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Technical Paper

Reducing Emissions and Improving Fuel Economy by Optimized Combustion of Alternative Fuels

Alternative fuels, especially fuels based on biological matter, are gaining more and more attention. Not only as a pure substitute of oil but also in terms of a possibility for further reduction in emission and as an option to improve the global CO2 balance. For improving the engine performance (emissions, fuel consumption, torque and drivability) the adjustment of fuel injection, the fuel evaporation process and the combustion process itself is paramount. In order to exploit the full potential of alternative fuels excellent knowledge of the fuel properties, including the impact on ignition and flame propagation, is required. This needs suitable tools for analysis of the fuel injection and combustion process. These tools have to support the optimization of the combustion system and the dynamic engine calibration for lowest emissions and most efficient use of fuel. As the term “Alternative Fuels” covers a very wide area a brief overview on available fuel types will be made.
Technical Paper

Cylinder- and Cycle Resolved Particle Formation Evaluation to Support GDI Engine Development for Euro 6 Targets

Combustion of premixed stoichiometric charge is free of soot particle formation. Consequently, the development of direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engines aims at providing premixed charge to avoid or minimize soot formation in order to meet particle emissions targets. Engine development methods not only need precise engine-out particle measurement instrumentation but also sensors and measurement techniques which enable identification of in-cylinder soot formation sources under all relevant engine test conditions. Such identification is made possible by recording flame radiation signals and with analysis of such signals for premixed and diffusion flame signatures. This paper presents measurement techniques and analysis methods under normal engine and vehicle test procedures to minimize sooting combustion modes in transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Effect of Fuel Injection System Improvements on the Injection and Combustion of DiMethyl Ether in a Diesel Cycle Engine

For nearly twenty years, DiMethyl Ether has been known to be an outstanding fuel for combustion in diesel cycle engines. Not only does it have a high Cetane number, it burns absolutely soot free and produces lower NOx exhaust emissions than the equivalent diesel. However, the physical properties of DME such as its low viscosity, lubricity and bulk modulus have negative effects for the fuel injection system, which have both limited the achievable injection pressures to about 500 bar and DME's introduction into the market. To overcome some of these effects, a common rail fuel injection system was adapted to operate with DME and produce injection pressures of up to 1000 bar. To understand the effect of the high injection pressure, tests were carried out using 2D optically accessed nozzles. This allowed the impact of the high vapour pressure of DME on the onset of cavitation in the nozzle hole to be assessed and improve the flow characteristics.
Technical Paper

Performance Development on Prototype Single-Cylinder Engine: Systematic Combustion System Improvements for Optimum Engine Performance

In recent years, many four-stroke outboard motors have been developed according to the market demand. But four-stroke outboard motor tends to be heavier and larger than conventional two-stroke one due to its more complex mechanism. The outboard motor is required to be light and compact not to disturb the utility of the boat. In addition, boat load requires higher torque at mid engine speed. In such situation, knocking is one of the obstacles against power density. We tried to improve combustion for high power density on a prototype single cylinder engine using up-to-date analyzing and development technology.
Technical Paper

Injection Orifice Shape: Effects on Spray Characteristics and Heat-Release Rate in a Large-Size Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

A series of experimental studies of diesel spray and combustion characteristics was carried out using circular, elliptic and step orifices. The experiment was performed on a 3-litre single-cylinder engine with optical access. In the engine tests, an elliptic-orifice nozzle with an aspect ratio of approximately 2:1, and a step-orifice nozzle were compared with circular-orifice nozzles. All orifices had sharp-edged inlets. The nozzles were tested at injection pressures extending from 300 to 1300 bar. The nozzles were evaluated in respect of initial spray tip velocity, penetration, spray cone angle, spray width, intermittency and heat-release. Substantial differences were observed in the spray characteristics: At an injection pressure of 300 bar, the spray width increased twice as fast in the minor axis plane of the elliptic orifice and step orifice than the circular orifices.
Technical Paper

Personal Vehicles With Auto-Body Shielding of the Drive Assembly-External Noise Reduction and Internal Noise

An efficient method for the reduction of vehicle noise is to close the engine compartment in a soundtight manner. By this means, the sound radiation from the power unit, which has main influence on the vehicle's exterior noise, can be reduced in an economic way. Furthermore, the increased suppression on the impulsive high frequency noise is subjectively recognized as an additional advantage. However, a large scale use of an encapsulation demands for proper cooling of the engine and, with respect to interior noise, a deterioration of passenger comfort must be avoided. In two different vehicles three kinds of engine enclosures have been tested. It is demonstrated that thermal problems within the enclosure can be avoided by an appropriate design. In addition, with some development of the cooling system, sufficient cooling rate can be provided.
Technical Paper

A Review of Parameters Affecting the Noise and Vibration in Diesel Powered Passenger Cars

The noise and vibration properties of diesel engines call for increased efforts in manufacturing passenger cars to achieve a level of comfort comparable to gasoline cars. Severe problems arise at low engine speed when high compression forces give rise to vehicle body vibrations. Together with the vibration behavior at mid and high engine speed this fact demands a careful selection of engine mount position and mount properties. This selection must be made with respect to both the engine vibration excitation and to the vibration response of the vehicle body. Noise within the vehicle is influenced by the transfer of vibration energy from the engine into the vehicle structure and its radiation into air, as well as by the noise characteristics of the engine and the sound transmission properties of the vehicle cabin.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction Strategies for DI Diesel Engines

This paper reports on research and development work conducted at AVL to determine the NOx-reduction potential of in-cylinder charge conditions, fuel injection system parameters, exhaust gas recirculation, fuel formulation, and exhaust gas aftertreatment by catalyst. Based on these findings, development options are derived and assigned to the various future emission standards in USA, Europe and Japan.
Technical Paper

Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas after treatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost- efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented test procedures. The focus will be on solutions which have potential for the Indian market, i.e. solutions which can be implemented with moderate application effort for currently available compact and medium size cars.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Calibration Techniques

Meeting the particle number (PN) emissions limits in vehicle test sequences needs specific attention on each power variation event occurring in the internal combustion engine (ICE). ICE power variations arise from engine start onwards along the entire test drive. In hybrid systems, there is one further source for transient ICE response: each power shift between E-motor and ICE introduces gas flow variations with subsequent temperature response in the ICE and in the engine aftertreatment system (EAS). This bears consequences for engine out emissions as well as for the EAS efficiency and even for the durability of a catalytic converter. As system calibration engineers must decide on numerous actuator parameters, their decisions, finally, are crucial for meeting legislative limits under the boundary conditions given by the hybrid vehicle’s drive environment.