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Technical Paper

IMEP-Estimation and In-Cylinder Pressure Reconstruction for Multicylinder SI-Engine by Combined Processing of Engine Speed and One Cylinder Pressure

In order to optimize the performance and emission of engines, advanced control and diagnostic systems require detailed feedback information about the combustion process. In this context, cost-effective solutions are of interest. The contribution describes a method for reconstructing cylinder-individual features of each combustion cycle by processing the instantaneous fluctuations of the engine speed and the in-cylinder pressure of one cylinder. Model-based torque estimation, analyzing both of the signals simultaneously, provides an accurate estimation of the mean indicated pressure. Using this method, a new algorithm for advanced misfire detection is presented. Furthermore, a new pressure model with a feasible number of parameters is proposed. It is combined with the torque estimation in order to reconstruct the unknown pressure traces of the cylinders not equipped with sensors.
Technical Paper

OSEKtime: A Dependable Real-Time Fault-Tolerant Operating System and Communication Layer as an Enabling Technology for By-Wire Applications

The new generation of drive-by-wire systems currently under development has demanding requirements on the electronic architecture. Functions such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire require continued operation even in the presence of component failures. The electronic architecture must therefore provide fault-tolerance and real-time response. This in turn requires the operating system and the communication layer to be predictable, dependable and composable. It is well known that this properties are best supported by a time-triggered approach. A consortium consisting of German and French car manufacturers and suppliers, which aims at becoming a working group within the OSEK/VDX initiative, the OSEKtime consortium, is currently defining a specification for a time-triggered operating system and a fault-tolerant communication layer.1 The operating system and the communication layer are based on applicable interfaces of the OSEK/VDX standard.
Technical Paper

The X-By-Wire Concept: Time-Triggered Information Exchange and Fail Silence Support by New System Services

This paper presents the conceptual model and the fundamental mechanisms for software development in the context of the Brite-EuRam project Safety Related Fault Tolerant Systems in Vehicles (nick-named X-By-Wire). The objective of the X-By-Wire project is to achieve a framework for the introduction of safety related fault tolerant electronic systems without mechanical backup in vehicles. To achieve the required level of fault-tolerance, an X-By-Wire system must be designed as a distributed system comprising a number of fault-tolerant units connected by a reliable real-time communication system. For the communication system, the time-triggered TTP/C real-time communication protocol was selected. TTP/C provides fault-tolerance message transfer, state synchronization, reliable detection of node failures, a global time base, and a distributed membership service. Redundancy is used for masking failures of individual processor nodes and hardware peripherals.
Technical Paper

A Design Methodology for Safety-Relevant Automotive Electronic Systems

For the development of future safety-relevant automotive electronic systems a thorough adaptation of the existing design process is necessary to consider safety and reliability in a more systematic way. In this paper an approach for a new design methodology is presented. It is based on the V-Model which is the established process model for the development of electronic and software systems in the automotive domain. For an advanced consideration of safety and reliability the existing process is extended by a second V (with process elements that have a special focus on safety and reliability) to a “Double V”. The new elements are interconnected with the existing ones at several points of time during the development process. By a defined information exchange between the two Vs continuity in the methodology is guaranteed. Basis for the extension are experiences of the aerospace domain that were adopted to automotive conditions.