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Journal Article

An Iterative Markov Chain Approach for Generating Vehicle Driving Cycles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0880
For simulation and analysis of vehicles there is a need to have a means of generating drive cycles which have properties similar to real world driving. A method is presented which uses measured vehicle speed from a number of vehicles to generate a Markov chain model. This Markov chain model is capable of generating drive cycles which match the statistics of the original data set. This Markov model is then used in an iterative fashion to generate drive cycles which match constraints imposed by the user. These constraints could include factors such number of stops, total distance, average speed, or maximum speed. In this paper, systematic analysis was done for a PHEV fleet which consists of 9 PHEVs that were instrumented using data loggers for a period of approximately two years. Statistical analysis using principal component analysis and a clustering approach was carried out for the real world velocity profiles.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Assess the Impact of Road Events on PHEV Performance using Real World Data

2011-04-12
2011-01-0875
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
Journal Article

Model Based Engine Control Development and Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for the EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Competition

2011-04-12
2011-01-1297
When developing a new engine control strategy, some of the important issues are cost, resource minimization, and quality improvement. This paper outlines how a model based approach was used to develop an engine control strategy for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The outlined approach allowed the development team to minimize the required number of experiments and to complete much of the control development and calibration before implementing the control strategy in the vehicle. It will be shown how models of different fidelity, from map-based models, to mean value models, to 1-D gas dynamics models were generated and used to develop the engine control system. The application of real time capable models for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing will also be shown.
Journal Article

Adaptive Energy Management Strategy Calibration in PHEVs Based on a Sensitivity Study

2013-09-08
2013-24-0074
This paper presents a sensitivity analysis-based study aimed at robustly calibrating the parameters of an adaptive energy management strategy designed for a Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The supervisory control is developed from the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) approach and applied to a model of a GM Chevrolet Volt vehicle. The proposed controller aims at minimizing the fuel consumption of the vehicle over a given driving mission, by achieving a blended discharge strategy over the entire cycle. The calibration study is conducted over a wide set of driving conditions and it generates a look-up table and two constant values for the three controller parameters to be used in the in-vehicle implementation. Finally, the calibrated adaptive control strategy is validated against real driving cycles showing the effectiveness of the calibration approach.
Technical Paper

Effect of Traffic, Road and Weather Information on PHEV Energy Management

2011-09-11
2011-24-0162
Energy management plays a key role in achieving higher fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology; the state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining the fuel consumed. The energy management algorithm should be designed to meet all driving scenarios while achieving the best possible fuel economy. The knowledge of the power requirement during a driving trip is necessary to achieve the best fuel economy results; performance of the energy management algorithm is closely related to the amount of information available in the form of road grade, velocity profiles, trip distance, weather characteristics and other exogenous factors. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) allow vehicles to communicate with one another and the infrastructure to collect data about surrounding, and forecast the expected events, e.g., traffic condition, turns, road grade, and weather forecast.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Characterization and Analysis of Diesel Engines with Two-Stage Turbochargers

2010-04-12
2010-01-1220
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance, reducing the turbo-lag phenomenon and improving the matching. However, the definition of the control system is particularly complex, as the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization. This work documents a characterization study of two-stage turbocharger systems. The study relies on a mean-value model of a Diesel engine equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, validated on experimental data. The turbocharger is characterized by a VGT actuator and a bypass valve (BPV), both located on the high-pressure turbine. This model structure is representative of a “virtual engine”, which can be effectively utilized for applications related to analysis and control. Using this tool, a complete characterization was conducted considering key operating conditions representative of FTP driving cycle operations.
Technical Paper

Fabrication of a Parallel-Series PHEV for the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2013-10-14
2013-01-2491
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 51 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the fabrication and control implementation process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 2 of the competition. The fabrication process includes finalizing designs based on identified requirements, building and assembling components, and performing extensive validation testing on the mechanical, electrical and control systems.
Journal Article

Design of a Parallel-Series PHEV for the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2012-09-10
2012-01-1762
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 75 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the rigorous design process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the competition. The design process includes identifying the team customer's needs and wants, selecting an overall vehicle architecture and completing detailed design work on the mechanical, electrical and control systems. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S.
Journal Article

Development of a Dynamic Driveline Model for a Parallel-Series PHEV

2014-04-01
2014-01-1920
This paper describes the development and experimental validation of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) dynamic simulator that enables development, testing, and calibration of a traction control strategy. EcoCAR 2 is a three-year competition between fifteen North American universities, sponsored by the Department of Energy and General Motors that challenges students to redesign a Chevrolet Malibu to have increased fuel economy and decreased emissions while maintaining safety, performance, and consumer acceptability. The dynamic model is developed specifically for the Ohio State University EcoCAR 2 Team vehicle with a series-parallel PHEV architecture. This architecture features, in the front of the vehicle, an ICE separated from an automated manual transmission with a clutch as well as an electric machine coupled via a belt directly to the input of the transmission. The rear powertrain features another electric machine coupled to a fixed ratio gearbox connected to the wheels.
Technical Paper

Refinement of a Parallel-Series PHEV for Year 3 of the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2014-10-13
2014-01-2908
The EcoCAR 2 team at the Ohio State University has designed an extended-range electric vehicle capable of 44 miles all-electric range, which features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and a 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report documents the team's refinement work on the vehicle during Year 3 of the competition, including vehicle improvements, control strategy calibration and dynamic vehicle testing, culminating in a 99% buy off vehicle that meets the goals set forth by the team. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S. Department of Energy, General Motors, The Ohio State University, and numerous competition and local sponsors.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Commuter Plug-In FC Hybrid Vehicle

