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Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the National Advanced Driving Simulator of a 1997 Jeep Cherokee

1999-03-01
1999-01-0121
This paper discusses the development of the 1997 Jeep Cherokee model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's planned vehicle dynamics software, NADSdyna. Recursive rigid body formalism called the Real Time Recursive Dynamics (RTRD) developed by the University of Iowa is used to model the front and rear suspension mechanisms. To complement vehicle dynamics for simulator applications, subsystems that include tires, aerodynamics, powertrain, brake, and steering are added to the rigid body dynamics model. These models provide high fidelity driving realism to simulate severe handling maneuvers in real time. The soundness of the model does not only depend on the mathematics of the model, but also on the validity of the parameters. Therefore, this paper discusses thoroughly the methodology of parameters estimation. A generic model of cruise control is included.
Technical Paper

Consumer Braking Performance Information Initiative

1999-03-01
1999-01-1291
A test procedure that rates brake performance must control variability so that measured differences between vehicles are real. Tests were conducted using standard brake test procedures with three drivers in three cars on wet and dry asphalt with the ABS working and disabled. The differences between vehicles were greater than differences due to ABS condition, surface condition, and drivers. The procedure measured differences between all the vehicles with statistical certainty but used many replications and drivers. If only large differences in performance need to be distinguished, fewer replications and drivers will be needed.
Technical Paper

Measured Vehicle Inertial Parameters-NHTSA’s Data Through November 1998

1999-03-01
1999-01-1336
This paper is primarily a printed listing of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) Light Vehicle Inertial Parameter Database. This database contains measured vehicle inertial parameters from SAE Paper 930897, “Measured Vehicle Inertial Parameters -NHTSA’s Data Through September 1992” (1), as well as parameters obtained by NHTSA since 1992. The proceeding paper contained 414 entries. This paper contains 82 new entries, for a total of 496. The majority of the entries contain complete vehicle inertial parameters, some of the entries contain tilt table results only, and some entries contain both inertia and tilt table results. This paper provides a brief discussion of the accuracy of inertial measurements. Also included are selected graphs of quantities listed in the database for some of the 1998 model year vehicles tested.
Technical Paper

Suspension Parameter Measurement Using Side-Pull Test To Enhance Modeling of Vehicle Roll

1999-03-01
1999-01-1323
This paper describes a new laboratory test facility for measuring suspension parameters that affect rollover. The Side-Pull mechanism rolls the test vehicle through a cable attached rigidly at its center of gravity (CG). Changes in wheel camber and wheel steer angles are measured as a function of body roll angle. The roll test simulates a steady-state cornering. Thus, both compliance and kinematic forces are fed simultaneously to the vehicle as they would be applied in a real cornering situation. The lateral load transfer, and roll angle as a function of simulated lateral acceleration is determined. The Side-Pull Roll Measurement has advantages over the conventional roll tests where the rolling force couple is applied vertically. The Side-Pull mechanism rolls the vehicle in a unrestricted way with horizontal forces applied at the tire / pad contact and the CG location. Thus, the measurements take into account coupling of compliance with roll.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Characterization Through Pole Impact Testing, Part I: Vehicle Response in Terms of Acceleration Pulses

2004-03-08
2004-01-1210
The shape of an acceleration pulse in an impact is not only affected by the change in velocity, but also by the geometry and stiffness of the both the striking vehicle and the struck object. In this paper, the frontal crash performance of a full-size pickup is studied through a series of impact tests with a rigid pole and with a flat barrier. Each rigid pole test is conducted at one of four locations across the front of the vehicle and at impact speeds of 10 mph, 20 mph, or 30 mph. The flat barrier tests are conducted at 10 mph, 15 mph, 20 mph, and 30 mph. The vehicle crush and acceleration pulses resulting from the pole tests are compared to those resulting from the barrier tests. The severity of pole impacts and the severity of flat barrier impacts are compared based on peak accelerations and pulse durations of the occupant compartment.
Technical Paper

