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Journal Article

Design and Validation of a Control-Oriented Model of a Diesel Engine with Two-Stage Turbocharger

2009-09-13
2009-24-0122
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance. The large flexibility of these systems, able to operate in different modes, can determine a reduction of the turbo-lag phenomenon and improve the engine tuning. However, the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization to maximize the benefits of this technology. In addition, the design and calibration of the control system is particularly complex. The transitioning between single stage and two-stage operations poses further control issues. In this scenario a model-based approach could be a convenient and effective solution to investigate optimization, calibration and control issues, provided the developed models retain high accuracy, limited calibration effort and the ability to run in real time.
Technical Paper

Comparative study of different control strategies for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2009-09-13
2009-24-0071
Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) represent the middle point between Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs), thus combining benefits of the two architectures. PHEVs can achieve very high fuel economy while preserving full functionality of hybrids - long driving range, easy refueling, lower emissions etc. These advantages come at an expense of added complexity in terms of available fuel. The PHEV battery is recharged both though regenerative braking and directly by the grid thus adding extra dimension to the control problem. Along with the minimization of the fuel consumption, the amount of electricity taken from the power grid should be also considered, therefore the electricity generation mix and price become additional parameters that should be included in the cost function.
Journal Article

Energy, Economical and Environmental Analysis of Plug-In Hybrids Electric Vehicles Based on Common Driving Cycles

2009-09-13
2009-24-0062
The objective draw by this project is to develop tools for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) design, energy analysis and energy management, with the aim of analyzing the effect of design, driving cycles, charging frequency and energy management on performance, fuel economy, range and battery life. A Chevrolet Equinox fueled by bio diesel B20 has been hybridized at the Center for Automotive Research (CAR), at The Ohio State University. The vehicle model has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment, and validated based on laboratory and test. The PHEV battery pack has been modeled starting from Li-Ion batteries experimental data and then implemented into the simulator. In order to simulate “real world” scenarios, custom driving cycles/typical days were identified starting from average driving statistics and well-known cycles.
Journal Article

An Iterative Markov Chain Approach for Generating Vehicle Driving Cycles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0880
For simulation and analysis of vehicles there is a need to have a means of generating drive cycles which have properties similar to real world driving. A method is presented which uses measured vehicle speed from a number of vehicles to generate a Markov chain model. This Markov chain model is capable of generating drive cycles which match the statistics of the original data set. This Markov model is then used in an iterative fashion to generate drive cycles which match constraints imposed by the user. These constraints could include factors such number of stops, total distance, average speed, or maximum speed. In this paper, systematic analysis was done for a PHEV fleet which consists of 9 PHEVs that were instrumented using data loggers for a period of approximately two years. Statistical analysis using principal component analysis and a clustering approach was carried out for the real world velocity profiles.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Assess the Impact of Road Events on PHEV Performance using Real World Data

2011-04-12
2011-01-0875
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
Journal Article

Model Based Engine Control Development and Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for the EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Competition

2011-04-12
2011-01-1297
When developing a new engine control strategy, some of the important issues are cost, resource minimization, and quality improvement. This paper outlines how a model based approach was used to develop an engine control strategy for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The outlined approach allowed the development team to minimize the required number of experiments and to complete much of the control development and calibration before implementing the control strategy in the vehicle. It will be shown how models of different fidelity, from map-based models, to mean value models, to 1-D gas dynamics models were generated and used to develop the engine control system. The application of real time capable models for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing will also be shown.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Characterization and Analysis of Diesel Engines with Two-Stage Turbochargers

2010-04-12
2010-01-1220
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance, reducing the turbo-lag phenomenon and improving the matching. However, the definition of the control system is particularly complex, as the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization. This work documents a characterization study of two-stage turbocharger systems. The study relies on a mean-value model of a Diesel engine equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, validated on experimental data. The turbocharger is characterized by a VGT actuator and a bypass valve (BPV), both located on the high-pressure turbine. This model structure is representative of a “virtual engine”, which can be effectively utilized for applications related to analysis and control. Using this tool, a complete characterization was conducted considering key operating conditions representative of FTP driving cycle operations.
Technical Paper

