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Technical Paper

Employing an Ionization Sensor for Combustion Diagnostics in a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0992
An ionization sensor has been used to study the combustion process in a six-cylinder lean burn, truck-sized engine fueled with natural gas and optimized for low emissions of nitric oxides. The final goal of the investigations is to study the prospects of using the ionization sensor for finding the optimal operating position with respect to low NOx emission and stable engine operation. The results indicate that unstable combustion can be detected by analyzing the coefficient of variation (CoV) of the detector current amplitude. Close relationships between this measure and the CoV of the indicated mean effective pressure have been found during an air-fuel ratio scan with fixed ignition advance.
Technical Paper

Reacting Boundary Layers in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1032
An experimental and computational study of the near-wall combustion in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted by applying laser based diagnostic techniques in combination with numerical modeling. Our major intent was to characterize the combustion in the velocity- and thermal boundary layers. The progress of the combustion was studied by using fuel tracer LIF, the result of which was compared with LDA measurements of the velocity boundary layer along with numerical simulations of the reacting boundary layer. Time resolved images of the PLIF signal were taken and ensemble averaged images were calculated. In the fuel tracer LIF experiments, acetone was seeded into the fuel as a tracer. It is clear from the experiments that a proper set of backgrounds and laser profiles are necessary to resolve the near-wall concentration profiles, even at a qualitative level.
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Control of an HCCI Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1031
This paper presents a strategy for closed-loop control of a multi cylinder turbo charged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. A dual fuel port injection system allows control of combustion timing and load individually for each cylinder. The two fuels used are isooctane and n-heptane, which provides a wide range of autoignition properties. Cylinder pressure sensors provide feedback and information regarding combustion. The angle of 50% heat release is calculated in real time for each cycle and used for timing feedback. Inlet air preheating is used at low loads to maintain a high combustion efficiency.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Phasing with Closed-Loop Combustion Control Using Variable Compression Ratio in a Multi Cylinder Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1830
This study applies Closed-Loop Combustion Control (CLCC) using Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) and cylinder balancing using variable lambda to solve the problem. Step changes of set points for combustion phasing, Compression Ratio (CR), and load together with ramps of engine speed and inlet air temperature are investigated. Performances of the controllers are investigated by running the engine at either a constant amount of injected fuel corresponding to an approximate load of 1.5 or 2.5 bar BMEP and/or constant speed of 2000 rpm. Commercial RON 92 gasoline is used in the test. The CLCC is found to be fast and effective and has a potential of handling step changes in a matter of cycles, while the speed and temperature ramps need some more optimization of the CLCC. The CR controller is very fast and has a time constant corresponding to three engine cycles at 2000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Operating range in a Multi Cylinder HCCI engine using Variable Compression Ratio

2003-05-19
2003-01-1829
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a promising part load combustion concept for future power train applications. Different approaches to achieve and control HCCI combustion are today investigated and compared, especially concerning operating range. The HCCI operating range for vehicle applications should at least cover contemporary emissions drive cycles. The operating range in terms of speed and load is investigated with a Naturally Aspirated (NA) four-stroke multi-cylinder engine with Port Fuel Injection (PFI). HCCI combustion control is achieved with Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) and inlet air preheating with exhaust heat. Both primary reference fuels and commercial gasoline are used in the tests. HCCI combustion with commercial gasoline is achieved over a load range from 0 to 3.6bar BMEP, and over a speed range from 1000 to 5000rpm. Maximum load is at 1000rpm and decreases with an approximately straight slope to zero at 5000rpm.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Gas Flow on the Interpretation of the Ionization Sensor Signal

2003-03-03
2003-01-1120
The location of the peak pressure can serve as a control parameter to adjust ignition timing and optimize engine performance. The ionization sensor, an electrical probe for combustion diagnostics, can provide information about the peak pressure location. However, the reliability of such information is rather poor. In-cylinder gas flow at the electrodes may be one reason for this. We present results from an investigation of the relationship between ionization sensor current and pressure under various gas flow conditions. The gas flow velocity in the vicinity of the electrode gap was measured by LDA. From the results one may infer how the in-cylinder gas flow affects the reliability of the prediction of pressure peak location from the ionization sensor signal. One finding is that high bulk gas flow impairs the precision of the prediction in certain configurations.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Geometry Generated Turbulence on HCCI Engine Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-1088
The present study uses a numerical model to investigate the effects of flow turbulence on premixed iso-octane HCCI engine combustion. Different levels of in-cylinder turbulence are generated by using different piston geometries, namely a disc-shape versus a square-shape bowl. The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver. A detailed reaction mechanism is used to simulate the fuel chemistry. It is found that turbulence has significant effects on HCCI combustion. In the current engine setup, the main effect of turbulence is to affect the wall heat transfer, and hence to change the mixture temperature which, in turn, influences the ignition timing and combustion duration. The model also predicts that the combustion duration in the square bowl case is longer than that in the disc piston case which agrees with the measurements.
Technical Paper