Pole Impact Speeds Derived from Bilinear Estimations of Maximum Crush for Body-On-Frame Constructed Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-1615
Accident reconstructionists use several different approaches to determine vehicle equivalent impact speed from damage due to narrow object impacts. One method that is used relates maximum crush to equivalent impact speed with a bilinear curve. In the past, this model has been applied to several passenger cars with unibody construction. In this paper, the approach is applied to a body-on-frame vehicle. Several vehicle-to-rigid pole impact tests have been conducted on a full-size pickup at different speeds and impact locations: centrally located across the vehicle's front and outside the frame rail. A bilinear model relating vehicle equivalent impact speed to maximum crush is developed for the impact locations. These results are then compared to results obtained from other body-on-frame vehicles as well as unibody vehicles. Other tests such as impacts on the frame rail and barrier impacts are also presented. Limitations to this bilinear approach are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Study of Jackknife Stability of Class VIII Vehicles with Multiple Trailers with ABS Disc/Drum Brakes

2004-03-08
2004-01-1741
This study investigated the jackknife stability of Class VIII double tractor-trailer combination vehicles that had mixed braking configurations between the tractor and trailers and dolly (e.g. ECBS disc brakes on the tractor and pneumatic drum brakes on the trailers and dolly). Brake-in-turn maneuvers were performed with varying vehicle loads and surface conditions. Conditions with ABS ON for the entire vehicle (and select-high control algorithm on the trailers and dolly) found that instabilities (i.e. lane excursions and/or jackknifes) were exhibited under conditions when the surface friction coefficient was 0.3. It was demonstrated that these instabilities could be avoided while utilizing a select-low control algorithm on the trailers and dolly. Simulation results with the ABS OFF for the tractor showed that a tractor equipped with disc brakes had greater jackknife stability.
Technical Paper

Empirical Models for Commercial Vehicle Brake Torque from Experimental Data

2003-03-03
2003-01-1325
This paper introduces a new series of empirical mathematical models developed to characterize brake torque generation of pneumatically actuated Class-8 vehicle brakes. The brake torque models, presented as functions of brake chamber pressure and application speed, accurately simulate steer axle, drive axle, and trailer tandem brakes, as well as air disc brakes (ADB). The contemporary data that support this research were collected using an industry standard inertia-type brake dynamometer, routinely used for verification of FMVSS 121 commercial vehicle brake standards.
Technical Paper

New Model for Simulating the Dynamics of Pneumatic Heavy Truck Brakes with Integrated Anti-Lock Control

2003-03-03
2003-01-1322
This paper introduces a new nonlinear model for simulating the dynamics of pneumatic-over-mechanical commercial vehicle braking systems. The model employs an effective systems approach to accurately reproduce forcing functions experienced at the hubs of heavy commercial vehicles under braking. The model, which includes an on-off type ABS controller, was developed to accurately simulate the steer, drive, and trailer axle drum (or disc) brakes on modern heavy commercial vehicles. This model includes parameters for the pneumatic brake control and operating systems, a 4s/4m (four sensor, four modulator) ABS controller for the tractor, and a 2s/2m ABS controller for the trailer. The dynamics of the pneumatic control (treadle system) are also modeled. Finally, simulation results are compared to experimental data for a variety of conditions.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Vehicle Dynamics Model Using Genetic Algorithm and Estimation Theory

2003-03-03
2003-01-1281
A determination of the vehicle states and tire forces is critical to the stability of vehicle dynamic behavior and to designing automotive control systems. Researchers have studied estimation methods for the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. However, the accuracy of the estimation methods is closely related to the employed model. In this paper, tire lag dynamics is introduced in the model. Also application of estimation methods in order to improve the model accuracy is presented. The model is developed by using the global searching algorithm, a Genetic Algorithm, so that the model can be used in the nonlinear range. The extended Kalman filter and sliding mode observer theory are applied to estimate the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. The obtained results are compared with measurements and the outputs from the ADAMS full vehicle model. [15]
Technical Paper

