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Journal Article

Oxidation Stability, Engine Performance and Emissions Investigations of Karanja, Neem and Jatropha Biodiesel and Blends

2011-04-12
2011-01-0617
Poor oxidation stability is the central problem associated with the commercial acceptance of the biodiesel. The EU standard (EN14214) specifies a minimum value of 6 h for biodiesel induction period at 110°C, measured with Rancimat instrument. Most of the freshly prepared biodiesel generally have lower induction periods than prescribed by the standards. Anti-oxidants are therefore added to enhance the oxidation/ storage stability of biodiesel. Oxidation is an exothermic process, and the reaction heat evolved makes it possible to use thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). In the present study, the oxidation stability of methyl esters derived from Karanja oil and Neem oil, stabilized with anti-oxidant pyrogalol (PY) was studied by DSC. Onset temperature of freshly prepared Karanja biodiesel (KOME) and Neem biodiesel (NOME) was observed to be 148 and 153°C respectively. The stability increases with increasing anti-oxidant dosage.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Produced from Non-Edible Oils of African Origin

2011-04-12
2011-01-1202
Mono alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock, such as vegetable oils or animal fats, also known as biodiesel are well positioned to replace mineral diesel. The outstanding technical problem with biodiesel is that it is more susceptible to oxidation owing to its exposure to oxygen present in the air and high temperature. This happens mainly due to the presence of varying numbers of double bonds in the free fatty acid molecules. The chemical reactivity of esters can therefore be divided into oxidative and thermal instability, which can be determined by the amount and configuration of the olefinic unsaturation in the fatty acid chains. Many of the plant-derived fatty oils contain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are more prone to oxidation. Increasing production of biodiesel from vegetable oils (edible) places strain on food production, availability and price and leads to food versus fuel conflict.
Technical Paper

Effect of Multiple Injections on Particulate Size-Number Distributions in a Common Rail Direct Injection Engine Fueled with Karanja Biodiesel Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1554
Use of alternative fuels, and reduction of particulate and NOx emissions are major challenges for making diesel engines environmentally benign. Measures adopted for reducing gravimetric particulate emissions necessarily always do not reduce particulate number concentration, which is strongly related with adverse health effects. Current emission norms in some parts of the world limit particulate number concentration along with particulate mass. In this scenario, it becomes important to investigate effect of fuel injection parameters and fuel injection strategies such as pilot injections on particulate size-number distribution. A single cylinder research engine is used to evaluate the effect of different fuel injection strategies and injection timings (for pilot and main injections) on particulate size-number distribution and total particulate numbers.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Close-Loop Control of HCCI Engine Using Dual Fuel Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-1675
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) offers great promise for excellent fuel economy and extremely low emissions of NOx and PM. HCCI combustion lacks direct control on the "start of combustion" such as spark timing in SI engines and fuel injection timing in CI engines. Auto ignition of a homogeneous mixture is very sensitive to operating conditions of the engine. Even small variations of the load can change the timing from "too early" to "too late" combustion. Thus a fast combustion phasing control is required since it sets the performance limitation of the load control. Crank angle position for 50% heat release is used as combustion phasing feedback parameter. In this study, a dual-fuel approach is used to control combustion in a HCCI engine. This approach involves controlling the combustion heat release rate by adjusting fuel reactivity according to the conditions inside the cylinder. Two different octane fuels (methanol and n-heptane) are used for the study.
Journal Article

Effect of Start of Injection on the Particulate Emission from Methanol Fuelled HCCI Engine

2011-12-06
2011-01-2408
New combustion concepts developed in internal combustion engines such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) have attracted serious attention due to the possibilities to simultaneously achieve higher efficiency and lower emissions, which will impact the environment positively. The HCCI combustion concept has potential of ultra-low NOX and particulate matter (PM) emission in comparison to a conventional gasoline or a diesel engine. Environmental Legislation Agencies are becoming increasingly concerned with particulate emissions from engines because the health and environmental effects of particulates emitted are now known and can be measured by sophisticated instruments. Particulate emissions from HCCI engines have been usually considered negligible, and the measurement of mass emission of PM from HCCI combustion systems shows their negligible contribution to PM mass. However some recent studies suggest that PM emissions from HCCI engines cannot be neglected.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations of Gasoline HCCI Engine during Startup and Transients

