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Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Assess the Impact of Road Events on PHEV Performance using Real World Data

2011-04-12
2011-01-0875
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
Journal Article

An Iterative Markov Chain Approach for Generating Vehicle Driving Cycles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0880
For simulation and analysis of vehicles there is a need to have a means of generating drive cycles which have properties similar to real world driving. A method is presented which uses measured vehicle speed from a number of vehicles to generate a Markov chain model. This Markov chain model is capable of generating drive cycles which match the statistics of the original data set. This Markov model is then used in an iterative fashion to generate drive cycles which match constraints imposed by the user. These constraints could include factors such number of stops, total distance, average speed, or maximum speed. In this paper, systematic analysis was done for a PHEV fleet which consists of 9 PHEVs that were instrumented using data loggers for a period of approximately two years. Statistical analysis using principal component analysis and a clustering approach was carried out for the real world velocity profiles.
Journal Article

Model Based Engine Control Development and Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for the EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Competition

2011-04-12
2011-01-1297
When developing a new engine control strategy, some of the important issues are cost, resource minimization, and quality improvement. This paper outlines how a model based approach was used to develop an engine control strategy for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The outlined approach allowed the development team to minimize the required number of experiments and to complete much of the control development and calibration before implementing the control strategy in the vehicle. It will be shown how models of different fidelity, from map-based models, to mean value models, to 1-D gas dynamics models were generated and used to develop the engine control system. The application of real time capable models for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing will also be shown.
Journal Article

Adaptive Energy Management Strategy Calibration in PHEVs Based on a Sensitivity Study

2013-09-08
2013-24-0074
This paper presents a sensitivity analysis-based study aimed at robustly calibrating the parameters of an adaptive energy management strategy designed for a Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The supervisory control is developed from the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) approach and applied to a model of a GM Chevrolet Volt vehicle. The proposed controller aims at minimizing the fuel consumption of the vehicle over a given driving mission, by achieving a blended discharge strategy over the entire cycle. The calibration study is conducted over a wide set of driving conditions and it generates a look-up table and two constant values for the three controller parameters to be used in the in-vehicle implementation. Finally, the calibrated adaptive control strategy is validated against real driving cycles showing the effectiveness of the calibration approach.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Worn Shocks on Vehicle Handling and Stability

2006-04-03
2006-01-0563
The intent of this research is to understand the effects worn dampers have on vehicle stability and safety through dynamic model simulation. Dampers, an integral component of a vehicle's suspension system, play an important role in isolating road disturbances from the driver by controlling the motions of the sprung and unsprung masses. This paper will show that a decrease in damping leads to excessive body motions and a potentially unstable vehicle. The concept of poor damping affecting vehicle stability is well established through linear models. The next step is to extend this concept for non-linear models. This is accomplished through creating a vehicle simulation model and executing several driving maneuvers with various damper characteristics. The damper models used in this study are based on splines representing peak force versus velocity relationships.
Technical Paper

Plant Modeling and Software Verification for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2015-04-14
2015-01-1229
Abstract The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at The Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 44 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features an 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This paper details three years of modeling and simulation development for the OSU EcoCAR 2 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platform and model requirements, plant model and soft ECU development, test development and validation, automated regression testing, and controls and calibration optimization.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Characterization and Analysis of Diesel Engines with Two-Stage Turbochargers

2010-04-12
2010-01-1220
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance, reducing the turbo-lag phenomenon and improving the matching. However, the definition of the control system is particularly complex, as the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization. This work documents a characterization study of two-stage turbocharger systems. The study relies on a mean-value model of a Diesel engine equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, validated on experimental data. The turbocharger is characterized by a VGT actuator and a bypass valve (BPV), both located on the high-pressure turbine. This model structure is representative of a “virtual engine”, which can be effectively utilized for applications related to analysis and control. Using this tool, a complete characterization was conducted considering key operating conditions representative of FTP driving cycle operations.
Journal Article

Energy, Economical and Environmental Analysis of Plug-In Hybrids Electric Vehicles Based on Common Driving Cycles