Modeling, Simulation and Design Space Exploration of a MTV 5.0 Ton Cargo Truck in MSC-ADAMS

2005-04-11
2005-01-0938
This paper presents the results of a design space exploration based on the simulations of the MTV (Medium Tactical Vehicle) 5.0 Ton Cargo Truck using MSC-ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical System). Design space study is conducted using ADAMS/Car and ADAMS/Insight to consider parametric design changes in suspension and the tires of the cargo truck. The methodology uses an industry acknowledged multibody dynamics simulation software (ADAMS) for the modeling of the cargo truck and a flexible optimization architecture to explore the design space. This research is a part of the work done for the U.S. Army TACOM (Tank Automotive and Armaments Command) at the Center for Automotive Research, The Ohio State University.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Heavy Truck ABS Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0413
This paper discusses the improvement of a heavy truck anti-lock brake system (ABS) model currently used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in conjunction with multibody vehicle dynamics software. Accurate modeling of this complex system is paramount in predicting real-world dynamics, and significant improvements in model accuracy are now possible due to recent access to ABS system data during on-track experimental testing. This paper focuses on improving an existing ABS model to accurately simulate braking under limit braking maneuvers on high and low-coefficient surfaces. To accomplish this, an ABS controller model with slip ratio and wheel acceleration thresholds was developed to handle these scenarios. The model was verified through testing of a Class VIII 6×4 straight truck. The Simulink brake system and ABS model both run simultaneously with TruckSim, with the initialization and results being acquired through Matlab.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computer Controlled Automated Steering Controller

2005-04-11
2005-01-0394
This paper describes the design and development of the hardware, electronics, and software components of a state-of-the-art automated steering controller, the SEA, Ltd. ASC. The function of the ASC is to input to a vehicle virtually any steering profile with both high accuracy and repeatability. The ASC is designed to input profiles having steering rates and timing that are in excess of the limits of a human driver. The ASC software allows the user to specify steering profiles and select controller settings, including motor controller gains, through user-interface windows. This makes it possible for the test driver to change steering profiles and settings immediately after running any test maneuver. The motor controller used in the ASC offers self-contained signal input, output, and data storage capabilities. Thus, the ASC can operate as a standalone steering machine or it can be incorporated into typical existing, on-vehicle data acquisition systems.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Fishhook Maneuver Performance of a Kinetic Suspension System

2005-04-11
2005-01-0392
Kinetic Pty Ltd and Tenneco Automotive have developed a passive suspension system called a Kinetic system. The motivation for the design of the system is discussed, and the function of the system is explained. The system improves handling, stability, and ride by passively decoupling roll stiffness from articulation stiffness and roll damping from bounce damping. Improved stability is evaluated by conducting NHTSA's Roll Rate Feedback Fishhook tests on a small SUV equipped with the Kinetic system. Results of the testing are presented, and benefits to rollover are discussed.
Technical Paper

Integration of an Adaptive Control Strategy on an Automated Steering Controller

2005-04-11
2005-01-0393
This paper describes an adaptive control strategy for improving the steering response of an automated vehicle steering controller. In order to achieve repeatable dynamic test results, precise steering inputs are necessary. This strategy provides the controller tuning parameters optimized for a particular vehicle's steering system. Having the capability to adaptively tune the steering controller for any vehicle installation provides an easy method for obtaining precise steering inputs for a wide range of vehicles, from small off-road utility vehicles to passenger vehicles to heavy trucks. The S.E.A. Ltd. Automated Steering Controller (ASC) is used exclusively in conducting this research. By recording the torque input to the steering system by the steering controller and the resulting steering angle during only a single test, the ASC is able to characterize the steering system of the test vehicle and create a computer model with appropriate parameters.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Characterization Through Pole Impact Testing, Part II: Analysis of Center and Offset Center Impacts