Crank Angle Resolved HC-Detection Using LIF in the Exhausts of Small Two-Stroke Engines Running at High Engine Speed

1996-10-01
961927
In order to separate the HC-emissions from two-stroke engines into short-circuit losses and emissions due to incomplete combustion, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements were performed on the exhaust gases just outside the exhaust ports of two engines of different designs. The difference between the two engines was the design of the transfer channels. One engine had “finger” transfer channels and one had “cup handle” transfer channels. Apart from that they were similar. The engine with “finger” transfer channels was earlier known to give more short-circuiting losses than the other engine, and that behavior was confirmed by these measurements. Generally, the results show that the emission of hydrocarbons has two peaks, one just after exhaust port opening and one late in the scavenging phase. The spectral information shows differences between the two peaks and it can be concluded that the latter peak is due to short-circuiting and the earlier due to incomplete combustion.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Turbulent Flame Speed and Integral Length Scales in a Lean Stationary Premixed Flame

1998-02-23
981050
Turbulent premixed natural gas - air flame velocities have been measured in a stationary axi-symmetric burner using LDA. The flame was stabilized by letting the flow retard toward a stagnation plate downstream of the burner exit. Turbulence was generated by letting the flow pass through a plate with drilled holes. Three different hole diameters were used, 3, 6 and 10 mm, in order to achieve different turbulent length scales. Turbulent integral length scales were measured using two-point LDA and the stretching in terms of the Karlovitz number could be estimated from these measurements. The results support previous studies indicating that stretching reduces the flame speed.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Variable Compression Ratio, Alvar- Cycle Engine

1998-10-19
982682
This paper is a direct continuation of a previous study that addressed the performance and design of a variable compression engine, the Alvar-Cycle Engine [1]. The earlier study was presented at the SAE International Conference and Exposition in Detroit during February 23-26, 1998 as SAE paper 981027. In the present paper test results from a single cylinder prototype are reviewed and compared with a similar conventional engine. Efficiency and emissions are shown as function of speed, load, and compression ratio. The influence of residual gas on knock characteristics is shown. The potential for high power density through heavy supercharging is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Influence of Mixture Quality on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

1998-10-19
982454
The major advantages with Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, HCCI, is high efficiency in combination with low NOx-emissions. The major drawback with HCCI is the problem to control the ignition timing over a wide load and speed range. Other drawbacks are the limitation in attainable IMEP and relativly high emissions of unburned hydrocarbons. But the use of Exhaust Gas Recycling (EGR) instead of only air, slows down the rate of combustion and makes it possible to use lower air/fuel ratio, which increases the attainable upper load limit. The influence of mixture quality was therefore experimentally investigated. The effects of different EGR rates, air/fuel ratios and inlet mixture temperatures were studied. The compression ratio was set to 18:1. The fuels used were iso-octane, ethanol and commercially available natural gas. The engine was operated naturally aspirated mode for all tests.
Technical Paper

The Importance of High-Frequency, Small-Eddy Turbulence in Spark Ignited, Premixed Engine Combustion

1995-10-01
952409
The different roles played by small and large eddies in engine combustion were studied. Experiments compared natural gas combustion in a converted, single cylinder Volvo TD 102 engine and in a 125 mm cubical cell. Turbulence is used to enhance flame growth, ideally giving better efficiency and reduced cyclic variation. Both engine and test cell results showed that flame growth rate correlated best with the level of high frequency, small eddy turbulence. The more effective, small eddy turbulence also tended to lower cyclic variations. Large scales and bulk flows convected the flame relative to cool surfaces and were most important to the initial flame kernel.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Influence of Mixture Preparation on Cyclic Variations in a SI-Engine, Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

1995-02-01
950108
To study the effect of different injection timings on the charge inhomogeneity, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was applied to an operating engine. Quantitative images of the fuel distribution within the engine were obtained. Since the fuel used, iso-octane, does not fluoresce, a dopant was required. Three-pentanone was found to have vapour pressure characteristics similar to those of iso-octane as well as low absorption and suitable spectral properties. A worst case estimation of the total accuracy from the PLIF images gives a maximum error of 0.03 in equivalence ratio. The results show that an early injection timing gives a higher degree of charge inhomogeneity close to the spark plug. It is also shown that charge inhomogeneity gives a more unstable engine operation. A correlation was noted between the combustion on a cycle to cycle basis and the average fuel concentration within a circular area close to the spark plug center.
Technical Paper

Scavenging Flow Velocity in Small Two-Strokes at High Engine Speed

1995-09-01
951789
2D-LDV-measurements were made on the flow from one transfer channel into the cylinder in a small two-stroke SI engine. The LDV measuring volume was located just outside the transfer port. The engine was a carburetted piston-ported crankcase compression chainsaw engine and it was run with wide open throttle at 9000 RPM. The muffler was removed to enable access into the cylinder. No additional seeding was used; the fuel and/or oil was not entirely vaporized as it entered the cylinder. Very high velocities (-275 m/s) were detected in the beginning of the scavenging phase. The horizontal velocity was, during the whole scavenging phase, higher than the vertical.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Different Frequencies in the Turbulence on Early Flame Development in a Spark Ignition Engine