Effect of Traffic, Road and Weather Information on PHEV Energy Management

2011-09-11
2011-24-0162
Energy management plays a key role in achieving higher fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology; the state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining the fuel consumed. The energy management algorithm should be designed to meet all driving scenarios while achieving the best possible fuel economy. The knowledge of the power requirement during a driving trip is necessary to achieve the best fuel economy results; performance of the energy management algorithm is closely related to the amount of information available in the form of road grade, velocity profiles, trip distance, weather characteristics and other exogenous factors. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) allow vehicles to communicate with one another and the infrastructure to collect data about surrounding, and forecast the expected events, e.g., traffic condition, turns, road grade, and weather forecast.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Commuter Plug-In FC Hybrid Vehicle

2007-09-16
2007-24-0079
Strong dependency on crude oil in most areas of modern transportation needs lead into a significant consumption of petroleum resources over many decades. In order to maximize the effective use of remaining resources, various types of powertrain topologies, such as hybrid configurations among fuel cell, electric battery as well as conventional IC engine, have been proposed and tested out for number of vehicle classes including a personal commuting vehicle. In this paper the vehicle parameters are based on a typical commercial sub-compact vehicle (FIAT Panda) and energy needs are estimated on the sized powertrain. The main control approach is divided in two categories: off-line global optimization with dynamic programming (DP, not implementable in real time), and on-line Proportional and Feed-Forward with PI controllers. The proposed control approaches are developed both for charge-sustaining and charge-depleting mode and sample results are shown and compared.
Technical Paper

Development of Refuse Vehicle Driving and Duty Cycles

2005-04-11
2005-01-1165
Research has been conducted to develop a methodology for the generation of driving and duty cycles for refuse vehicles in conjunction with a larger effort in the design of a hybrid-electric refuse vehicle. This methodology includes the definition of real-world data that was collected, as well as a data analysis procedure based on sequencing of the collected data into micro-trips and hydraulic cycles. The methodology then applies multi-variate statistical analysis techniques to the sequences for classification. Finally, driving and duty cycles are generated based on matching the statistical metrics and distributions of the generated cycles to the collected database. Simulated vehicle fuel economy for these cycles is also compared to measured values.
Technical Paper

An 1800 HP, Street Legal Corvette: An Introduction to the AWD Electrically-Variable Transmission

2005-04-11
2005-01-1169
New vehicle technologies open up a vast number of new options for the designer, removing traditional constraints. Though hybrid powertrains have thus far been implemented chiefly to improve the fuel economy of already economical passenger cars, hybrid technology may have even more to offer in a performance vehicle. In the year when the C6 Corvette and two large GM hybrid projects have been unveiled, a new case study looks to combine these ideas and explore the performance limits for the next generation high performance sports car. Through an innovative transmission concept and thoughtful packaging, the next generation Corvette could enhance a 600 HP spark-ignited V-8 (supercharged LS2) with 1200 HP from electric machines, and still meet current emission standards. Such immense tractive power, however, would be useless without an intelligent means of delivering this power to the wheels.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0143
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Technical Paper

An Improved Design of a Vehicle Based Off-Road Terrain Profile Measurement System

2008-10-07
2008-01-2655
This paper discusses an improved design of a vehicle-based mobile off-road terrain profile measurement system. The proposed system includes an apparatus of sensors and on-board data acquisition hardware, equipped on a platform vehicle used to measure and record the relevant data while the vehicle travels through the off-road or terrain surface to be surveyed. A unique post-processing algorithm is then used to derive the elevation profile based on the collected data. The derived elevation profile data could be used to characterize the roughness of an off-road testing course or perform a general geographical survey or mapping. The major technical issue addressed in this system is to eliminate the effect of platform vehicle vibration on sensor measurement which if left unaddressed will result in large measurement error due to high amplitude pitch and roll movements of the platform vehicle.
Journal Article

