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Journal Article

Theoretical Investigation of Volatile Removal Efficiency of Particle Number Measurement Systems

Euro 5/6 light-duty vehicle emissions regulation introduced non-volatile particle number emission measurements. The particle number measurement system consists of a volatile removal unit followed by a particle number counter with a 50% cut-point diameter at 23 nm. The volatile removal unit must achieve a >99% concentration reduction of a monodisperse aerosol of tetracontane (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 38 CH 3 ) particles of diameter ≥30 nm with inlet concentration ≥10 4 cm −3 . In this paper the evaporation of tetracontane particles in the volatile removal unit is investigated theoretically. The temperature and the residence time in the evaporation tube are discussed, as well as the possibility of nucleation events of evaporated particles at the exit of the evaporation tube. In addition, sulfuric acid nucleation at the evaporation tube exit is analyzed. Theoretical calculations are, finally, compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of Particulate Mass and Number Measurement with Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) for In-Use Testing

Different particulate mass (PM) portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) were evaluated in the lab with three heavy-duty diesel engines which cover a wide range of particle emission levels. For the two engines without Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) the proportional partial flow dilution systems SPC-472, OBS-TRPM, and micro-PSS measured 15% lower PM than the full dilution tunnel (CVS). The micro soot sensor (MSS), which measures soot in real time, measured 35% lower. For the DPF-equipped engine, where the emissions were in the order of 2 mg/kWh, the systems had differences from the CVS higher than 50%. For on-board testing a real-time sensor is necessary to convert the gravimetric (filter)-based PM to second-by-second mass emissions. The detection limit of the sensor, the particle property it measures (e.g., number, surface area or mass, volatiles or non-volatiles) and its calibration affect the estimated real-time mass emissions.
Journal Article

Heavy Duty Particle Measurement Programme (PMP): Exploratory Work for the Definition of the Test Protocol

The heavy duty Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) inter-laboratory exercise consists of three parts: 1) the exploratory work to refine the measurement protocol, 2) the validation exercise where each lab will measure the emissions of a “golden” engine with two “golden” particle number systems simultaneously sampling from full and partial flow dilution systems, and 3) the round-robin where the emissions of a “reference” engine will be determined with a lab’s own particle number instrumentation. This paper presents the results of the exploratory work and describes the final protocol for testing in the validation exercise (and round robin) along with the necessary facility modifications required for compliance with the protocol. Key aspects of the protocol (e.g. filter material, flow rates at the full and partial flow systems, the pre-conditioning etc.) are explained and justified.
Journal Article

Particle Emission Measurements from L-Category Vehicles

In 2011 a particle number (PN) limit was introduced in the European Union's vehicle exhaust legislation for diesel passenger cars. The PN method requires measurement of solid particles (i.e. those that do not evaporate at 350 °C) with diameters above 23 nm. In 2013 the same approach was introduced for heavy duty engines and in 2014 for gasoline direct injection vehicles. This decision was based on a long evaluation that concluded that there is no significant sub-23 nm fraction for these technologies. In this paper we examine the suitability of the current PN method for L-category vehicles (two- or three-wheel vehicles and quadri-cycles). Emission levels of 5 mopeds, 9 motorcycles, 2 tricycles (one of them diesel) and 1 quad are presented. Special attention is given to sub-23 nm emission levels. The investigation was conducted with PN legislation compliant systems with particle counters measuring above 23 nm and 10 nm.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Portable Number Emission Systems for Heavy-Duty Applications under Steady State and Transient Vehicle Operation Conditions on a Chassis Dynamometer

The European Commission plans to introduce a (solid) particle number (PN) emission limit for type approval and in-service conformity (ISC) by the end of 2018 (Euro VI d) using PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) tests on heavy duty vehicles on the road. Performance, measurement accuracy and sensitivity of several on-board particle counters for heavy duty applications have not been tested yet in parallel on a chassis dyno with Euro VI vehicle (N3-class, 12.8 l). The PN PEMS examined were CPC (Condensation Particle Counter) and DC (Diffusion Charger) based. Evaluation was conducted at different ambient temperatures from −7 °C to 35 °C while running different test cycles: WHVC (World Harmonized Vehicle Cycle), steady state engine operation, active regeneration and ISC-tests. A particle number system following the current heavy duty regulation requirement and recommendations of the Particle Measurement Program (PMP) served as reference (PMP_TP).
Journal Article

Overview of Soot Emission Measurements Instrumentation: From Smoke and Filter Mass to Particle Number

Particulate emissions cause adverse health effects and for this reason they are regulated since the 80s. Vehicle regulations cover particulate emission measurements of a model before its sale, known as type approval or homologation. For heavy-duty engines the emissions are measured on an engine dynamometer with steady state points and transient cycles. For light-duty vehicles (i.e. the full power train) the particulate emissions are assessed on a chassis dynamometer. The measurement of particulate emissions is conducted either by diluting the whole exhaust in a dilution tunnel with constant volume sampling or by extracting a small proportional part of the exhaust gas and diluting it. Particulate emissions are measured by passing part of the diluted exhaust aerosol through a filter paper. The increase of the weight of the filter is used to calculate the particulate matter mass (PM) emissions.
Technical Paper

On-Road Emissions of Euro 6d-TEMP Vehicles: Consequences of the Entry into Force of the RDE Regulation in Europe

Human health and the environment are heavily impacted by air pollution. Air quality standards for Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) are commonly exceeded in Europe, particularly in urban areas with high density of traffic. Road transport contributed to 39% of NOx emissions, and 11% of PM emissions in the European Union (EU) in 2017. Measurements with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) showed that most Euro 5 and Euro 6b diesel vehicles emitted significantly more NOx on the road than their permissible limit in the laboratory type-approval test. In that context, EU Real Driving Emissions (EU-RDE) regulation aims at securing low on-road emissions of light duty vehicles under normal conditions of use. This paper assesses the tailpipe emissions performance of Euro 6d-TEMP gasoline and diesel passenger cars, type-approved after the entry into force of the RDE regulation in September 2017.