2011-12-15
2011-01-2445
The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process is capable of providing both high ‘diesel-like’ efficiencies and very low NOx and particulate emissions. However, among several technical challenges, controlling the combustion phasing, particularly during transients is a major issue, which must be resolved to exploit its commercial applications. This study is focused on the experimental investigations of behavior of combustion timing and other combustion parameters during startup and load transients. The study is conducted on a gasoline fuelled HCCI engine by varying intake air temperature and air-fuel ratio at different engine speeds. Port fuel injection technique is used for preparing homogeneous mixture of gasoline and air. For fueling startup transient test, fuel injection was turned off, and the engine was motored for several minutes until the fire-deck, intake and exhaust temperatures stabilized.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of PM Mass and Chemical Composition from Diesel and Biodiesel Fuelled CRDI SUV Engine

2012-01-09
2012-28-0012
Adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel engine exhaust are largely attributed to the complex chemical composition of the exhaust species. This study was set out to characterize particulate emissions from a Euro-III-compliant modern automotive common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) diesel engine operated at different loads at rated engine speed (1800 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from Karanja oil. This study is mainly divided into two main sections, first one includes the gravimetric analysis in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPOES). The second section includes real-time measurements for Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Combustion, Emissions and Performance of a Diesel Fuelled HCCI Engine

2012-01-09
2012-28-0005
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an advanced combustion concept that is developed as an alternative to diesel engines with higher thermal efficiency along with ultralow NOx and PM emissions. To study the performance of this novel technique, experiments were performed in a two cylinder engine, in which one cylinder is modified to operate in HCCI mode while other cylinder operates in conventional CI mode. The quality of homogeneous mixture of air and fuel is the key feature of HCCI combustion. Low volatility of diesel is a major hurdle in achieving HCCI combustion because it is difficult to make a homogeneous mixture of air and fuel. This problem is resolved by external mixture preparation technique in uses a dedicated diesel vaporizer with an electronic control system. All the injection parameters such as fuel quantity, fuel injection timing, injection delay etc., are controlled by the injection driver circuit.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic Spray Parameters of Karanja Oil and Blends: A Comparative Study

2012-01-09
2012-28-0028
Diesel engines are very efficient prime movers in their power range. Fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines are highly influenced by the fuel spray parameters and atomization of the injected fuel. As the emission regulations become stringent, it is very important to optimize the combustion in internal combustion engines for different fuels including alternative fuels. Spray visualization using optical techniques play a very important role to analyze macroscopic spray parameters and fuel atomization behavior. In the present experimental study, an important alternative CI engine fuel, Karanja oil and its blends with diesel have been investigated for their spray parameters and fuel atomization relative to mineral diesel. These parameters are different for the two fuels because of difference in the viscosity and density of the fuels.
Journal Article

Particulate Morphology and Toxicity of an Alcohol Fuelled HCCI Engine

2014-04-15
2014-01-9076
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are attracting attention as next-generation internal combustion engines mainly because of very low NOx and PM emission potential and excellent thermal efficiency. Particulate emissions from HCCI engines have been usually considered negligible however recent studies suggest that PM number emissions from HCCI engines cannot be neglected. This study is therefore conducted on a modified four cylinder diesel engine to investigate this aspect of HCCI technology. One cylinder of the engine is modified to operate in HCCI mode for the experiments and port fuel injection technique is used for preparing homogenous charge in this cylinder. Experiments are conducted at 1200 and 2400 rpm engine speeds using gasoline, ethanol, methanol and butanol fuels. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to measure the mass of the particulates emitted on a pre-conditioned filter paper.
Technical Paper

