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Technical Paper

Partially Premixed Combustion at High Load using Gasoline and Ethanol, a Comparison with Diesel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0944
This paper is the follow up of a previous work and its target is to demonstrate that the best fuel for a Compression Ignition engine has to be with high Octane Number. An advanced injection strategy was designed in order to run Gasoline in a CI engine. At high load it consisted in injecting 54 % of the fuel very early in the pilot and the remaining around TDC; the second injection is used as ignition trigger and an appropriate amount of cool EGR has to be used in order to avoid pre-ignition of the pilot. Substantially lower NOx, soot and specific fuel consumption were achieved at 16.56 bar gross IMEP as compared to Diesel. The pressure rise rate did not constitute any problem thanks to the stratification created by the main injection and a partial overlap between start of the combustion and main injection. Ethanol gave excellent results too; with this fuel the maximum load was limited at 14.80 bar gross IMEP because of hardware issues.
Technical Paper

HCCI Operating Range in a Turbo-charged Multi Cylinder Engine with VVT and Spray-Guided DI

2009-04-20
2009-01-0494
Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) has been identified as a promising way to increase the efficiency of the spark-ignited engine, while maintaining low emissions. The challenge with HCCI combustion is excessive pressure rise rate, quantified here with Ringing Intensity. Turbocharging enables increased dilution of the charge and thus a reduction of the Ringing Intensity. The engine used is an SI four cylinder base with 2.2L displacement and is equipped with a turbocharger. Combustion phasing control is achieved with individual intake/ exhaust cam phasing. Fuel injection with spray guided design is used. Cycle resolved combustion state is monitored and used for controlling the engine either in closed or open loop where balancing of cylinder to cylinder variations has to be done to run the engine at high HCCI load. When load is increased the NOx levels rise, the engine is then run in stoichiometric HCCI mode to be able to use a simple three-way catalyst.
Journal Article

The Effect of Intake Temperature in a Turbocharged Multi Cylinder Engine operating in HCCI mode

2009-09-13
2009-24-0060
The operating range in HCCI mode is limited by the excessive pressure rise rate and therefore high combustion induced noise. The HCCI range can be extended with turbocharging which enables increased dilution of the charge and thus a reduction of combustion noise. When the engine is turbocharged the intake charge will have a high temperature at increased boost pressure and can then be regulated in a cooling circuit. Limitations and benefits are examed at 2250 rpm and 400 kPa indicated mean effective pressure. It is shown that combustion stability, combustion noise and engine efficiency have to be balanced since they have optimums at different intake temperatures and combustion timings. The span for combustion timings with high combustion stability is narrower at some intake temperatures and the usage of external EGR can improve the combustion stability. It is found that the standard deviation of combustion timing is a useful tool for evaluating cycle to cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Diesel Piston Bowl Using Phosphor Thermometry

2009-09-13
2009-24-0033
Phosphor thermometry was used during fuel injection in an optical engine with the glass piston of reentrant type. SiO2 coated phosphor particle was used for the gas-phase temperature measurements, which gave much less background signal. The measurements were performed in motored mode, in combustion mode with injection of n-heptane and in non-combustion mode with injection of iso-octane. In the beginning of injection period, the mean temperature of each injection cases was lower than that of the motored case, and temperature of iso-octane injection cases was even lower than that of n-heptane injection cases. This indicates, even if vaporization effect seemed to be the same at both injection cases, the effect of temperature decrease changed due to the chemical reaction effect for the n-heptane cases. Chemical reaction seems to be initiated outside of the fuel liquid spray and the position was moving towards the fuel rich area as the time proceeds.
Journal Article

Some Effects of Fuel Autoignition Quality and Volatility in Premixed Compression Ignition Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0607
Previous work has shown that it may be advantageous to use gasoline type fuels with long ignition delays compared to today's diesel fuels in compression ignition engines. In the present work we investigate if high volatility is also needed along with low cetane (high octane) to get more premixed combustion leading to low NO and smoke. A single-cylinder light-duty compression ignition engine is run on four fuels in the diesel boiling range and three fuels in the gasoline boiling range. The lowest cetane diesel boiling range fuel (DCN = 22) also has very high aromatic content (75%vol) but the engine can be run on this to give very low NO (≺ 0.4 g/kWh) and smoke (FSN ≺ 0.1), e.g,. at 4 bar and 10 bar IMEP at 2000 RPM like the gasoline fuels but unlike the diesel fuels with DCNs of 40 and 56. If the combustion phasing and delay are matched for any two fuels at a given operating condition, their emissions behavior is also matched regardless of the differences in volatility and composition.
Technical Paper

