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Journal Article

A Miniature Catalytic Stripper for Particles Less Than 23 Nanometers

The European Emissions Stage 5b standard for diesel passenger cars regulates particulate matter to 0.0045 g/km and non-volatile part/km greater than 23 nm size to 6.0x10₁₁ as determined by the PMP procedure that uses a heated evaporation tube to remove semi-volatile material. Measurement artifacts associated with the evaporation tube technique prevents reliable extension of the method to a lower size range. Catalytic stripper (CS) technology removes possible sources of these artifacts by effectively removing all hydrocarbons and sulfuric acid in the gas phase in order to avoid any chemical reactions or re-nucleation that may cause measurement complications. The performance of a miniature CS was evaluated and experimental results showed solid particle penetration was 50% at 10.5 nm. The sulfate storage capacity integrated into the CS enabled it to chemically remove sulfuric acid vapor rather than rely on dilution to prevent nucleation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Speed and Speed-Transition on the Formation of Nucleation Mode Particles from a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

This work studies the formation of nucleation mode (NM) particles from a Euro 3 passenger car operating on 280 ppm wt. sulfur fuel, during on-road plume chasing and in the laboratory. The vehicle produced a distinct NM when its speed exceeded 100 km/h in both sampling environments. A higher particle number (up to 8 times) after 4 min at constant speed was measured when this speed was approached from a lower than from a higher speed. The variability in the measurement of NM particles was explained using literature information on sulfur-to-sulfate conversion over a catalyst and, in particular, on the extent and rate of sulfate storage and release mechanisms. All evidence led to the conclusion that storage and release processes take several minutes to conclude after a step-wise change in speed and have significant implications in the total particle number measurements during steady-speed testing.