2009-09-13
2009-24-0062
The objective draw by this project is to develop tools for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) design, energy analysis and energy management, with the aim of analyzing the effect of design, driving cycles, charging frequency and energy management on performance, fuel economy, range and battery life. A Chevrolet Equinox fueled by bio diesel B20 has been hybridized at the Center for Automotive Research (CAR), at The Ohio State University. The vehicle model has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment, and validated based on laboratory and test. The PHEV battery pack has been modeled starting from Li-Ion batteries experimental data and then implemented into the simulator. In order to simulate “real world” scenarios, custom driving cycles/typical days were identified starting from average driving statistics and well-known cycles.
Journal Article

Design and Validation of a Control-Oriented Model of a Diesel Engine with Two-Stage Turbocharger

2009-09-13
2009-24-0122
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance. The large flexibility of these systems, able to operate in different modes, can determine a reduction of the turbo-lag phenomenon and improve the engine tuning. However, the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization to maximize the benefits of this technology. In addition, the design and calibration of the control system is particularly complex. The transitioning between single stage and two-stage operations poses further control issues. In this scenario a model-based approach could be a convenient and effective solution to investigate optimization, calibration and control issues, provided the developed models retain high accuracy, limited calibration effort and the ability to run in real time.
Journal Article

Development of a Dynamic Driveline Model for a Parallel-Series PHEV

2014-04-01
2014-01-1920
This paper describes the development and experimental validation of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) dynamic simulator that enables development, testing, and calibration of a traction control strategy. EcoCAR 2 is a three-year competition between fifteen North American universities, sponsored by the Department of Energy and General Motors that challenges students to redesign a Chevrolet Malibu to have increased fuel economy and decreased emissions while maintaining safety, performance, and consumer acceptability. The dynamic model is developed specifically for the Ohio State University EcoCAR 2 Team vehicle with a series-parallel PHEV architecture. This architecture features, in the front of the vehicle, an ICE separated from an automated manual transmission with a clutch as well as an electric machine coupled via a belt directly to the input of the transmission. The rear powertrain features another electric machine coupled to a fixed ratio gearbox connected to the wheels.
Technical Paper

Refinement of a Parallel-Series PHEV for Year 3 of the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2014-10-13
2014-01-2908
Abstract The EcoCAR 2 team at the Ohio State University has designed an extended-range electric vehicle capable of 44 miles all-electric range, which features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and a 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report documents the team's refinement work on the vehicle during Year 3 of the competition, including vehicle improvements, control strategy calibration and dynamic vehicle testing, culminating in a 99% buy off vehicle that meets the goals set forth by the team. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S. Department of Energy, General Motors, The Ohio State University, and numerous competition and local sponsors.
Technical Paper

Fabrication of a Parallel-Series PHEV for the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2013-10-14
2013-01-2491
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 51 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the fabrication and control implementation process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 2 of the competition. The fabrication process includes finalizing designs based on identified requirements, building and assembling components, and performing extensive validation testing on the mechanical, electrical and control systems.
Journal Article

Design of a Parallel-Series PHEV for the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2012-09-10
2012-01-1762
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 75 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the rigorous design process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the competition. The design process includes identifying the team customer's needs and wants, selecting an overall vehicle architecture and completing detailed design work on the mechanical, electrical and control systems. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S.
Technical Paper

A Survey of Automotive Diagnostic Equipment and Procedures

1993-03-01
930769
The introduction of advanced electronic controls in passenger vehicles over the last decade has made traditional diagnostic methods inadequate to satisfy on- and off-board diagnostic needs. Due to the complexity of today's automotive control systems, it is imperative that appropriate diagnostic tools be developed that are capable of satisfying current and projected service and on-board requirements. The performance of available diagnostic and test equipment is still amenable to further improvement, especially as it pertains to the diagnosis of incipient and intermittent faults. It is our contention that significant improvement is possible in these areas. This paper briefly summarizes the evolution of on- and off-board diagnostic tools documented in the published literature, with the aim of giving the reader an understanding of their capabilities and limitations, and it further proposes alternative solutions that may be adopted as a basis for an advanced diagnostic instrument.
Technical Paper