Design of a Parallel-Series PHEV for the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2012-09-10
2012-01-1762
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 75 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the rigorous design process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the competition. The design process includes identifying the team customer's needs and wants, selecting an overall vehicle architecture and completing detailed design work on the mechanical, electrical and control systems. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S.
Technical Paper

Two Motor Electric Axle

2002-06-03
2002-01-1919
The paper presents a possible concept design for integration of individual wheel AC motors into Oshkosh Truck Corporation's InDependent Suspension. A new axle concept design (including drive line and CV-joint) is presented with a new AC induction motor concept. Both concepts are able to match 100% the sever-heavy duty requirements in a large area of advanced on and off road traction applications. Concepts are suitable for modularity in a multi-axle (2-6) All-Wheel Drive, All Steer configuration vehicle.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Heavy Vehicles by Dynamic Simulations

2002-11-18
2002-01-3061
Building and testing of physical prototypes for optimization purposes consume significant amount of time, manpower and financial resources. Mathematical formulation and solution of vehicle multibody dynamics equations are also not feasible because of the massive size of the problem. This paper proposes a methodology for vehicle design optimization that does not involve physical prototyping or exhaustive mathematics. The proposed method is fast, cost effective and saves considerable manpower. The methodology uses an industry acknowledged multibody dynamics simulation software (ADAMS) and a flexible architecture to explore large design spaces.
Technical Paper

2000 HP Tractor-Trailer for the 21st Century

2002-11-18
2002-01-3141
This paper presents the conceptual design of a high-power, high-speed tractor-trailer for severe duty applications. Design of the tractor-trailer introduces several new concepts, including the general vehicle architecture, a new electrical transmission system and a new electric tandem axle. The vehicle architecture consists of a low drag cab concept with a fully integrated turbo-generator power source, an exhaust gas electric decontamination system and auxiliaries. The electric transmission introduces a new combination of electrical machines and power electronics designed to perform under maximum load with minimum dimension, weight and price. The electric tandem axle is a new concept of an all-wheel steering independent suspension with virtual electromagnetic differential.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Control for a High Performance Engine using Throttle Angle Information

1999-03-01
1999-01-1169
This paper presents the development of a model-based air/fuel ratio controller for a high performance engine that uses, in addition to other usual signals, the throttle angle to enable predictive air mass flow rate estimation. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to achieve a finer air/fuel ratio control during transients that involve sudden variations in the physical conditions inside the intake manifold, due, for example, to fast throttle opening or closing actions. The air mass flow rate toward the engine cylinders undertakes strong variation in such transients, and its correct estimation becomes critical mainly because of the time lag between its evaluation and the instant when the air actually enters the cylinders.
Technical Paper

A Control-Oriented Carbon Canister Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-1103
Carbon canisters have been adapted for automobile use since the early 1970s to control evaporative emissions. Stringent emission regulations and the requirement for an enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure, make this an important issue. The air and evaporative fuel from the carbon canister therefore need important consideration with respect to air to fuel ratio (AFR) control and idle by-pass air control. Although a few complex models of the activated carbon canister have been developed, a control-oriented, simplistic carbon canister model needs to be developed. This paper explores the control-oriented modeling of a canister purge air system along with the on-line estimation of evaporative fuel loading of the activated carbon. An attempt was made at providing an analytical expression for the evaporative fuel and air entering the intake manifold.
Technical Paper

An Application of Crabon Canister Modeling to Air Fuel Ratio Control and Idle By-Pass Control

1999-03-01
1999-01-1093
Due to the stringent emission regulations, On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD II) and the requirement of enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure, an aggressive canister purge control strategy is required for automotive vehicles. The enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure has forced car manufacturer to purge the carbon canister in the vehicle idle condition so that production vehicles meet the SHED and hot soak test requirements. This not only worsens the idle speed quality but also tends to increase exhaust emission levels. Using analytical models of evaporative air and fuel, feed-forward control strategy for both idle by-pass air and air to fuel ratio can be improved. This paper demonstrates an application of evaporative system modeling to the idle air and air to fuel ratio control.
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