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Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

2005-09-11
2005-24-093
Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.
Technical Paper

Determination of Diesel Spray Axial Velocity Using X-Ray Radiography

2007-04-16
2007-01-0666
Present knowledge of the velocity of the fuel in diesel sprays is quite limited due to the obscuring effects of fuel droplets, particularly in the high-density core of the spray. In recent years, x-ray radiography, which is capable of penetrating dense fuel sprays, has demonstrated the ability to probe the structure of the core of the spray, even in the dense near-nozzle region. In this paper, x-ray radiography data was used to determine the average axial velocity in diesel sprays as a function of position and time. Here, we report the method used to determine the axial velocity and its application to three common-rail diesel sprays at 250 bar injection pressure. The data show that the spray velocity does not reach its steady state value near the nozzle until approximately 200 μs after the start of injection. Moreover, the spray axial velocity decreases as one moves away from the spray orifice, suggesting transfer of axial momentum to the surrounding ambient gas.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Absorption Measurements of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry

2004-06-08
2004-01-2011
In order to analyze the effects of nozzle geometry on the structure of fuel sprays, quantitative x-ray measurements have been performed on sprays from nozzles with different degrees of hydro-grinding. The two nozzles were measured at injection pressures of 500 and 1000 bar in an ambient environment of 1 bar nitrogen gas. Time-resolved x-radiography was used to measure the two-dimensional mass distributions of the spray as a function of time for the entire spray event. The initial mass flow through the nozzles was determined from the x-ray data, the nozzles showed no appreciable differences in the early part of the injection event. The transverse mass distributions were fit with Gaussian curves, and the assumption of axisymmetry was used to calculate the volume fraction of each spray. It was observed that the nozzle which had undergone extensive hydro-grinding generated a more dense spray than the sharp-edged nozzle at an injection pressure of 1000 bar.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ambient Pressure on Dynamics of Near-Nozzle Diesel Sprays Studied by Ultrafast X-Radiography

2004-06-08
2004-01-2026
A time-resolved x-radiographic technique has been employed for measuring the fuel distribution close to a single-hole nozzle fitted in a high-pressure diesel injector. Using a monochromatic synchrotron x-ray beam, it is possible to perform quantitative x-ray absorption measurements and obtain two-dimensional projections of the mass of the fuel spray. We have completed a series of spray measurements in the optically dense, near-nozzle region (< 15 mm from the nozzle orifice) under ambient pressures of 1, 2, and 5.2 bar N2 and 1 bar SF6 at room temperature with injection pressures of 500 and 1000 bar. The focus of the measurements is on the dynamical behaviors of the fuel jets with an emphasis on their penetration in the near-nozzle region. Careful analysis of the time-resolved x-radiographic data revealed that the spray penetration in this near nozzle region was not significantly affected by the limited change of the ambient pressure.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved and Quantitative Characterization of Highly Transient Gasoline Sprays by X-Radiography

2002-06-03
2002-01-1893
Using synchrotron x-radiography and mass deconvolution techniques, this work reveals strikingly interesting structural and dynamic characteristics of the direct injection (DI) gasoline hollow-cone sprays in the near-nozzle region. Employed to measure the sprays, x-radiography allows quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 μs, revealing the most detailed near-nozzle mass distribution of a DI gasoline fuel spray ever detected. Based on the x-radiographs of the spray collected from four different perspectives, enhanced mathematical and numerical analyses were developed to deconvolute the mass density of the gasoline hollow-cone spray. This leads to efficient and accurate regression curve fitting of the measured experimental data to obtain essential parameters of the density distribution that are then used in reconstructing the cross-sectional density distribution at various times and locations.
Technical Paper

Shock Waves Generated by High-Pressure Fuel Sprays Directly Imaged by X-Radiography

2002-06-03
2002-01-1892
Synchrotron x-radiography and a novel fast x-ray detector are used to visualize the detailed, time-resolved structure of the fluid jets generated by a high pressure diesel-fuel injection. An understanding of the structure of the high-pressure spray is important in optimizing the injection process to increase fuel efficiency and reduce pollutants. It is shown that x-radiography can provide a quantitative measure of the mass distribution of the fuel. Such analysis has been impossible with optical imaging due to the multiple-scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. In addition, direct visualization of the jet-induced shock wave proves that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions. The radiographic images also allow quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock wave.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel Sprays in Near-Nozzle Region Using Synchrotron X-Ray

2001-03-05
2001-01-1293
A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
Journal Article