Unregulated and Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Fuelled CRDI SUV Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0889
Use of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil as an alternative fuel to mineral diesel is attractive economically and environmentally. Diesel engines emit several harmful gaseous emissions and some of them are regulated worldwide, while countless others are not regulated. These unregulated species are associated with severe health hazards. Karanja biodiesel is a popular alternate fuel in South Asia and various governments are considering its large-scale implementation. Therefore it is important to study the possible adverse impact of this new alternate fuel. In this study, unregulated and regulated emissions were measured at varying engine speeds (1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm) for various engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% rated load) using 20% Karanja biodiesel blend (KB20) and diesel in a 4-cylinder 2.2L common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) engine.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Rice Bran Oil Derived Biodiesel in a Transportation Diesel Engine

2005-10-23
2005-26-354
The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine and they would not require significant modification of existing engine hardware. Methyl ester of rice bran oil (ROME) is derived through transesterification process. Previous research has shown that ROME has comparable performance, lower bsfc in comparison to diesel. There was reduction in the emissions of CO, HC, and smoke but NOx emissions increased. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine the combustion characteristics in a direct injection transportation diesel engine running with diesel, and 20% blend of rice bran methyl ester with diesel.
Technical Paper

Particulate Characterization of Biodiesel Fuelled Compression Ignition Engine

2009-12-13
2009-28-0018
Environmental concerns have increased significantly world over in the past decade. Regulatory agencies are becoming increasingly concerned with particulate emissions as the health and environmental effects are getting understood better due to rapid development in instrumentation. Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternative diesel fuels, which is getting global acceptability among the automotive/ engine manufactures as well as users due to numerous benefits it offers over the conventional diesel. While much of literature is available on particulate emitted by diesel fuelled engine, little is known by particulate emissions from biodiesel fuelled compression ignition (CI) engine. This study concentrates on the characterization of particulate emissions from mineral diesel vis-à-vis biodiesel (B100) and its optimum blend (20%, B20) with mineral diesel.
Technical Paper

Field Trials of Biodiesel (B100) and Diesel Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection Euro-III Compliant Sports Utility Vehicles in Indian Conditions

2008-01-09
2008-28-0077
Biodiesel is being explored as a sustainable renewable fuel for vehicles in India due to mounting foreign exchange expenditure to import crude petroleum. Significant amount of research and development work is being undertaken in India to investigate various aspects of biodiesel utilisation in different types of engines. This study is an effort to jointly investigate the use of biodiesel (B100) in an unmodified BS-III compliant sports utility vehicle (SUV) by a consortium of academia (IIT Kanpur) and Industry (M&M) to realistically assess whether biodiesel is compatible with modern engine technology vehicles. Two identical vehicles were operated in tandem using biodiesel (B100) and mineral diesel (B00) respectively for 30,000 kilometers in field conditions. The lubricating oil samples were collected and detailed analysis for assessing the comparative effect of new fuel (B100) vis-à-vis mineral diesel was carried out.
Technical Paper

Ricebran Oil Biodiesel's Performance, Emission and Endurance Test on a CIDI Transport Engine

2008-01-09
2008-28-0066
Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop alternative fuels that are environmentally more acceptable. Fatty acids esters (biodiesel) are known to be good alternative fuels. Due to economic reasons, the use of cheap raw materials for biodiesel production is preferred. In this case, ricebran oil, non-edible grade is used. Base catalyzed transesterification of ricebran oil is investigated and process parameters for ricebran biodiesel production are optimized. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point, calorific value of biodiesel thus prepared are characterized as per ASTM D6751 and found comparable to mineral diesel. Steady state engine dynamometer test at 1800 rpm has been carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a medium duty transportation DI diesel engine. Emission tests with all the fuel blends have also been carried out using European 13 MODE test (ECE R49).
Journal Article

