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Technical Paper

Study on Catalyzed-DPF for Improving the Continuous Regeneration Performance and Fuel Economy

2007-04-16
2007-01-0919
It is a big challenge how to satisfy both the purification of exhaust gas and the decrease of fuel penalty, that is, carbon-dioxide emission. Regarding the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) applied in the diesel after-treatment system, it must be effective for lowering the fuel penalty to prolong the interval and reduce the frequency of the DPF regeneration operation. This can be achieved by a DPF that has high Particulate Matter (PM) mass limit and high PM oxidation performance that is enough to regenerate the DPF continuously during the normal running operation. In this study, the examination of the pore structure of the wall of a DPF that could expand the continuous regeneration region in the engine operation map was carried out. Several porous materials with a wide range of pore structure were prepared and coated with a Mixed Oxide Catalyst (MOC). The continuous regeneration performance was evaluated under realistic conditions in the exhaust of a diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Wall-scale Reaction Models in Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1130
Following the successful market introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), this class of emission control devices is expanding to include additional functionalities such as gas species oxidation (such as CO, HC and NO), storage phenomena (such as NOx and NH3 storage) to the extent that we should today refer not to DPFs but to Multifunctional Reactor Separators. This trend poses many challenges for the modeling of such systems since the complexity of the coupled reaction and transport phenomena makes any direct general numerical approach to require unacceptably high computing times. These multi-functionalities are urgently needed to be incorporated into system level emission control simulation tools in a robust and computationally efficient manner. In the present paper we discuss a new framework and its application for the computationally efficient implementation of such phenomena.
Technical Paper

Soot Oxidation Kinetics in Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1129
Direct catalytic soot oxidation is expected to become an important component of future diesel particulate emission control systems. The development of advanced Catalytic Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs relies on the interplay of chemistry and geometry in order to enhance soot-catalyst proximity. An extensive set of well-controlled experiments has been performed to provide direct catalytic soot oxidation rates in CDPFs employing small-scale side-stream sample exposure. The experiments are analyzed with a state-of-the-art diesel particulate filter simulator and a set of kinetic parameters are derived for direct catalytic soot oxidation by fuel-borne catalysts as well as by catalytic coatings. The influence of soot-catalyst proximity, on catalytic soot oxidation is found to be excellently described by the so-called Two-Layer model, developed previously by the authors.
Technical Paper

Study on the Filter Structure of SiC-DPF with Gas Permeability for Emission Control

2005-04-11
2005-01-0578
The pore structure of DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) is one of the key factors in contributing the fuel consumption and the emission control performance of a vehicle. The pressure loss of mini samples (1 in. in diameter, 2 in. in length) with various pore structures was measured at relatively low filtration velocity (< 5 cm/sec). Then the obtained data were evaluated by using an index of “permeability”. As a result, among the parameters which characterize the pore structure, it was found that the size of the pore diameter and the sharpness of pore distribution were the most contributing factors in reducing pressure loss which in turn is related to the fuel consumption performance when the cell structure was fixed. On the other hand, it was found that the gas permeability was not affected significantly by any parameter when the catalyst was coated because the coating caused a broadening of the pore distribution.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Filter Systems with Direct and Indirect Soot Oxidation Activity

2005-04-11
2005-01-0670
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) need to be periodically regenerated in order to achieve efficient and safe vehicle operation. Under typical diesel exhaust conditions, this invariably requires the raising of the exhaust gas temperature by active means, up to the point that particulate (soot) oxidation can be self-sustained in the filter. In the present work the development path of an advanced catalytic filter technology is presented. Full scale optimized Catalytic Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs) are tested in the exhaust of a light-duty modern diesel engine in line with a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). The management of the DOC-CDPF emission control system is facilitated by a virtual soot sensor in order to ensure energy-efficient operation of the emission control system.
Technical Paper

Advanced High Porosity Ceramic Honeycomb Wall Flow Filters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0623
A new platform of advanced ceramic composite filter materials for diesel particulate matter and exhaust gas emission control has been developed. These materials exhibit high porosity, narrow pore-size distribution, robust thermo-mechanical strength, and are extruded into high cell density honeycomb structures for wall-flow filter applications. These new high porosity filters provide a structured filtration surface area and a highly connected wall pore space which is fully accessible for multi-phase catalytic reactions. The cross-linked microstructure (CLM™) pore architecture provides a large surface area to host high washcoat/catalyst loadings, such as those required for advanced multi-functional catalysts (4-way converter applications).
Technical Paper

