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Journal Article

Effects of Post-Injection Strategies on Near-Injector Over-Lean Mixtures and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emission in a Heavy-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1383
Post-injection strategies aimed at reducing engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) were investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine operating at a low-load, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high dilution (12.7% intake oxygen) where UHC emissions are problematic. Exhaust gas measurements showed that a carefully selected post injection reduced engine-out load-specific UHC emissions by 20% compared to operation with a single injection in the same load range. High-speed in-cylinder chemiluminescence imaging revealed that without a post injection, most of the chemiluminescence emission occurs close to the bowl wall, with no significant chemiluminescence signal within 27 mm of the injector. Previous studies have shown that over-leaning in this near-injector region after the end of injection causes the local equivalence ratio to fall below the ignitability limit.
Technical Paper

Extending the Operating Region of Multi-Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion using High Octane Number Fuel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1394
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept by which it is possible to get low smoke and NOx emissions simultaneously. PPC requires high EGR levels to extend the ignition delay so that air and fuel mix prior to combustion to a larger extent than with conventional diesel combustion. This paper investigates the operating region of single injection PPC for three different fuels; Diesel, low octane gasoline with similar characteristics as diesel and higher octane standard gasoline. Limits in emissions are defined and the highest load that fulfills these requirements is determined. The investigation shows the benefits of using high octane number fuel for Multi-Cylinder PPC. With high octane fuel the ignition delay is made longer and the operating region of single injection PPC can be extended significantly. Experiments are carried out on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine at low, medium and high speed.
Technical Paper

Reducing Throttle Losses Using Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) in a Heavy-Duty Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-2022
Abstract Stoichiometric operation of Spark Ignited (SI) Heavy Duty Natural Gas (HDNG) engines with a three way catalyst results in very low emissions however they suffer from bad gas-exchange efficiency due to use of throttle which results in high throttling losses. Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) is a good practice to reduce throttling losses in a certain operating region of the engine. VTG technology is extensively used in diesel engines; it is very much ignored in gasoline engines however it is possible and advantageous to be used on HDNG engine due to their relatively low exhaust gas temperature. Exhaust gas temperatures in HDNG engines are low enough (lower than 760 degree Celsius) and tolerable for VGT material. Traditionally HDNG are equipped with a turbocharger with waste-gate but it is easy and simple to replace the by-pass turbocharger with a well-matched VGT.
Journal Article

Using Hythane as a Fuel in a 6-Cylinder Stoichiometric Natural-gas Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1950
Combination of right EGR rates with turbocharging has been identified as a promising way to increase the maximum load and efficiency of heavy duty spark-ignited natural gas engines. With stoichiometric conditions a three way catalyst can be used which means that regulated emissions can be kept at very low levels. However dilution limit is limited in these types of engines because of the lower burnings rate of natural gas with higher EGR rates. One way to extend the dilution limit of a natural gas engine is to run the engine with Hythane (natural gas+ some percentage hydrogen). Previously benefits of hydrogen addition to a Lean Burn natural-gas fueled engine was investigated [1] however a complete study for stoichiometric operation was not performed. This paper presents measurements made on a heavy duty 6-cylinder natural gas engine.
Technical Paper

Flow Field Measurements inside a Piston Bowl of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1835
Combination of flow field measurements, shown in this paper, give new information on the effect of engine run parameters to formation of different flow fields inside piston bowl. The measurements were carried out with particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique in optical engine. Good set of results was achieved even though the feasibility of this technique in diesel engines is sometimes questioned. Main challenge in diesel engines is background radiation from soot particles which is strong enough to conceal the PIV signal. Window staining in diesel engine is also a problem, since very high particle image quality is needed for velocity analysis. All measurements were made in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine. Optical design of engine was Bowditch type [1]. The engine was charged and equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The exhaust gas level was monitored by oxygen concentration and the level was matched to former soot concentration measurements.
Technical Paper

Investigating Mode Switch from SI to HCCI using Early Intake Valve Closing and Negative Valve Overlap

2011-08-30
2011-01-1775
This study investigates mode switching from spark ignited operation with early intake valve closing to residual gas enhanced HCCI using negative valve overlap on a port-fuel injected light-duty diesel engine. A mode switch is demonstrated at 3.5 bar IMEPnet and 1500 rpm. Valve timings and fuel amount have to be selected carefully prior to the mode switch. During mode transition, IMEPnet deviates by up to 0.5 bar from the set point. The time required to return to the set point as well as the transient behavior of the engine load varies depending on which control structure that is used. Both a model-based controller and a PI control approach were implemented and evaluated in experiments. The controllers were active in HCCI mode. The model-based controller achieved a smoother transition and while using it, the transition could be accomplished within three engine cycles.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Comparison of Residual Gas Enhanced HCCI using Trapping (NVO HCCI) or Rebreathing of Residual Gases