Time-resolved X-ray Tomography of Gasoline Direct Injection Sprays

2015-09-01
2015-01-1873
Quantitative measurements of direct injection fuel spray density and mixing are difficult to achieve using optical diagnostics, due to the substantial scattering of light and high optical density of the droplet field. For multi-hole sprays, the problem is even more challenging, as it is difficult to isolate a single spray plume along a single line of sight. Time resolved x-ray radiography diagnostics developed at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source have been used for some time to study diesel fuel sprays, as x-rays have high penetrating power in sprays and scatter only weakly. Traditionally, radiography measurements have been conducted along any single line of sight, and have been applied to single-hole and group-hole nozzles with few plumes. In this new work, we extend the technique to multi-hole gasoline direct injection sprays.
Technical Paper

An Examination of Spray Stochastics in Single-Hole Diesel Injectors

2015-09-01
2015-01-1834
Recent advances in x-ray spray diagnostics at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source have made absorption measurements of individual spray events possible. A focused x-ray beam (5×6 μm) enables collection of data along a single line of sight in the flow field and these measurements have allowed the calculation of quantitative, shot-to-shot statistics for the projected mass of fuel sprays. Raster scanning though the spray generates a two-dimensional field of data, which is a path integrated representation of a three-dimensional flow. In a previous work, we investigated the shot-to-shot variation over 32 events by visualizing the ensemble standard deviations throughout a two dimensional mapping of the spray. In the current work, provide further analysis of the time to steady-state and steady-state spatial location of the fluctuating field via the transverse integrated fluctuations (TIF).
Journal Article

Evaluation of Shot-to-Shot In-Nozzle Flow Variations in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Injector Using Real Nozzle Geometry

2018-04-03
2018-01-0303
Cyclic variability in internal combustion engines (ICEs) arises from multiple concurrent sources, many of which remain to be fully understood and controlled. This variability can, in turn, affect the behavior of the engine resulting in undesirable deviations from the expected operating conditions and performance. Shot-to-shot variation during the fuel injection process is strongly suspected of being a source of cyclic variability. This study focuses on the shot-to-shot variability of injector needle motion and its influence on the internal nozzle flow behavior using diesel fuel. High-speed x-ray imaging techniques have been used to extract high-resolution injector geometry images of the sac, orifices, and needle tip that allowed the true dynamics of the needle motion to emerge. These measurements showed high repeatability in the needle lift profile across multiple injection events, while the needle radial displacement was characterized by a much higher degree of randomness.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Spray Numerical Injection Modeling for Gasoline Applications

2020-04-14
2020-01-0330
The modeling of fuel jet atomization is key in the characterization of Internal Combustion (IC) engines, and 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a recognized tool to provide insights for design and control purposes. Multi-hole injectors with counter-bored nozzle are the standard for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) applications and the Spray-G injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is considered the reference for numerical studies, thanks to the availability of extensive experimental data. In this work, the behavior of the Spray-G injector is simulated in a constant volume chamber, ranging from sub-cooled (nominal G) to flashing conditions (G2), validating the models on Diffused Back Illumination and Phase Doppler Anemometry data collected in vaporizing inert conditions.
Technical Paper

Durability Study of a Light-Duty High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using E10 Gasoline

2020-04-14
2020-01-0616
A 500-hour test cycle has been used to evaluate the durability of a prototype high pressure common rail injection system operating up to 1800 bar with E10 gasoline. Some aspects of the original diesel based hardware design were optimized in order to accommodate an opposed-piston, two-stroke engine application and also to mitigate the impacts of exposure to gasoline. Overall system performance was maintained throughout testing as fueling rate and rail pressure targets were continuously achieved and no physical damage was observed in the low-pressure components. Injectors showed no deviation in their flow characteristics after exposure to gasoline and high resolution imaging of the nozzle spray holes and pilot valve assemblies did not indicate the presence of cavitation damage. The high pressure pump did not exhibit any performance degradation during gasoline testing and teardown analysis after 500 hours showed no evidence of cavitation erosion.
Technical Paper

Transient Internal Nozzle Flow in Transparent Multi-Hole Diesel Injector

2020-04-14
2020-01-0830
An accurate prediction of internal nozzle flow in fuel injector offers the potential to improve predictions of spray computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in an engine, providing a coupled internal-external calculation or by defining better rate of injection (ROI) profile and spray angle information for Lagrangian parcel computations. Previous research has addressed experiments and computations in transparent nozzles, but less is known about realistic multi-hole diesel injectors compared to single axial-hole fuel injectors. In this study, the transient injector opening and closing is characterized using a transparent multi-hole diesel injector, and compared to that of a single axial hole nozzle (ECN Spray D shape). A real-size five-hole acrylic transparent nozzle was mounted in a high-pressure, constant-flow chamber. Internal nozzle phenomena such as cavitation and gas exchange were visualized by high-speed long-distance microscopy.
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