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Technical Paper

Prediction of Liquid and Vapor Penetration of High Pressure Diesel Sprays

2006-04-03
2006-01-0242
A dense-particle Eulerian-Lagrangian stochastic methodology, able to resolve the dense spray formed at the nozzle exit has been applied to the simulation of evaporating diesel sprays. Local grid refinement at the area where the spray evolves allows use of cells having sizes from 0.6 down to 0.075mm. Mass, momentum and energy source terms between the two phases are spatially distributed to cells found within a distance from the droplet centre; this has allowed for grid-independent interaction between the Eulerian and the Lagrangian phases to be reached. Additionally, various models simulating the physical processes taking place during the development of sprays are considered. The cavitating nozzle flow is used to estimate the injection velocity of the liquid while its effect on the spray formation is considered through an atomisation model predicting the initial droplet size.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Predictive Capability of Diesel Nozzle Cavitation Models

2007-04-16
2007-01-0245
The predictive capability of Lagrangian and Eulerian multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models accounting for the onset and development of cavitation inside Diesel nozzle holes is assessed against experimental data. These include cavitation images available from a real-size six-hole mini-sac nozzle incorporating a transparent window as well as high-speed/CCD images and LDV measurements of the liquid velocity inside an identical large-scale fully transparent nozzle replica. Results are available for different cavitation numbers, which correspond to different cavitation regimes forming inside the injection hole. Discharge coefficient measurements for various real-size nozzles operating under realistic injection pressures are also compared and match well with models' predictions.
Technical Paper

Internal Flow and Spray Characteristics of Pintle-Type Outwards Opening Piezo Injectors for Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1406
The near nozzle exit flow and spray structure generated by an enlarged model of a second generation pintle type outwards opening injector have been investigated under steady flow conditions as a function of flow-rate and needle lift. A high resolution CCD camera and high-speed video camera have been employed in this study to obtain high-magnification images of the internal nozzle exit flow in order to identify the origin of string ligaments/droplets formation at the nozzle exit. The images of the flow around the nozzle seat area showed clearly that air was entrained from outside into the nozzle seat area under certain flow operating conditions (low cavitation number, CN); the formed air pockets inside the annular nozzle proved to be the main cause of the breaking of the fuel liquid film into strings as it emerged from the nozzle with a structure consisting of alternating thin and thick liquid filaments.
Technical Paper

Internal Flow and Cavitation in a Multi-Hole Injector for Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1405
A transparent enlarged model of a six-hole injector used in the development of emerging gasoline direct-injection engines was manufactured with full optical access. The working fluid was water circulating through the injector nozzle under steady-state flow conditions at different flow rates, pressures and needle positions. Simultaneous matching of the Reynolds and cavitation numbers has allowed direct comparison between the cavitation regimes present in real-size and enlarged nozzles. The experimental results from the model injector, as part of a research programme into second-generation direct-injection spark-ignition engines, are presented and discussed. The main objective of this investigation was to characterise the cavitation process in the sac volume and nozzle holes under different operating conditions. This has been achieved by visualizing the nozzle cavitation structures in two planes simultaneously using two synchronised high-speed cameras.
Technical Paper

Spray Structure Generated by Multi-Hole Injectors for Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1417
The performance of multi-hole injectors designed for use in second-generation direct-injection gasoline engines has been characterised in a constant-volume chamber. Two types of multi-hole injector have been used: the first has 11 holes, with one hole on the axis of the injector and the rest around the axis at 30 degrees apart, and the second has 6 asymmetric holes located around the nozzle axis. Measurements of droplet axial and radial velocity components and their diameter were obtained using a 2-D phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) at injection pressures up to 120 bar, chamber pressures from atmospheric to 8 bar, and ambient temperatures. Complementary spray visualisation made use of a pulsed light and a CCD camera synchronised with the injection process.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Hole Film Formation and its Link to Spray Characteristics in Swirl-Pressure Atomizers for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-1136
The numerical methodology used to predict the flow inside pressure-swirl atomizers used with gasoline direct injection engines and the subsequent spray development is presented. Validation of the two-phase CFD models used takes place against film thickness measurements obtained from high resolution CCD-based images taken inside the discharge hole of a pressure swirl atomizer modified to incorporate a transparent hole extension. The transient evolution of the film thickness and its mean axial and swirl velocity components as it emerges from the nozzle hole is then used as input to a spray CFD model predicting the development of both non-evaporating and evaporating sprays under a variety of back pressure and temperature conditions. Model predictions are compared with phase Doppler anemometry measurements of the temporal and spatial variation of the droplet size and velocity as well as CCD spray images.
Technical Paper

Effect of Multi-Injection Strategy on Cavitation Development in Diesel Injector Nozzle Holes