Automated IC Engine Model Development with Uncertainty Propagation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0237
This paper describes the development of a novel data model for storing and sharing data obtained from engine experiments, it then outlines a methodology for automatic model development and applies it to a state-of-the-art engine combustion model (including chemical kinetics) to reduce corresponding model parameter uncertainties with respect engine experiments. These challenges are met by adopting the latest developments in the semantic web to create a shared data model resource for the IC engine development community. The relevant data can be extracted and then used to set-up simulations for parameter estimation by passing it to the relevant application models. A methodology for incorporating experimental and model uncertainties into the model optimization procedure is presented.
Journal Article

SI Gas Engine: Evaluation of Engine Performance, Efficiency and Emissions Comparing Producer Gas and Natural Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-0916
The Technical University of Denmark, DTU, has designed, built and tested a gasifier [1, 8] that is fuelled with wood chips and achieves a 93% conversion efficiency from wood to producer gas. By combining the gasifier with an ICE and an electric generator a co-generative system can be realized that produces electricity and heat. The gasifier uses the waste heat from the engine for drying and pyrolysis of the wood chips while the gas produced is used to fuel the engine. To achieve high efficiency in converting biomass to electricity an engine is needed that is adapted to high efficiency operation using the specific producer gas from the DTU gasifier. So far the majority of gas engines have been designed and optimized for operation on natural gas. The presented work uses a modern and highly efficient truck sized natural gas engine to investigate efficiency, emissions and general performance while operating on producer gas compared to natural gas operation.
Journal Article

Effects of Post-Injection Strategies on Near-Injector Over-Lean Mixtures and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emission in a Heavy-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1383
Post-injection strategies aimed at reducing engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) were investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine operating at a low-load, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high dilution (12.7% intake oxygen) where UHC emissions are problematic. Exhaust gas measurements showed that a carefully selected post injection reduced engine-out load-specific UHC emissions by 20% compared to operation with a single injection in the same load range. High-speed in-cylinder chemiluminescence imaging revealed that without a post injection, most of the chemiluminescence emission occurs close to the bowl wall, with no significant chemiluminescence signal within 27 mm of the injector. Previous studies have shown that over-leaning in this near-injector region after the end of injection causes the local equivalence ratio to fall below the ignitability limit.
Journal Article

Challenges for In-Cylinder High-Speed Two-Dimensional Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Soot

2011-04-12
2011-01-1280
Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) has traditionally been considered a straightforward and reliable optical diagnostic technique for in-cylinder soot measurements. As a result, it is nowadays even possible to buy turn-key LII measurement systems. During recent years, however, attention has been drawn to a number of unresolved challenges with LII. Many of these are relevant mostly for particle sizing using time-resolved LII, but also two-dimensional soot volume fraction measurements are affected, especially in regions with high soot concentrations typically found in combustion engines. In this work the focus is on the specific challenges involved in performing high-repetition rate measurements with LII in diesel engines. All the mentioned issues might not be possible to overcome but they should nevertheless be known and their potential impact should be considered.
Journal Article

Laser-Induced Phosphorescence and the Impact of Phosphor Coating Thickness on Crank-Angle Resolved Cylinder Wall Temperatures

