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Technical Paper

Development of Dynamic Models for an HCCI Engine with Fully Variable Valve-Train

For the next stage of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine researches, the development of an engine controller, taking account of dynamics is required. The objective of this paper is to develop dynamic multi input and multi output HCCI engine models and a controller to deal with variable valve lift, variable valve phase, and fuel injection. First, a physical continuous model has been developed. This model mainly consists of air flow models, an ignition model, and a combustion and mechanical model of the engine. The flow models use a receiver model on volumetric elements such as an intake manifold and a valve flow model on throttling elements such as intake valves. Livengood-wu integration of Arrhenius function is used to predict ignition timing. The combustion duration is expressed as a function of ignition timings.
Technical Paper

Cetane Number Determination by Advanced Fuel Ignition Delay Analysis in a New Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

A new constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) apparatus is presented that calculates the cetane number (CN) of fuels from their ignition delay by means of a primary reference fuel calibration. It offers the benefits of low fuel consumption, suitability for non-lubricating substances, accurate and fast measurements and a calibration by primary reference fuels (PRF). The injection system is derived from a modern common-rail passenger car engine. The apparatus is capable of fuel injection pressures up to 1200 bar and requires only 40 ml of the test fuel. The constant volume combustion chamber can be heated up to 1000 K and pressurized up to 50 bar. Sample selection is fully automated for independent operation and low levels of operator involvement. Capillary tubes employed in the sampling system can be heated to allow the measurement of highly viscous fuels.
Technical Paper

Extensive Investigation of a Common Rail Diesel Injector Regarding Injection Characteristics and the Resulting Influences on the Dual Fuel Pilot Injection Combustion Process

Natural gas and especially biogas combustion can be seen as one of the key technologies towards climate-neutral energy supply. With its extensive availability, biogas is amongst the most important renewable energy sources in the present energy mix. Today, the use of gaseous fuels is widely established, for example in cogeneration units for combined heat and power generation. In contrast to conventional spark plug ignition, the combustion can also be initialized by a pilot injection. In order to further increase engine efficiency, this article describes the process for a targeted optimization of the pilot fuel injection. One of the crucial points for a more efficient dual fuel combustion process, is to optimize the amount of pilot injection in order to increase overall engine efficiency, and therefore decrease fuel consumption. In this connection, the injection system plays a key role.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Mixture Formation for Combined Injection Strategies in High-Performance SI-Engines

Alongside with the severe restrictions according to technical regulations of the corresponding racing series (air and/or fuel mass flow), the optimization of the mixture formation in SI-race engines is one of the most demanding challenges with respect to engine performance. Bearing in mind its impact on the ignition behavior and the following combustion, the physical processes during mixture formation play a vital role not only in respect of the engine's efficiency, fuel consumption, and exhaust gas emissions but also on engine performance. Furthermore, abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knock may be enhanced by insufficient mixture formation. This can presumably be explained by the strong influence of the spatial distribution of the air/fuel-ratio on the inflammability of the mixture as well as the local velocity of the turbulent flame front.
Journal Article

Optimal Injection Strategies to Compensate for Injector Aging in Common Rail Fuel Systems

Aging effects such as coking or erosive damage that occur in fuel injection nozzles are known to deteriorate the engine performance. This article proposes an optimization method to compensate for injector aging and to control the combustion behavior over engine lifetime by adapting the injection strategy. First, a control-oriented combustion model is presented, which takes the condition of the injection nozzle into account. In combination with a simulation model of the entire fuel injection system from a previous study, the model is capable of predicting the heat release rate (HRR) at different working conditions. Measurements with a single-cylinder diesel engine were performed, using injectors with modified and aged nozzles, to validate the proposed combustion model and particularly to analyze the influence of injector aging. Using the simulation model, optimal injection strategies were obtained by applying a line search optimization scheme to recover a reference HRR trajectory.
Technical Paper

Compensation Strategies for Aging Effects of Common-Rail Injector Nozzles

The thermal and emission efficiency of diesel engines depends to a large extent on the quality of fuel injection. However, over engine lifetime, injection rate and quality will change due to adverse nozzle aging effects, such as coking or cavitation. In this study, we discuss the influences of these effects on injection and heat release rate. The injection rates of previously unused nozzles and a nozzle that had been operated in a vehicle engine were compared in order to clarify the impact of aging effects. The key to the detection of alterations of injection nozzles is the identification of strongly correlating parameters. As a first step, an instrumented injector was set up to measure fuel pressure inside the feed line of the injector and the lift of the control piston. Different nozzles showed a distinguishable control piston motion depending on their different geometric specifications, which also affect the injection rates.
Technical Paper

Using a Phenomenological Simulation Approach for the Prediction of a Dual-Fuel Pilot Injection Combustion Process

Development processes for modern combustion engines already make substantial use of more or less sophisticated simulation approaches. The enhancement of computational resources additionally allows the increasing use of simulation tools in terms of time-consuming three-dimensional CFD approaches. In particular, the preliminary estimation of feasible operating ranges and strategies requires a vast multitude of single simulations. Here, multi-zone simulation approaches incorporate the advantages of comparably short simulation durations. Nevertheless, the combination with more detailed sub-models allows these rather simple modeling approaches to offer considerable insight into relevant engine operation phenomena. In the context of combustion process development, this paper describes a phenomenological model approach for the prediction of operating point characteristics of a dual-fuel pilot injection combustion process.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Gasoline Fueled Pre Chamber Ignition Combined with Elevated Compression Ratio

Pre-chamber ignition is a method to simultaneously increase the thermal efficiency and to meet ever more stringent emission regulations at the same time. In this study, a single cylinder research engine is equipped with a tailored pre-chamber ignition system and operated at two different compression ratios, namely 10.5 and 14.2. While most studies on gasoline pre-chamber ignition employ port fuel injection, in this work, the main fuel quantity is introduced by side direct injection into the combustion chamber to fully exploit the knock mitigation effect. Different pre-chamber design variants are evaluated considering both unfueled and gasoline-fueled operation. As for the latter, the influence of the fuel amount supplied to the pre-chamber is discussed. Due to its principle, the pre-chamber ignition system increases combustion speeds by generating enhanced in-cylinder turbulence and multiple ignition sites. This property proves to be an effective measure to mitigate knocking effects.
Technical Paper

Injection Process of the Synthetic Fuel Oxymethylene Ether: Optical Analysis in a Heavy-Duty Engine

Oxygenated synthetic fuels such as oxymethylene ether (OME) are a promising approach to reduce the emissions of diesel engines and to improve sustainability of mobility. The soot-free combustion of OME allows an optimization of the combustion process to minimize remaining pollutants. Considering the injection system, one strategy is to decrease the rail pressure, which has a positive impact on the reduction of nitrogen oxides without increasing the particle formation. Furthermore, due to the reduced lower heating value of OME compared to diesel fuel, an adaptation of the injector nozzle is recommended. This work describes a method for analyzing the injection process for OME, using the Mie scattering effect in an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine. The design of the 1.75 l single cylinder engine allows operation up to 300 bar peak cylinder pressure, providing optical access through the piston bowl and through a second window lateral below the cylinder head.