Advanced Catalyst Coatings for Diesel Particulate Filters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0483
Novel catalytic coatings with a variety of methods based on conventional and novel synthesis routes are developed for Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). The developed catalytic composition exhibits significant direct soot oxidation as evaluated by reacting mixtures of diesel soot and catalyst powders in a thermogravimetric analysis apparatus (TGA). The catalyst composition was further deposited on oxide and non-oxide porous filter structures that were evaluated on an engine bench with respect to their filtration efficiency, pressure drop behavior and direct soot oxidation activity under realistic conditions. The effect of the catalyst amount on the filtration efficiency of non-oxide filters was also investigated. Evaluation of the indirect soot oxidation was conducted on non-oxide catalytic filters coated with precious metal.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Model and Development of a Simulator for Predicting the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0911
As demand for wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) increases, accurate predictions of DPF behavior, and in particular their pressure drop, under a wide range of operating conditions bears significant engineering applications. In this work, validation of a model and development of a simulator for predicting the pressure drop of clean and particulate-loaded DPFs are presented. The model, based on a previously developed theory, has been validated extensively in this work. The validation range includes utilizing a large matrix of wall-flow filters varying in their size, cell density and wall thickness, each positioned downstream of light or heavy duty Diesel engines; it also covers a wide range of engine operating conditions such as engine load, flow rate, flow temperature and filter soot loading conditions. The validated model was then incorporated into a DPF pressure drop simulator.
Technical Paper

Spatial Non-Uniformities in Diesel Particulate Trap Regeneration

2001-03-05
2001-01-0908
Diesel particulate trap regeneration is a complex process involving the interaction of phenomena at several scales. A hierarchy of models for the relevant physicochemical processes at the different scales of the problem (porous wall, filter channel, entire trap) is employed to obtain a rigorous description of the process in a multidimensional context. The final model structure is validated against experiments, resulting in a powerful tool for the computer-aided study of the regeneration behavior. In the present work we employ this tool to address the effect of various spatial non-uniformities on the regeneration characteristics of diesel particulate traps. Non-uniformities may include radial variations of flow, temperature and particulate concentration at the filter inlet, as well as variations of particulate loading. In addition, we study the influence of the distribution of catalytic activity along the filter wall.
Technical Paper

Multi-Functional Reactor for Emission Reduction of Future Diesel Engine Exhaust

2009-04-20
2009-01-0287
Future diesel emission control systems have to effectively operate under non-conventional low-temperature combustion engine operating conditions. In this work the research and development efforts for the realization of a Multi-Functional catalyst Reactor (MFR) for the exhaust of the upcoming diesel engines is presented. This work is based on recent advances in catalytic nano-structured materials synthesis and coating techniques. Different catalytic functionalities have been carefully distributed in the filter substrate microstructure for maximizing the direct and indirect (NO2-assisted) soot oxidation rate, the HC and CO conversion efficiency as well as the filtration efficiency. Moreover, a novel filter design has been applied to enable internal heat recovery capability by the implementation of heat exchange between the outlet and the inlet to the filter flow paths.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for the Fast Evaluation of the Effect of Ash Aging on the Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-0630
Establishing a certain maintenance-free time period regarding modern diesel exhaust emission control systems is of major importance nowadays. One of the most serious problems Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) manufacturers face concerning system's durability is the performance deterioration due to the filter aging because of the accumulation of the ash particles. The evaluation of the effect of the ash aging on the filter performance is a time and cost consuming task that slows down the process of manufacturing innovative filter structures and designs. In this work we present a methodology for producing filter samples aged by accumulating ash produced by the controlled pyrolysis of oil-fuel solutions. Such ash particles bear morphological (size) and compositional similarity to ash particles collected from engine aged DPFs. The ash particles obtained are compared to those from real engine operation.
Technical Paper

Microstructural Properties of Soot Deposits in Diesel Particulate Traps

2002-03-04
2002-01-1015
As demand for wall-flow Diesel particulate filters (DPF) increases, accurate predictions of DPF behavior, and in particular of the accumulated soot mass, under a wide range of operating conditions become important. This effort is currently hampered by a lack of a systematic knowledge of the accumulated particulate deposit microstructural properties. In this work, an experimental and theoretical study of the growth process of soot cakes in honeycomb ceramic filters is presented. Particular features of the present work are the application of first- principles measurement and simulation methodology for accurate determination of soot cake packing density and permeability, and their systematic dependence on the filter operating conditions represented by the Peclet number for mass transfer. The proposed measurement methodology has been also validated using various filters on different Diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Study of a Sintered Metal Diesel Particulate Trap

2005-04-11
2005-01-0968
This paper describes work supporting the development of a new Diesel particulate trap system for heavy duty vehicles based on porous sintered metal materials that exhibit interesting characteristics with respect to ash tolerance. Experimental data characterizing the material (permeability, soot and ash deposit properties) are obtained in a dedicated experimental setup in the side-stream of a modern Diesel engine as well as in an accelerated ash loading rig. System level simulations coupling the new media characteristics to 3-D CFD software for the optimization of complete filter systems are then performed and comparative assessment results of example designs are given.
Technical Paper

A Selective Particle Size Sampler Suitable for Biological Exposure Studies of Diesel Particulate