2011-04-12
2011-01-1292
In order to further improve the energy conversion efficiency in reciprocating engines, detailed knowledge about the involved processes is required. One major loss source in internal combustion engines is heat loss through the cylinder walls. In order to increase the understanding of heat transfer processes and to validate and generate new heat transfer correlation models it is desirable, or even necessary, to have crank-angle resolved data on in-cylinder wall temperature. Laser-Induced Phosphorescence has proved to be a useful tool for surface thermometry also in such harsh environments as running engines. However, the ceramic structure of most phosphor coatings might introduce an error, due to its thermal insulation properties, when being exposed to rapidly changing temperatures. In this article the measurement technique is evaluated concerning the impact from the thickness of the phosphorescent layer on the measured temperature.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Combustion Characteristics with Focus on Partially Premixed Combustion in a Heavy Duty Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1658
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has shown its potential by combining high combustion controllability with emission characteristics that are close to those of an HCCI engine. In order to get PPC the ignition delay needs to be long enough for the fuel and air to mix prior to combustion. This can be achieved by injecting the fuel sufficiently early while running with high EGR. In order to find out where and how PPC occurs a map that shows the changes in combustion characteristics with injection timing and EGR was created. The combustion characteristics were studied in a six cylinder heavy duty engine where the Start of Injection (SOI) was swept from early to late injection over a wide range of EGR levels. The emissions were monitored during the sweeps and in the most promising regions, with low emissions and high efficiency, additional changes in injection pressure and engine speed were applied to get a more versatile picture of the combustion.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Geometry Effects on the Performance of an Ethanol Fueled HCCI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1656
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is limited in maximum load due to high peak pressures and excessive combustion rate. If the rate of combustion can be decreased the load range can be extended. From previous studies it has been shown that by using a deep square bowl in piston geometry the load range can be extended due to decreased heat release rates, pressure rise rates and longer combustion duration compared to a disc shaped combustion chamber. The explanation for the slower combustion was found in the turbulent flow field in the early stages of the intake stroke causing temperature stratifications throughout the charge. With larger temperature differences the combustion will be longer compared to a perfectly mixed charge with less temperature variations. The methods used for finding this explanation were high-speed cycle-resolved chemiluminescence imaging and fuel tracer planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF), together with large eddy simulations (LES).
Technical Paper

Validation of a Self Tuning Gross Heat Release Algorithm

2008-06-23
2008-01-1672
The present paper shows the validation of a self tuning heat release method with no need to model heat losses, crevice losses and blow by. Using the pressure and volume traces the method estimates the polytropic exponents (before, during and after the combustion event), by the use of the emission values and amount of fuel injected per cycle the algorithm calculates the total heat release. These four inputs are subsequently used for computing the heat release trace. The result is a user independent algorithm which results in more objective comparisons among operating points and different engines. In the present paper the heat release calculated with this novel method has been compared with the one computed using the Woschni correlation for modeling the heat transfer. The comparison has been made using different fuels (PRF0, PRF80, ethanol and iso-octane) making sweeps in relative air-fuel ratio, engine speed, EGR and CA 50.
Journal Article

Using Hythane as a Fuel in a 6-Cylinder Stoichiometric Natural-gas Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1950
Combination of right EGR rates with turbocharging has been identified as a promising way to increase the maximum load and efficiency of heavy duty spark-ignited natural gas engines. With stoichiometric conditions a three way catalyst can be used which means that regulated emissions can be kept at very low levels. However dilution limit is limited in these types of engines because of the lower burnings rate of natural gas with higher EGR rates. One way to extend the dilution limit of a natural gas engine is to run the engine with Hythane (natural gas+ some percentage hydrogen). Previously benefits of hydrogen addition to a Lean Burn natural-gas fueled engine was investigated [1] however a complete study for stoichiometric operation was not performed. This paper presents measurements made on a heavy duty 6-cylinder natural gas engine.
Technical Paper

Fuel Octane Effects in the Partially Premixed Combustion Regime in Compression Ignition Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2648
Previous work has showed that it may be advantageous to use fuels of lower cetane numbers compared to today's diesel fuels in compression ignition engines. The benefits come from the longer ignition delays that these fuels have. There is more time available for the fuel and air to mix before combustion starts which is favourable for achieving low emissions of NOx and smoke though premixing usually leads to higher emissions of CO and unburned hydrocarbons. In the present work, operation of a single-cylinder light-duty compression ignition engine on four different fuels of different octane numbers, in the gasoline boiling range, is compared to running on a diesel fuel. The gasoline fuels have research octane numbers (RON) of 91, 84, 78, and 72. These are compared at a low load/low speed condition (4 bar IMEP / 1200 rpm) in SOI sweeps as well as at a higher load and speeds (10 bar IMEP / 2000 and 3000 rpm) in EGR sweeps.
Journal Article