2011-08-30
2011-01-1772
A comparison between throttled and unthrottled spark ignition combustion with residual enhanced HCCI combustion is made. Early intake valve closing and late intake valve closing valve strategies for unthrottled spark ignition combustion are evaluated and compared. Approximately 3-6 percent relative improvement in net indicated efficiency is seen when comparing unthrottled spark ignition combustion with throttled spark ignition combustion depending on valve strategy and engine speed. The relative improvement in efficiency from spark ignition combustion to HCCI combustion is approximately 20 percent for the conditions presented in this study. The rebreathing strategies have the highest efficiency of the cases in this study.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Comparison of Multi Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion Characteristics for Diesel and Gasoline Fuels

2011-08-30
2011-01-1811
Partially Premixed Combustion is a concept able to combine low smoke and NOx emissions with high combustion controllability and efficiency. It is of interest to be able to utilize PPC in a large operating region in order to meet the Euro VI emission legislation without relying on NOx aftertreatment. This paper investigates the differences in PPC characteristics for three fuels; Diesel Swedish Mk 1, Low Octane Gasoline (70 Octane) and US Standard Gasoline (87 Octane). Engine operating conditions, combustion characteristics, emissions and efficiency are in focus. The experiments were carried out at a range of operating points on a Volvo MD13 which is a six-cylinder heavy-duty engine. At each operating point three combinations of EGR level and λ-value were evaluated. 1. High EGR/High λ, 2. High EGR/Reduced λ, and 3. Reduced EGR/High λ.
Journal Article

SI Gas Engine: Evaluation of Engine Performance, Efficiency and Emissions Comparing Producer Gas and Natural Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-0916
The Technical University of Denmark, DTU, has designed, built and tested a gasifier [1, 8] that is fuelled with wood chips and achieves a 93% conversion efficiency from wood to producer gas. By combining the gasifier with an ICE and an electric generator a co-generative system can be realized that produces electricity and heat. The gasifier uses the waste heat from the engine for drying and pyrolysis of the wood chips while the gas produced is used to fuel the engine. To achieve high efficiency in converting biomass to electricity an engine is needed that is adapted to high efficiency operation using the specific producer gas from the DTU gasifier. So far the majority of gas engines have been designed and optimized for operation on natural gas. The presented work uses a modern and highly efficient truck sized natural gas engine to investigate efficiency, emissions and general performance while operating on producer gas compared to natural gas operation.
Journal Article

Challenges for In-Cylinder High-Speed Two-Dimensional Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Soot

2011-04-12
2011-01-1280
Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) has traditionally been considered a straightforward and reliable optical diagnostic technique for in-cylinder soot measurements. As a result, it is nowadays even possible to buy turn-key LII measurement systems. During recent years, however, attention has been drawn to a number of unresolved challenges with LII. Many of these are relevant mostly for particle sizing using time-resolved LII, but also two-dimensional soot volume fraction measurements are affected, especially in regions with high soot concentrations typically found in combustion engines. In this work the focus is on the specific challenges involved in performing high-repetition rate measurements with LII in diesel engines. All the mentioned issues might not be possible to overcome but they should nevertheless be known and their potential impact should be considered.
Journal Article

Laser-Induced Phosphorescence and the Impact of Phosphor Coating Thickness on Crank-Angle Resolved Cylinder Wall Temperatures

2011-04-12
2011-01-1292
In order to further improve the energy conversion efficiency in reciprocating engines, detailed knowledge about the involved processes is required. One major loss source in internal combustion engines is heat loss through the cylinder walls. In order to increase the understanding of heat transfer processes and to validate and generate new heat transfer correlation models it is desirable, or even necessary, to have crank-angle resolved data on in-cylinder wall temperature. Laser-Induced Phosphorescence has proved to be a useful tool for surface thermometry also in such harsh environments as running engines. However, the ceramic structure of most phosphor coatings might introduce an error, due to its thermal insulation properties, when being exposed to rapidly changing temperatures. In this article the measurement technique is evaluated concerning the impact from the thickness of the phosphorescent layer on the measured temperature.
Technical Paper

HCCI Gas Engine: Evaluation of Engine Performance, Efficiency and Emissions - Comparing Producer Gas and Natural Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-1196
The Technical University of Denmark, DTU, has constructed, built and tested a gasifier [1, 11] that is fueled with wood chips and achieves a 93% conversion efficiency from wood to producer gas. By combining the gasifier with an internal combustion engine and a generator, a co-generative system can be realized that produces electricity and heat. The gasifier uses the waste heat from the engine for drying and pyrolysis of the wood chips while the produced gas is used to fuel the engine. To achieve high efficiency in converting biomass to electricity it necessitates an engine that is adapted to high efficiency operation using the specific producer gas from the DTU gasifier. So far the majority of gas engines of today are designed and optimized for SI-operation on natural gas.
Technical Paper

Loss Analysis of a HD-PPC Engine with Two-Stage Turbocharging Operating in the European Stationary Cycle