Engine and Load Torque Estimation with Application to Electronic Throttle Control

1998-02-23
980795
Electronic throttle control is increasingly being considered as a viable alternative to conventional air management systems in modern spark-ignition engines. In such a scheme, driver throttle commands are interpreted by the powertrain control module together with many other inputs; rather than directly commanding throttle position, the driver is now simply requesting torque - a request that needs to be appropriately interpreted by the control module. Engine management under these conditions will require optimal control of the engine torque required by the various vehicle subsystems, ranging from HVAC, to electrical and hydraulic accessories, to the vehicle itself. In this context, the real-time estimation of engine and load torque can play a very important role, especially if this estimation can be performed using the same signals already available to the powertrain control module.
Technical Paper

AFR Control on a Single Cylinder Engine Using the Ionization Current

1998-02-23
980203
Over the years numerous researchers have suggested that the ionization current signal carries within it combustion relevant information. The possibility of using this signal for diagnostics and control provides motivation for continued research in this area. To be able to use the ion current signal for feedback control a reliable estimate of some combustion related parameter is necessary and therein lies the difficulty. Given the nature of the ion current signal this is not a trivial task. Fei An et al. [1] employed PCA for feature extraction and then used these feature vectors to design a neural network based classifier for the estimation of air to fuel ratio (AFR). Although the classifier predicted AFR with sufficient reliability, a major draw back was that the ion current signals used for prediction were averaged signals thus precluding a cycle to cycle estimate of AFR.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Control of Hybrid Vehicles Using Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic

1998-02-23
981061
This paper discusses the use of intelligent control techniques for the control of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle powertrain. Artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic are used to implement a load leveling strategy. The resulting vehicle control unit, a supervisory controller, coordinates the powertrain components. The presented controller has the ability to adapt to different drivers and driving cycles. This allows a control strategy which includes both fuel-economy and performance modes. The strategy was implemented on the Ohio State University FutureCar.
Technical Paper

Motorsports in the Engineering Curriculum at The Ohio State University

1996-12-01
962498
This paper describes the background and development of a program focused on motorsports engineering education currently in progress at the Ohio State University (OSU). An interdisciplinary curriculum, with the involvement of various engineering departments, is being proposed for development in an attempt to address some of the engineering education needs of the motorsports industry. The program described in this paper strives to provide engineering students with an interdisciplinary background race engineering, and also provides opportunities for motorsports oriented thesis projects. The paper briefly summarizes the key elements of the curriculum, and describes how the integration of course material from different disciplines with team work on student competition projects, possibly coupled with internships with racing teams, can provide an ideal setting for the education of a new generation of race engineers.
Technical Paper

Design of The Ohio State University Electric Race Car

1996-12-01
962511
The aim of this paper is to document a three year process of product development of the Formula Lightningtm electric race car constructed at the Ohio State University. Today interest in electric vehicles (EV's) is growing, due to the technological advances in recent years, but also in part due to recent legislation which mandates the introduction of ‘zero emission vehicles’ in California before the end of the century. The definition of ‘zero emission vehicle’ is: a vehicle which does not emit any pollutants during operation. Technologically, the only near term vehicle which meets this definition is an EV. One of the most difficult problems of electric racing is that the usable energy in a given set of batteries is not as easily determined as the amount of fuel in a tank. Also, the motor controllers may limit power output as battery voltage drops, further decreasing the amount of usable energy in a battery set.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Decision-Making System for Automotive Application

1998-02-23
980519
Fault diagnosis for automotive systems is driven by government regulations, vehicle repairability, and customer satisfaction. Several methods have been developed to detect and isolate faults in automotive systems, subsystems and components with special emphasis on those faults that affect the exhaust gas emission levels. Limit checks, model-based, and knowledge-based methods are applied for diagnosing malfunctions in emission control systems. Incipient and partial faults may be hard to detect when using a detection scheme that implements any of the previously mentioned methods individually; the integration of model-based and knowledge-based diagnostic methods may provide a more robust approach. In the present paper, use is made of fuzzy residual evaluation and of a fuzzy expert system to improve the performance of a fault detection method based on a mathematical model of the engine.
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