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Fuel System Design Considerations for Composite Based Fuel Components

2018-11-19
WIP
AIR7493
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a compilation of engineering design guidelines and reference data useful to ensure composite materials used in fuel system components are compatible with an aircraft fuel system. This AIR is not a complete design manual, but offers insight into key aspects of composition design that must be adequately researched and verified before being used in a fuel system.
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Fuel System Definitions and Glossary of Terms

2015-05-20
WIP
AIR6510
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) comprises the technical terms and nomenclature, together with their definitions and abbreviations that are used in Aircraft Fuel Systems.
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Optical equipment safety in fuel tanks

2018-11-15
WIP
ARP7977
This project aims to develop a framework of requirements which support safe installation and operation of optical devices within an aircraft fuel tank, specifically: 1: To determine optical power and energy limits which ensure safe operation of optical installations within an aircraft fuel tank over aircraft life and under all phases of flight, taking the limits provided in IEC 60079-28:20015 as a starting point. 2: To demonstrate optical and electrical power and energy equivalences, where possible. 3: To determine requirements for optical installations, including bonding and electrostatic discharge for non-conductive components such as optical fibres. 4: To provide guidelines for analysis of the hazards presented by the typical internal components of optical devices, such as failure modes of photo diodes and cells.
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Engine Fuel System and Component Icing Test

2015-06-25
WIP
ARP6340
This ARP provides recommended practice on the considerations and methodology to demonstrate acceptable performance of the Engine components / fuel system, and APU, whilst operating throughout the flight cycle / engine duty for continuous operation with iced fuel and short duration operation with a snowshower resulting from release of accreted ice from fuel washed surfaces, where no anti-icing additives are present (e.g. Fuel System Icing Inhibitor FSII or alternative). Two scenarios must be considered when demonstrating the capability of Engine components / fuel system, and APU to operate with fuel borne ice to satisfy certification regulations applications in support of FAA Part 23 and Part 25, CFR Part 33, and corresponding EASA CS-E regulations, and equivalent Military application requirements.
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FUEL LEVEL POINT SENSING

2015-04-21
WIP
AIR6325
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to provide comprehensive reference and background information pertaining to aircraft point level sensing
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AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM AND COMPONENT ICING TEST

1979-03-15
HISTORICAL
ARP1401
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers a brief discussion of the icing problem in aircraft fuel systems and different means that have been used to test for icing. Fuel preparation procedures and icing tests for aircraft fuel systems and components are proposed herein as a recommended practice to be used in the aircraft industry for fixed wing aircraft and their operational environment only. In the context of this ARP, the engine is not considered to be a component of the aircraft fuel system, for the engine fuel system is subjected to icing tests by the engine manufacturer for commercial and particular military applications.
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Aircraft Fuel System and Component Icing Test

1997-12-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1401A
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers a brief discussion of the icing problem in aircraft fuel systems and different means that have been used to test for icing. Fuel preparation procedures and icing tests for aircraft fuel systems and components are proposed herein as a recommended practice to be used in the aircraft industry for fixed wing aircraft and their operational environment only. In the context of this ARP, the engine is not considered to be a component of the aircraft fuel system, for the engine fuel system is subjected to icing tests by the engine manufacturer for commercial and particular military applications.
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Aircraft Fuel System and Component Icing Test

2012-06-06
CURRENT
ARP1401B
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers a brief discussion of the icing problem in aircraft fuel systems and different means that have been used to test for icing. Fuel preparation procedures and icing tests for aircraft fuel systems and components are proposed herein as a recommended practice to be used in the aircraft industry for fixed wing aircraft and their operational environment only. In the context of this ARP, the engine (and APU) is not considered to be a component of the aircraft fuel system, for the engine fuel system is subjected to icing tests by the engine/APU manufacturer for commercial and specific military applications. This ARP is written mostly to address fuel system level testing. It also provides a means to address the requirements of 14 CFR 23.951(c) and 25.951(c). Some of the methods described in this document can be applied to engine and APU level testing or components of those application domains.
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Definition of Pressure Surge Test and Measurement Methods for Receiver Aircraft

1997-12-01
CURRENT
ARP1665A
The test procedure applies to the refueling manifold system connecting the receiver aircraft fuel tanks to the refueling source fuel pump(s) for both ground and aerial refueling. The test procedure is intended to verify that the limit value for surge pressure specified for the receiver fuel system is not exceeded when refueling from a refueling source which meets the requirements of AS1284 (reference 2). This recommended practice is not directly applicable to surge pressure developed during operation of an aircraft fuel system, such as initiating or stopping engine fuel feed or fuel transfer within an aircraft, or the pressure surge produced when the fuel pumps are first started to fill an empty fuel manifold.
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DEFINITION OF PRESSURE SURGE TEST AND MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR RECEIVER AIRCRAFT