2005-04-11
2005-01-1186
The severity of an impact in terms of the acceleration in the occupant compartment is dependent not only on the change in vehicle velocity, but also the time for the change in velocity to occur. These depend on the geometry and stiffness of both the striking vehicle and struck object. In narrow-object frontal impacts, impact location can affect the shape and duration of the acceleration pulse that reaches the occupant compartment. In this paper, the frontal impact response of a full-sized pickup to 10 mile per hour and 20 mile per hour pole impacts at the centerline and at a location nearer the frame rails is compared using the acceleration pulse shape, the average acceleration in the occupant compartment, and the residual crush. A bilinear curve relating impact speed to residual crush is developed.
Technical Paper

Application of Force Balance Method in Accident Reconstruction

2005-04-11
2005-01-1188
In the field of accident reconstruction, there has been a significant amount of effort devoted to the calculation and derivation of vehicle crush energy and vehicle stiffness. Crush energy is usually calculated with a crush profile and crush stiffness. But, oftentimes, crush profiles and/or crush stiffnesses are not available and accident constructionists face the situation of insufficient information. In some such cases, the force balance method can be used to reduce the uncertainty. The method follows from Newton's Third Law, i.e., the impact force exerted on one vehicle is balanced by the force exerted on the other vehicle. With the help of this method, crush profile or crush stiffness can be derived. As a result, the crush energy can then be calculated with improved accuracy. This ultimately increases the accuracy of the overall accident reconstruction. In this paper, examples will be given to illustrate the use of such a methodology.
Technical Paper

Delta-V, Barrier Equivalent Velocity and Acceleration Pulse of a Vehicle During an Impact

2005-04-11
2005-01-1187
Delta-V and Barrier Equivalent Velocity (BEV) are terms that have been used for many years to describe aspects of what happened to a vehicle when an impact occurred. That is, they are used to describe some physical change in the vehicle state before the impact as compared to after the impact. Specifically, the Delta-V describes the change in the vehicle velocity vector from just before the impact until just after the impact. The BEV attempts to quantify the energy required to cause the damage associated with an impact. In order to understand what happens to a vehicle and its occupants during an impact, it is necessary to examine the acceleration pulse undergone by the vehicle during the impact. The acceleration pulse describes, in detail, how the Delta-V occurs as a function of time, and is related with the deformation of the vehicle as well as the object contacted by the vehicle during an impact.
Technical Paper

Application of the Extended Kalman Filter to a Planar Vehicle Model to Predict the Onset of Jackknife Instability

2004-03-08
2004-01-1785
The widely used Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to a planar model of an articulated vehicle to predict jackknifing events. The states of hitch angle and hitch angle rate are estimated using a vehicle model and the available or “measured” states of lateral acceleration and yaw rate from the prime mover. Tuning, performance, and compromises for the EKF in this application are discussed. This application of the EKF is effective in predicting the onset of instability for an articulated vehicle under low-μ and low-load conditions. These conditions have been shown to be most likely to render heavy articulated vehicles vulnerable to jackknife instability. Options for model refinements are also presented.
Technical Paper

Derivation and Validation of New Analytical Planar Models for Simulating Multi-Axle Articulated Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-1784
This paper discusses the derivation and validation of planar models of articulated vehicles that were developed to analyze jackknife stability on low-μ surfaces. The equations of motion are rigorously derived using Lagrange's method, then linearized for use in state-space models. The models are verified using TruckSim™, a popular nonlinear solid body vehicle dynamics modeling package. The TruckSim™ models were previously verified using extensive on-vehicle experimental data [1, 2]. A three-axle articulated model is expanded to contain five axles to avoid lumping the parameters for the drive and semitrailer tandems. Compromises inherent in using the linearized models are discussed and evaluated. Finally, a nonlinear tire cornering force model is coupled with the 5-axle model, and its ability to simulate a jackknife event is demonstrated. The model is shown to be valid over a wide range of inputs, up to and including loss of control, on low-and-medium-μ surfaces.
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