2006-04-03
2006-01-1075
The objective of this study is the design, construction and evaluation of a Selective Particle Size (SPS) sampler able to provide continuous delivery of diesel soot particles of specific size ranges. The design of the sampler combines principles of aerosol transport phenomena and separation technologies. Particles smaller than a given size are removed from the exhaust by diffusional deposition, while removal of particles above a given size is achieved by low pressure inertial impaction. The main application of the developed sampler is the exposure of biological samples such as cell and tissue cultures to selected sizes of diesel exhaust particles. By applying the SPS sampler to diesel exhaust it is demonstrated that it is possible to obtain two aerosol streams with widely separated particle size distributions (of nanometric dimensions), suitable for biological exposure studies.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Reactor Assembly for Screening of Diesel Particulate Filters

2006-04-03
2006-01-0874
In this paper a fast DPF screening procedure is proposed using small-scale filter samples of different technologies in a well-controlled environment but under realistic engine exhaust conditions. The DPF samples are evaluated in a specially built Multi-Reactor Assembly (MRA) with respect to their flow resistance, filtration efficiency, soot loading behavior, soot oxidation behavior, as well as their ash induced ageing behavior.
Technical Paper

Multi-Instrumental Assessment of Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-0313
As different Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) designs and media are becoming widely adopted, research efforts in the characterization of their influence on particle emissions intensify. In the present work the influence of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and five different Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) under steady state and transient engine operating conditions on the particulate and gaseous emissions of a common-rail diesel engine are studied. An array of particle measuring instrumentation is employed, in which all instruments simultaneously measure from the engine exhaust. Each instrument measures a different characteristic/metric of the diesel particles (mobility size distribution, aerodynamic size distribution, total number, total surface, active surface, etc.) and their combination assists in building a complete characterization of the particle emissions at various measurement locations: engine-out, DOC-out and DPF-out.
Technical Paper

Solid Nucleation Mode Engine Exhaust Particles Detection at High Temperatures with an Advanced Half Mini DMA

2019-09-09
2019-24-0052
Diesel and gasoline direct injection engines emit nucleation mode particles either under special conditions or as part of their normally emitted size distribution, respectively. Currently, European legislation excludes nucleation mode particles as particle number vehicle emission measurements are limited down to 23 nm. The rationale behind such a cut-off size is based on the avoidance of significant uncertainties inherent in the sampling and measuring of sub-23 nm solid particles. However, the sub-23 nm particles have drawn increased attention since a large fraction of particles emitted by modern vehicles lies in this size range. In this study we investigate the possibility of accurate nucleation mode particles detection by using the Advanced Half Mini Differential Mobility Analyzer (HM-DMA).
Technical Paper

Growth and Restructuring Phenomena of Deposits in Particulate Filters

2018-04-03
2018-01-1265
As use of Particulate Filters (PFs) is growing not only for diesel but also for gasoline powered vehicles, the need for better understanding of deposit structure, growth dynamics and evolution arises. In the present paper we address a number of deposit growth and restructuring phenomena within particulate filters with the aim to improve particulate filter soot load estimation. To this end we investigate the dynamic factors that quantify the amount of particles that are stored within the wall and the restructuring of soot deposits. We demonstrate that particle accumulation inside the porous wall is dynamically controlled by the dimensionless Peclet number and provide a procedure for the estimation of parameters of interest such as the loaded filter wall permeability, the wall-stored soot mass at the onset of cake filtration.
Technical Paper

Optimized Filter Design and Selection Criteria for Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Traps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0468
Upcoming (2005) particulate matter standards for diesel powered vehicles are likely to require the deployment of aftertreatment devices, such as particulate filters to ensure emissions compliance. A major challenge in the development of diesel filter systems has been the achievement of filter regeneration by the oxidation of the collected particulate matter in a reliable and cost-effective manner. Recently the emergence of the so-called continuously regenerating trap (CRT™) in conjunction with the future availability of very low-sulphur diesel fuel, represents a promising solution to the diesel particulate control problem. In the present study, design and selection criteria are devised, regarding the sizing of wall flow diesel particulate filters for application in CRT™ systems, employing a range of analytical and 3-D CFD tools validated against experimental data.
Technical Paper

Periodically Reversed Flow Regeneration of Diesel Particulate Traps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0469
Diesel particulate filter regeneration (through oxidation of the collected soot particles) is not currently possible under all engine operating conditions without additional external thermal energy. The exploitation of the autothermal properties of the reverse flow reactor has been suggested to reduce further the soot ignition temperature and hereby is studied for the periodically reversed flow regeneration of soot particulate filters, with the aid of a mathematical model for the regeneration process, validated against experimental data. The numerical results confirm the capability of the new technique to effectively succeed where conventional regeneration fails, extending thus the operating limits of already practiced regeneration techniques (thermal or catalyst-assisted) and setting the stage for the construction of an industrial prototype.
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