1983-03-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1665
The test procedure applies to the refueling manifold system connecting the receiver aircraft fuel tanks to the refueling source fuel pump(s) for both ground and aerial refueling. The test procedure is intended to verify that the limit value for surge pressure specified for the receiver fuel system is not exceeded when refueling from a refueling source which meets the requirements of AS 1284 (reference 2). This recommended practice is not directly applicable to surge pressure developed during operation of an aircraft fuel system, such as initiating or stopping engine fuel feed or fuel transfer within an aircraft, or the pressure surge produced when the fuel pumps are first started to fill an empty fuel manifold.
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FIRE TESTING OF FLUID HANDLING COMPONENTS FOR AIRCRAFT ENGINES AND AIRCRAFT ENGINE INSTALLATIONS

1996-08-01
HISTORICAL
AS4273
This document establishes requirements, test procedures, and acceptance criteria for the fire testing of fluid handling components and materials used in aircraft fluid systems. It is applicable to fluid handling components other than those prescribed by AS1055 (e.g., hoses, tube assemblies, coils, fittings). It also is applicable to materials, wiring, and components such as reservoirs, valves, gearboxes, pumps, filter assemblies, accumulators, fluid-cooled electrical/electronic components, in-flight fluid system instrumentation, hydromechanical controls, actuators, heat exchangers, and manifolds. These components may be used in fuel, lubrication, hydraulic, or pneumatic systems.
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Design and Operating Requirements of the Onboard Aircraft Refueling System and Associated Ground Refueling Equipment Interface

2018-03-18
CURRENT
AS5751
This SAE Aerospace Specification (AS) is applicable to all aircraft. This AS defines the minimum design and operating requirements for the aircraft refueling interface. These requirements establish the minimum criteria for the aircraft design that provides practical standardized refueling system requirements, provides minimum standardized criteria for the operation and performance of any aircraft refueling equipment, and establishes an integrated minimum performance for aircraft refueling operations. This standardization provides the minimum design criteria to assure full compatibility between the aircraft refueling system connection point(s), aircraft operating characteristics, and the design and operation of ground based aircraft refueling equipment in all steady state and dynamic refueling and defueling conditions. The criteria that shall be used to test the operation and performance of the aircraft refueling system and equipment are also specified.
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Capacitive Fuel Gauging System Accuracies

2016-08-12
CURRENT
AIR1184B
This report is intended to identify the various errors typically encountered in capacitance fuel quantity measurement systems. In addition to identification of error sources, it describes the basic factors which cause the errors. When coupled with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the errors, this knowledge will furnish a tool with which to optimize gauging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the optimum overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of fuel measurement accuracy using capacitance based sensing is quite complex, no attempt is made herein to present a fully-comprehensive evaluation of all factors affecting gauging system accuracy. Rather, the major contributors to gauging system inaccuracy are discussed and emphasis is given to simplicity and clarity, somewhat at the expense of completeness. An overview of capacitive fuel gauging operation can be found in AIR5691.
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FUEL GAGING SYSTEM ACCURACIES

1973-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1184
It is intended to provide capacitance gaging system "specifiers" with the necessary tools to make value judgements concerning the various errors typically encountered in systems of this type. Thus, in addition to merely identifying the error-causes, descriptions are given concerning the basic factors from which these error-causes derive. This knowledge, when complemented with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the error-causes, will furnish the system specifier with a powerful tool with which to optimize gaging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the "best possible" overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of capacitance gaging accuracy is quite extensive, and in some instances very complex, no attempt is made herein to present an all-inclusive and fully comprehensive evaluation of the subject. Rather, the major contributors to gaging system inaccuracy are discussed.
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CAPACITIVE FUEL GAUGING SYSTEM ACCURACIES

1989-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1184A
This report is intended to identify the necessary analytical tools to enable making value judgments for minimizing the various errors typically encountered in capacitance systems. Thus, in addition to identification of error sources, it describes the basic factors which cause the errors. When coupled with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the errors, this knowledge will furnish a tool with which to optimize gauging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the optimum overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of capacitance accuracy is quite complex, no attempt is made herein to present a fully-comprehensive evaluation of all factors affecting gauging system accuracy. Rather, the major contributors to gauging system inaccuracy are discussed and emphasis is given to simplicity and clarity, somewhat at the expense of completeness. An overview of Capacitive Fuel Gauging operation is provided in the Appendix.
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