1994-03-01
940990
Two-components cycle-resolved Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements were performed with high data rate to resolve the flow in a spark ignition engine. The velocity measurements were then processed with both a frequency and a time domain filtering technique to obtain the level of turbulence at different frequencies. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements gave information of the duration of the early flame development through a heat release calculation. The initial combustion rate was correlated to the turbulence at different frequencies and the results showed a higher correlation for the high frequencies (4-6 kHz) when the engine was run at 700 rpm.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Valve Strategy on In-Cylinder Flow and Combustion

1996-02-01
960582
This study is focused on the effect of different valve strategies on the in-cylinder flow and combustion A conventional four-valve pentroof engine was modified to enable optical access to the combustion chamber To get information on the flow, a two-component LDV system was applied The combustion was monitored by the use of cylinder pressure in a one-zone heat release model The results show that the flow in the cylinder with the valves operating in the standard configuration has an expected tumble characteristic In this case the high frequency turbulence is homogeneous and has a peak approximately 20 CAD BTDC With one valve deactivated, the flow shows a swirling pattern The turbulence is then less homogeneous but the level of turbulence is increased When the single inlet valve was phased late against the crankshaft dramatic effects on the flow resulted The late inlet valve opening introduced a low cylinder pressure before the valve opened The high pressure difference across the valve introduced a high-velocity jet into the cylinder Turbulence was increased by a factor of two by this operational mode When two inlet valves were used, a reduction of turbulence resulted from a very late inlet cam phase
Technical Paper

The Effect of Transfer Port Geometry on Scavenge Flow Velocities at High Engine Speed

1996-02-01
960366
2-D LDV measurements were performed on two different cylinder designs in a fired two-stroke engine running with wide-open throttle at 9000 rpm. The cylinders examined were one with open transfer channels and one with cup handle transfer channels. Optical access to the cylinder was achieved by removing the silencer and thereby gain optical access through the exhaust port. No addition of seeding was made, since the fuel droplets were not entirely vaporized as they entered the cylinder and thus served as seeding. Results show that the loop-scavenging effect was poor with open transfer channels, but clearly detectable with cup handle channels. The RMS-value, “turbulence”, was low close to the transfer ports in both cylinders, but increased rapidly in the middle of the cylinder. The seeding density was used to obtain information about the fuel concentration in the cylinder during scavenging.
Technical Paper

Cycle to Cycle Variations in S.I. Engines - The Effects of Fluid Flow and Gas Composition in the Vicinity of the Spark Plug on Early Combustion

1996-10-01
962084
Simultaneous measurements of early flame speed and local measurements of the major parameters controlling the process are presented. The early flame growth rate was captured with heat release analysis of the cylinder pressure. The local concentration of fuel or residual gas were measured with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) on isooctane/3-pentanone or water. Local velocity measurements were performed with laser doppler velocimetry (LDV). The results show a significant cycle to cycle correlation between early flame growth rate and several parameters. The experiments were arranged to suppress all but one important factor at a time. When the engine was run without fuel or residual gas fluctuations, the cycle to cycle variations of turbulence were able to explain 50 % of the flame growth rate fluctuations. With a significantly increased fluctuation of F/A, obtained with port fuelling, 65% of the growth rate fluctuation could be explained with local F/A measurements.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow in High Speed Two-Stroke Engines with Different Transfer Channels

1997-02-24
970357
2-D LDV measurements were performed in the cylinder of a two-stroke engine. The transfer channels of the cylinders were of two different designs: Open transfer channels and “cup handle” transfer channels. The engine was run at its rated speed, 9000 rpm. Optical access to the cylinder was achieved by replacing the standard cylinder head with a quartz window. No addition of seeding was made, since the fuel droplets were not entirely vaporized as they entered the cylinder and thus served as seeding. Results show that the flow out from the cup handle transfer channels is more directed away from the exhaust port, which promotes loop scavenging. The RMS-value, “turbulence”, was low close to the transfer ports in both cylinders, but increased rapidly towards the middle of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

1998-02-23
980787
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is the third alternative for combustion in the reciprocating engine. Here, a homogeneous charge is used as in a spark ignited engine, but the charge is compressed to auto-ignition as in a diesel. The main difference compared with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is the lack of flame propagation and hence the independence from turbulence. Compared with the diesel engine, HCCI has a homogeneous charge and hence no problems associated with soot and NOX formation. Earlier research on HCCI showed high efficiency and very low amounts of NOX, but HC and CO were higher than in SI mode. It was not possible to achieve high IMEP values with HCCI, the limit being 5 bar. Supercharging is one way to dramatically increase IMEP. The influence of supercharging on HCCI was therefore experimentally investigated. Three different fuels were used during the experiments: iso-octane, ethanol and natural gas.
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