Impacts of Diverse Driving Cycles on Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance
A vehicle's energy consumption and emissions are extremely sensitive to the operating modes of that vehicle. The LA4 test cycle in the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) is the current basis for evaluating a vehicle's energy consumption and emissions, but it was developed more than 20 years ago and does not represent today's typical driving patterns. In this paper, we describe a set of computer simulation models to evaluate energy consumption and emissions of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs), and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) under a variety of driving cycles. Using these models, two real-world vehicles -- a 92 Ford Taurus and a 97 GM EV1, -- and a hypothetical rangeextender type HEV, are modeled and analyzed under five different driving cycles. We focus our analysis on vehicle performance characteristics such as driving range, equivalent fuel economy, EV and HEV system efficiency, pure electric drive range, and tailpipe emissions.