2005-04-11
2005-01-1237
The effect of multiple-injection strategy on nozzle hole cavitation has been investigated both experimentally and numerically. A common-rail Diesel injection system, used by Toyota in passenger car engines, has been employed together with a double-shutter CCD camera in order to visualise cavitation inside a submerged and optically accessible (in one out of the six holes) real-size VCO nozzle. Initially the cavitation development was investigated in single injection events followed by flow images obtained during multiple injections consisting of a pilot and a main injection pulse. In order to identify the effect of pilot injection on cavitation development during the main injection, the dwell time between the injection events was varied between 1.5-5ms for different pilot injection quantities. The extensive test matrix included injection pressures of 400 and 800bar and back pressures ranging from 2.4 up to 41bar.
Technical Paper

Cavitation Initiation, Its Development and Link with Flow Turbulence in Diesel Injector Nozzles

2002-03-04
2002-01-0214
The initiation and development of cavitation in enlarged transparent acrylic models of six-hole nozzles for direct injection Diesel engines has been visualised by a high-speed digital video camera in a purpose-built refractive index matching test rig. The obtained high temporal resolution images have allowed improved understanding of the origin of the cavitation structures in Diesel injector nozzles and clarification of the effect of sac geometry (conical mini-sac vs. VCO) on cavitation initiation and development in the nozzle holes. The link between cavitation and flow turbulence in the sac volume and, more importantly, in the injection holes has been quantified through measurements of the flow by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) at a number of planes as a function of the Reynolds and cavitation numbers.
Technical Paper

Cavitation in Real-Size Multi-Hole Diesel Injector Nozzles

2000-03-06
2000-01-1249
A production six-hole conical sac-type nozzle incorporating a quartz window in one of the injection holes has been used in order to visualize the flow under cavitating flow conditions. Simultaneous variation of both the injection and the back chamber pressures allowed images to be obtained at various cavitation and Reynolds numbers for two different fixed needle lifts corresponding to the first- and the second-stage lift of two-stage injectors. The flow visualization system was based on a fast and high resolution CCD camera equipped with high magnification lenses which allowed details of the various flow regimes formed inside the injection hole to be identified. From the obtained images both hole cavitation initiated at the top inlet corner of the hole as well as string cavitation formed inside the sac volume and entering into the hole from the bottom corner, were identified to occur at different cavitation and Reynolds numbers.
Technical Paper

Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for DISI Engines: Further Modeling and Experiments

2000-03-06
2000-01-1044
A combined two-phase CFD nozzle model and 1-D fuel injection system model is used to predict the flow development inside the discharge hole of a pressure-swirl atomizer connected to a common-rail based fuel injection system for DISI engines. The fuel injection model accounts for the transient pressure pulses developing inside the common-rail and the injector upstream of the nozzle tip and predicts the fuel injection rate through the nozzle. This is then used as input to a 3-D single-phase CFD model estimating the transient development of the swirl velocity inside the pressure-swirl atomizer, as a function of the geometric characteristics of nozzle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Inlet Parameters on the Flow Characteristics in a Four-Stroke Model Engine

1982-02-01
820750
The flow structure in a four-stroke model engine motored at 200 rpm with a compression ratio of 3.5 has been investigated. Ensemble-averaged axial and swirl mean and rms velocities have been obtained by laser-Doppler anemometry downstream of an axisymmetrically located single valve with 30 and 60 degree seat angles and various lifts, with and without induction swirl. In all cases, the intake-generated flow structure in the axial plane disappears by the time the inlet valve closes and results in nearly homogeneous turbulence during compression with levels of 0.5–0.7 times the mean piston speed. The swirling flow, however, which is induced by means of vanes, persists through the compression stroke, evolving from a spiralling motion early during intake into solid body type of rotation near TDC of compression, with associated swirl ratios increasing with valve lift.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Advanced High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems for Passenger Car Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0910
A one-dimensional, transient and compressible flow model was used in order to simulate the flow and pressure distribution in advanced high-pressure fuel injection systems; these include electronic distributor-type pumps with either axial or radial plungers and a common-rail system. Experimental data for the line pressure, needle lift, injection rate and total fuel injection quantity obtained over a wide range of operating conditions (from idle to high speed/full load) were used to validate the model. The FIE system used for validation comprised an electronic high-pressure pump connected to two-stage injectors of different type including 6-hole vertical and 5-hole inclined conical-sac and VCO nozzles.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Flow Field in Four-Stroke Model Engines

1984-10-01
841360
Ensemble-averaged and in-cycle axial and swirl velocities have been measured by laser Doppler anemometry in the three-dimensional flow field of a four-stroke model engine motored at 200 rpm with a compression ratio of 6.7 and various cylinder head and piston geometries. The inlet configurations comprised an axisymmetric port with a shrouded valve and an off-centre port with two valve and swirl generating vane geometries. The piston configurations comprised flat, cylindrical and re-entrant axisymmetric piston-bowls. The results indicate that with the off-centre port a complex vortical flow pattern is generated during induction, which later either collapses in the absence of induction swirl or is transformed into a single rotating vortex in the transverse plane when swirl is present. The axisymmetric port with the shrouded valve gives rise to a double vortex structure and higher turbulence levels at TDC of compression compared to the off-centre port.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Multi-Hole Diesel Sprays