Experimental Investigations of the Tribological Properties of Lubricating Oil from Biodiesel Fuelled Medium Duty Transportation CIDI Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1385
Biodiesel is mono alkyl ester derived from vegetable oils through transesterification reaction and can be used as an alternative to mineral diesel. In the present research, methyl ester of rice-bran oil (ROME) is produced through transesterification of rice-bran oil using methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalyst. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point, calorific value of the biodiesel thus prepared are characterized and found comparable to diesel. On the basis of previous research for performance, emission and combustion characteristics, a 20% blend of ROME (B20) was selected as optimum biodiesel blend for endurance test. Endurance test of 100 hours was conducted on a medium duty direct injection transportation diesel engine. Tests were conducted under predetermined loading cycles in two phases: engine operating on mineral diesel and engine fuelled with 20% biodiesel blend.
Technical Paper

Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel (Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Fueled IDI Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1384
Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) is a non-toxic and biodegradable alternative fuel that is obtained from renewable sources. A major hurdle in the commercialization of biodiesel from virgin oil, in comparison to petroleum-based diesel, is its cost of production, primarily the raw material cost. Used cooking oils or waste cooking oils are economical sources for biodiesel production, which can help in commercialization of biodiesel. However, the products formed during cooking/frying (such as free fatty acids and various polymerized triglycerides) affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. In present experimental investigations, wastecooking oil obtained from restaurant was used to produce biodiesel through transesterification process and the chemical kinetics of biodiesel production was studied. Biodiesel was blended with petroleum diesel in different proportions.
Technical Paper

Development And Characterization Of Biodiesel From Non-Edible Vegetable Oils Of Indian Origin

2004-01-16
2004-28-0079
Increased environmental awareness and depletion of fossil fuel resources are driving industry to develop alternative fuels that are environmentally more acceptable. Vegetable oils are potential alternative fuels. Vegetable oils in India are produced from numerous oil-seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to ensure safe usage in internal combustion engines. Most detrimental properties of oils are its high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character. The most widely used method is to convert vegetable oils into biodiesel. Biodiesel fuels are primary esters, which are produced by transesterifcation of vegetable oils. Several vegetable oil esters have been investigated so far in different parts of the world and found suitable to be used in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of a Biodiesel (Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester) Fuelled Transport Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-1730
This experimental study was undertaken to investigate the use of vegetable oil derivatives to substitute mineral diesel fuel. Straight vegetable oils pose some problems like injector coking, carbon deposits etc., when used as a fuel in an engine. These problems are due to high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character of vegetable oils. Transesterified vegetable oil derivative called “biodiesel” appear to be most convenient way of utilizing vegetable oil as a substitute fuel in diesel engines. In present investigation, rice bran oil (non-edible) was transesterified to methyl ester and reaction conditions for transeterifcation process for rice bran oil were optimized. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point of the biodiesel thus prepared are comparable to diesel and found to be in acceptable range as per ASTM norms (ASTM D6751). Experimental investigations were carried out on a four stroke, four cylinders, transportation DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Steel Cap Piston for Upgradation of Diesel Electric Locomotives for Indian Railways

2005-04-11
2005-01-1645
This paper deals with the evaluation of steel cap pistons for up-gradation of diesel electric locomotives for Indian Railways. These engines are four stroke, medium speed compression ignition engines (CR 12.5: 1) with output of 121 kW per cylinder on series 1 and 167 kW per cylinder on series 2. The series 1 engine uses single piece aluminum pistons, with rating of 0.295 kW/cm2 of piston crown area. A higher version of the series 1 engine with higher fuel efficiency and improvement in lube oil consumption was developed. As part of this improvement program, a composite steel cap piston with forged aluminum skirt was used. The whole engine up-gradation kit including the higher capacity turbocharger, higher fuel delivery pressure fuel pump, modified cam shaft, larger after-cooler along with the steel cap piston were evaluated for performance.
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