasing the temperature difference between the hot-end and cold-end of the thermoelectric module is a good way to improve the thermoelectric conversion efficiency. For the poor controllability of the hot-end temperature of the thermoelectric module, this study puts forward by lowering the cold-end temperature of the thermoelectric module so as to ensure the improvement of the thermoelectric conversion efficiency. The cooling circle for the cold-end of the thermoelectric module which is independent of the engine cooling system is built.
Technical Paper

Engine Cycle Simulation and Development Engine of a Gasoline

2007-10-29
2007-01-4103
In order to acquire low fuel consumption while the engine is running at low speeds and maintain the high power output of the traditional 4-valve engine at high speeds, multiple camshafts were applied in gasoline engines. An engine cycle simulation process of a gasoline engine with multiple camshaft profiles was presented in this paper. Engine cycle models were set up to describe external characteristic at 14 different speeds. A one-dimension model was used to describe the transient heat and mass transfer in pipes of the gasoline engine. In-cylinder combustion model was calibrated by engine test results. The simulation results showed a good agreement with engine testing results. Simulation and experimental research showed the volumetric efficiency and torque were low from 2500rpm to 3500rpm. Some parametrical study was presented for performance improvement of intermediate speeds, including changing induction-pipe length and putting off multiple camshafts shift.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Hydraulic Retarder Waste Heat Recovery Based on the Organic Rankine Cycle

2016-09-27
2016-01-8079
The hydraulic retarder is an important auxiliary braking device. With merits such as its high braking torque, smooth braking, low noise, long service life and small size, it is widely used on modern commercial vehicles. Transmission fluid of traditional hydraulic retarder is cooled by engine cooling system, which exhausts the heat directly and need additional energy consumption for the thermal management component. On account of the working characteristics of hydraulic retarder, this study designs a set of waste heat recovery system based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Under the premise of ensuring stable performance of hydraulic retarder, waste heat energy in transmission fluid is recycled to supplement energy requirements for cooling system. First of all, a principle model, which is scaled down according to D300 retarder`s thermal power generation ration of 1:100, is established. Then through theoretical calculations, components' structural parameters of the ORC are determined.
Technical Paper

Pressure Control Method of Hydraulic Retarder Working Chamber

2016-09-27
2016-01-8119
In order to overcome hysteresis and dead zone problems caused by friction for the proportional solenoid valve, and improve rapidity and stability of the pneumatic system on hydraulic retarder, a closed-loop control strategy based on valve coil current was proposed. The high-frequency low-amplitude dither signal was introduced into the proportional solenoid valve. With the proper dither signal, the stick-slip motion of the valve core was transformed into a steady one, and its dynamic performance was improved. Consequently, response time of retarder was reduced during gear changing. The proportional valve coil current was measured as a feedback for a closed-loop control strategy. Combining with the closed-loop strategy, the PI control algorithm was adopted to make sure that valve current was in accordance with the target value. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal was used for the driving of proportional solenoid valve.
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