1990-02-01
900480
The spatial and temporal characteristics of a diesel spray injected into the atmosphere through a multi-hole nozzle used in small DI Diesel engines have been investigated by laser techniques as a function of pump speed and load. The results showed that spray tip penetration and velocity depend on injection frequency rather than injected volume and the spray is asymmetric during the early and main part of the injection period. In the time/space domain different structures have been identified within the injection period, with the early injection period characterized by a well atomized cloud of droplets, the main period by the spray head and a dense core and the late injection period by the disintegrating dense core and the spray tail. IN DIRECT-INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES for passenger cars, fuel is injected through multi-hole nozzles at high pressure to promote mixing with the rapidly swirling air inside the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Consecutive Fuel Injection Rate Signals Obtained by the Zeuch and Bosch Methods

1993-03-01
930921
The injection rate signals from a commercial diesel fuel injection system, based on a distributor pump driven by a DC motor, were characterised independently and consecutively by two injection rate meters based on the Zeuch and Bosch methods. The signals were first analysed in terms of their shot-to-shot variations over 64 consecutive injections and the correlations between needle lift and injection rate over a range of pump speeds and loads quantified by Fast Fourier Transform. A direct comparison of the injection rate signals on a cycle-resolved basis was achieved by connecting two consecutive injectors from the pump-line-nozzle injection system to a Bosch- and a Zeuch-based injection rate meters. The signals were acquired over a large number of injections in terms of mean and rms of the injected quantity, mean injection rate, maximum injection rate, average cumulative fuel injected and average injection duration.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Single- and Two-Spring Diesel Fuel Injectors

1993-03-01
930922
The spatial and temporal characteristics of the non-evaporating diesel sprays injected into the atmosphere through two pump-pipe-nozzle systems used in small DI diesel engines have been investigated by laser-single-beam deflection and phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA). The injectors used for these tests comprised a single-spring and a prototype two-spring multihole-type nozzle. The results provided quantitative information about the effect that the second spring exerts on injection duration and spray characteristics, i.e. it increases injection duration and, at the same time, improves fuel atomisation during the main injection period.
Technical Paper

Swirl Generation by Helical Ports

1989-02-01
890790
The effect of inlet port design on swirl generation has been investigated for four helical ports from production, prototype and research Dl diesel engines by analyzing experimentally measured steady flow velocity distributions at the inlet valve curtain area and comparing their swirl characteristics in terms of the calculated in-cylinder angular momentum components and swirl ratio under operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Single-Hole Diesel Sprays

1989-02-01
890314
Diesel fuel was injected through a pintle nozzle into quiescent ambient air and the transient characteristics of the spray were examined as a function of injection pump speed. The laser-based techniques characterised the spray in terms of its transient structure, tip penetration, droplet axial mean and rms velocities and average droplet size. The results, when correlated with the fuel line pressure and nozzle exit conditions, revealed the presence of four regimes in the transient spray development: an early injection period representing the first stage of droplet formation, the main injection period associated with the formation and break up of a dense core and representing the second stage of droplet formation, a late injection period corresponding to the collapse of the dense core and a post injection period where, depending on the injection conditions, liquid ligaments and/or large droplets are present near the nozzle and may give rise to a third stage of droplet formation.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Fuel Injection Systems for DI Diesel Engines

1992-10-01
922223
The continuity and momentum equations for a pump-pipe-nozzle fuel injection system have been solved by a computer simulation program employing both the Runge-Kutta method and the more widely used method of characteristics. This allows the prediction of fluid phenomena and the dynamics of the mechanical components based on the geometry of the FIE system. The simulation includes the effects of possible cavitation, system leakage as well as variations in fuel density and bulk modulus. The computer model has been made as flexible as possible by using a modular format and inputting the system parameters from external files or dialog boxes. Experimentation was done on a Bosch VE type distributor pump supplying a multi-hole type nozzle which allowed preliminary evaluation of the model by comparing the predicted and measured injection rates and line pressures over a range of pump speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for GDI Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0500
A new simulation approach to the modeling of the whole fuel injection process within a common-rail fuel injection system for direct-injection gasoline engines, including the pressure-swirl atomizer and the conical hollow-cone spray formed at the nozzle exit, is presented. The flow development in the common-rail fuel injection system is simulated using an 1-D model which accounts for the wave dynamics within the system and predicts the actual injection pressure and injection rate throughout the nozzle. The details of the flow inside its various flow passages and the discharge hole of the pressure-swirl atomizer are investigated using a two-phase CFD model which calculates the location of the liquid-gas interface using the VOF method and estimates the transient formation of the liquid film developing on the walls of the discharge hole due to the centrifugal forces acting on the swirling fluid.
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