Effects of Different Type of Gasoline Fuels on Heavy Duty Partially Premixed Combustion

2009-11-02
2009-01-2668
The effects of fuel properties on the performance and emissions of an engine running in partially premixed combustion mode were investigated using nine test fuels developed in the gasoline boiling point range. The fuels covered a broad range of ignition quality and fuel chemistry. The fuels were characterized by performing a load sweep between 1 and 12 bar gross IMEP at 1000 and 1300 rpm. A heavy duty single cylinder engine from Scania was used for the experiments; the piston was not modified thus resulting in the standard compression ratio of 18:1. In order to properly run gasoline type of fuels in partially premixed combustion mode, an advanced combustion concept was developed. The concept involved using a lot of EGR, very high boost and an advanced injection strategy previously developed by the authors. By applying this concept all the fuels showed gross indicated efficiencies higher than 50% with a peak of 57% at 8 bar IMEP.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Operating Range of Partially Premixed Combustion in a Multi Cylinder Heavy Duty Engine with Extensive EGR

2009-04-20
2009-01-1127
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept by which it is possible to get low smoke and NOx emissions simultaneously. PPC requires high EGR levels and injection timings sufficiently early or late to extend the ignition delay so that air and fuel mix extensively prior to combustion. This paper investigates the operating region of single injection diesel PPC in a multi cylinder heavy duty engine resembling a standard build production engine. Limits in emissions and fuel consumption are defined and the highest load that fulfills these requirements is determined. Experiments are carried out at different engine speeds and a comparison of open and closed loop combustion control are made as well as evaluation of an extended EGR-cooling system designed to reduce the EGR temperature. In this study the PPC operating range proved to be limited.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Pneumatic Hybrid Powertrain with VVT in GT-Power and Comparison with Experimental Data

2009-04-20
2009-01-1323
In the study presented in this paper, experimental data from a pneumatic hybrid has been compared to the results from a simulation of the engine in GT-Power. The engine in question is a single-cylinder Scania D12 diesel engine, which has been converted to work as a pneumatic hybrid. The base engine model, provided by Scania, is made in GT-Power and it is based on the same engine configuration as the one used during real engine testing. During pneumatic hybrid operation the engine can be used as a 2-stroke compressor for generation of compressed air during vehicle deceleration and during vehicle acceleration the engine can be operated as a 2-stroke air-motor driven by the previously stored pressurized air. There is also a possibility to use the stored pressurized air in order to supercharge the engine when there is a need for high torque, like for instance at take off after a standstill or during an overtake maneuver.
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Combustion Control Using Ion-current Signals in a 6-Cylinder Port-Injected Natural-gas Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2453
High EGR rates combined with turbocharging has been identified as a promising way to increase the maximum load and efficiency of heavy duty spark ignition engines. With stoichiometric conditions a three way catalyst can be used which means that regulated emissions can be kept at very low levels. Obtaining reliable spark ignition is difficult however with high pressure and dilution. There will be a limit to the amount of EGR that can be tolerated for each operating point. Open loop operation based on steady state maps is difficult since there is substantial dynamics both from the turbocharger and from the wall heat interaction. The proposed approach applies standard closed loop lambda control for controlling the overall air/fuel ratio. Furthermore, ion-current based dilution limit control is applied on the EGR in order to maximize EGR rate as long as combustion stability is preserved.
Technical Paper

Study of Fuel Stratification on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) Combustion with Ethanol Using High Speed Fuel PLIF

2008-10-06
2008-01-2401
An engine can be run in Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode by applying a negative valve overlap, thus trapping hot residuals so as to achieve an auto-ignition temperature. By employing spark assistance, the engine can be operated in what is here called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) with ethanol as fuel. The influence of fuel stratification by means of port fuel injection as well as in combination with direct injection was investigated. A high-speed multi-YAG laser system and a framing camera were utilized to capture planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of the fuel distribution. The charge homogeneity in terms of fuel distribution was evaluated using a homogeneity index calculated from the PLIF images. The homogeneity index showed a higher stratification for increased proportions of direct-injected fuel. It was found that charge stratification could be achieved through port fuel injection in a swirling combustion system.
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