2013-10-14
2013-01-2700
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has demonstrated substantially higher efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and gasoline engines (SI). By combining experiments and modeling the presented work investigates the underlying reasons for the improved efficiency, and quantifies the loss terms. The results indicate that it is possible to operate a HD-PPC engine with a production two-stage boost system over the European Stationary Cycle while likely meeting Euro VI and US10 emissions with a peak brake efficiency above 48%. A majority of the ESC can be operated with brake efficiency above 44%. The loss analysis reveals that low in-cylinder heat transfer losses are the most important reason for the high efficiencies of PPC. In-cylinder heat losses are basically halved in PPC compared to CDC, as a consequence of substantially reduced combustion temperature gradients, especially close to the combustion chamber walls.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and Intake Pressure on PPC of Conventional Diesel, Gasoline and Ethanol in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2702
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has the potential of simultaneously providing high engine efficiency and low emissions. Previous research has shown that with proper combination of Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Air-Fuel equivalence ratio, it is possible to reduce engine-out emissions while still keeping the engine efficiency high. In this paper, the effect of changes in intake pressure (boost) and EGR fraction on PPC engine performance (e.g. ignition delay, burn duration, maximum pressure rise rate) and emissions (carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), soot and NOX) was investigated in a single-cylinder, heavy-duty diesel engine. Swedish diesel fuel (MK1), RON 69 gasoline fuel and 99.5 vol% ethanol were tested. Fixed fueling rate and single injection strategy were employed.
Technical Paper

Styrofoam Precursors as Drop-in Diesel Fuel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0108
Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
Technical Paper

Quantification of the Formaldehyde Emissions from Different HCCI Engines Running on a Range of Fuels

2005-10-24
2005-01-3724
In this paper, the formaldehyde emissions from three different types of homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are quantified for a range of fuels by means of Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. The engines types are differentiated in the way the charge is prepared. The characterized engines are; the conventional port fuel injected one, a type that traps residuals by means of a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) and finally a Direct Injected (DI) one. Fuels ranging from pure n-heptane to iso-octane via diesel, gasoline, PRF80, methanol and ethanol were characterized. Generally, the amount of formaldehyde found in the exhaust was decreasing with decreasing air/fuel ratio, advanced timing and increasing cycle temperature. It was found that increasing the source of formaldehyde i.e. the ratio of heat released in the cool-flame, brought on higher exhaust contents of formaldehyde.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature Measurement and Modeling During Transient HCCI Operation

2005-10-24
2005-01-3731
In this paper the combustion chamber wall temperature was measured by the use of thermographic phosphor. The temperature was monitored over a large time window covering a load transient. Wall temperature measurement provide helpful information in all engines. This temperature is for example needed when calculating heat losses to the walls. Most important is however the effect of the wall temperature on combustion. The walls can not heat up instantaneously and the slowly increasing wall temperature following a load transient will affect the combustion events sucseeding the transient. The HCCI combustion process is, due to its dependence on chemical kinetics more sensitive to wall temperature than Otto or Diesel engines. In depth knowledge about transient wall temperature could increase the understanding of transient HCCI control. A “black box” state space model was derived which is useful when predicting transient wall temperature.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Formaldehyde and Fuel-Tracer LIF Imaging in a High-Speed Diesel Engine With Optically Accessible Realistic Combustion Chamber

2005-09-11
2005-24-008
Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of formaldehyde and a fuel-tracer have been performed in a high-speed diesel engine. N-heptane and isooctane were used as fuel and toluene was used as a tracer. This arrangement made it possible to make simultaneous measurements of toluene by exciting at 266 nm and detecting at 270-320 nm while exciting formaldehyde at 355 nm and detecting at 400-500 nm. The aim of this study is to investigate how traditional fuel tracer and natural-occurring formaldehyde formed in the cool chemistry are transported in the piston bowl. A range of ignition delays were created by running the engine with different amounts of EGR. During this sweep the area where the low-temperature reactions take place were studied. The measurements were performed in a 0.5-l, single-cylinder optical engine running under conditions simulating a cruise-point, i.e., about 2.2 bar imep.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Displacement on Air-Diluted Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine Performance

2006-04-03
2006-01-0205
The main benefit of HCCI engines compared to SI engines is improved fuel economy. The drawback is the diluted combustion with a substantially smaller operating range if not some kind of supercharging is used. The reasons for the higher brake efficiency in HCCI engines can be summarized in lower pumping losses and higher thermodynamic efficiency, due to higher compression ratio and higher ratio of specific heats if air is used as dilution. In the low load operating range, where HCCI today is mainly used, other parameters as friction losses, and cooling losses have a large impact on the achieved brake efficiency. To initiate the auto ignition of the in-cylinder charge a certain temperature and pressure have to be reached for a specific fuel. In an engine with high in-cylinder cooling losses the initial charge temperature before compression has to be higher than on an engine with less heat transfer.
Technical Paper

An Air Hybrid for High Power Absorption and Discharge

2005-05-11
2005-01-2137
An air hybrid is a vehicle with an ICE modified to also work as an air compressor and air motor. The engine is connected to two air reservoirs, normally the atmosphere and a high pressure tank. The main benefit of such a system is the possibility to make use of the kinetic energy of the vehicle otherwise lost when braking. The main difference between the air hybrid developed in this paper and earlier air hybrid concepts is the introduction of a pressure tank that substitutes the atmosphere as supplier of low air pressure. By this modification, a very high torque can be achieved in compressor mode as well as in air motor mode. A model of an air hybrid with two air tanks was created using the engine simulation code GT-Power. The results from the simulations were combined with a driving cycle to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption.
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