2007-09-16
2007-24-0079
Strong dependency on crude oil in most areas of modern transportation needs lead into a significant consumption of petroleum resources over many decades. In order to maximize the effective use of remaining resources, various types of powertrain topologies, such as hybrid configurations among fuel cell, electric battery as well as conventional IC engine, have been proposed and tested out for number of vehicle classes including a personal commuting vehicle. In this paper the vehicle parameters are based on a typical commercial sub-compact vehicle (FIAT Panda) and energy needs are estimated on the sized powertrain. The main control approach is divided in two categories: off-line global optimization with dynamic programming (DP, not implementable in real time), and on-line Proportional and Feed-Forward with PI controllers. The proposed control approaches are developed both for charge-sustaining and charge-depleting mode and sample results are shown and compared.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of Mixed-Mode HCCI/DI Combustion on a Common Rail Diesel Engine

2007-09-16
2007-24-0085
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is considered a very promising concept to achieve low NOx and Particulate Matter emissions in traditional spark ignition and Diesel engines. However, controlling the complex mechanisms which govern the combustion process and finding a proper method for the fuel introduction for Diesel HCCI engines have proven to still be a challenge. In addition, the well known IMEP limitations of HCCI combustion restrict the benefits on emissions to low engine load conditions. The current work attempts to extend the benefits of HCCI combustion to a broader range of engine operating conditions by blending the conventional Direct Injection (DI) with the external fuel atomization. A dual combustion system could potentially overcome the limits of low-load operations and allow for a gradual transition between the conventional DI mode at high load and the HCCI external mixture formation at idle and low load.
Technical Paper

Island Concept EVT

2006-10-16
2006-01-3260
This paper presents an all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design approach for extreme off-road applications. The paper focuses on the powertrain design, modeling, simulation, and performance analysis. Since this project focuses on a military-type application, the powertrain is designed to enhance crew survivability and provide several different modes of limp-home operation by utilizing a new vehicle topology -herein referred to as the island topology. This topology consists of designing the vehicle such that the powertrain and other equipment and subsystems surround the crew compartment to provide a high level of protection against munitions and other harmful ordnance. Thus, in the event of an external shield penetration, the crew compartment remains protected by the surrounding equipment - which serves as a secondary shield.
Technical Paper

A U.S. Perspective of Plug-in Hybrids and an Example of Sizing Study, Prototype Development and Validation of Hybridized FC-NEV with Bi-directional Grid Inter-connect for Sustainable Local Transportation

2006-09-14
2006-01-3001
There is increasing interest in the use of alternative fuels for transportation, due to the increasing cost of petroleum based fuels. One possible alternative to the use of petroleum for transportation is to use electric grid power. This paper explores a possible design solution based on a plug-in fuel cell hybrid. A scaled down version of FC-HEV that is applicable to this concept, has been implemented as a proof of concept with fast prototyping toolkits, including a 32 bit micro processor, Matlab/Simulink software and an embedded system development kit. The resulting prototype vehicle demonstrated a high gasoline equivalent MPG as well as a successful functionality of micro grid power generation.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Worn Shocks on Vehicle Handling and Stability

2006-04-03
2006-01-0563
The intent of this research is to understand the effects worn dampers have on vehicle stability and safety through dynamic model simulation. Dampers, an integral component of a vehicle's suspension system, play an important role in isolating road disturbances from the driver by controlling the motions of the sprung and unsprung masses. This paper will show that a decrease in damping leads to excessive body motions and a potentially unstable vehicle. The concept of poor damping affecting vehicle stability is well established through linear models. The next step is to extend this concept for non-linear models. This is accomplished through creating a vehicle simulation model and executing several driving maneuvers with various damper characteristics. The damper models used in this study are based on splines representing peak force versus velocity relationships.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of Military Wheeled Vehicle Driving Cycle Generator

2005-11-01
2005-01-3560
A methodology has been developed to generate military vehicle driving cycles for use in vehicle simulation models. This methodology is based upon the mission profile for a vehicle, which is typically given within a vehicle's specifications and lists the types of terrains that the vehicle is likely to encounter. A simplistic vehicle powertrain and road load model and the Bekker vehicle-soil interaction model are used to estimate the vehicle performance over each type of terrain. Two types of driving cycles are generated within a Graphical User Interface developed within MATLAB using the results of the vehicle models: Linear modes driving cycles, and Real-world driving cycles.
Journal Article

Design and Validation of a Control-Oriented Model of a Diesel Engine with Two-Stage Turbocharger

2009-09-13
2009-24-0122
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance. The large flexibility of these systems, able to operate in different modes, can determine a reduction of the turbo-lag phenomenon and improve the engine tuning. However, the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization to maximize the benefits of this technology. In addition, the design and calibration of the control system is particularly complex. The transitioning between single stage and two-stage operations poses further control issues. In this scenario a model-based approach could be a convenient and effective solution to investigate optimization, calibration and control issues, provided the developed models retain high accuracy, limited calibration effort and the ability to run in real time.
Technical Paper

Comparative study of different control strategies for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2009-09-13
2009-24-0071
Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) represent the middle point between Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs), thus combining benefits of the two architectures. PHEVs can achieve very high fuel economy while preserving full functionality of hybrids - long driving range, easy refueling, lower emissions etc. These advantages come at an expense of added complexity in terms of available fuel. The PHEV battery is recharged both though regenerative braking and directly by the grid thus adding extra dimension to the control problem. Along with the minimization of the fuel consumption, the amount of electricity taken from the power grid should be also considered, therefore the electricity generation mix and price become additional parameters that should be included in the cost function.
Journal Article

Energy, Economical and Environmental Analysis of Plug-In Hybrids Electric Vehicles Based on Common Driving Cycles

2009-09-13
2009-24-0062
The objective draw by this project is to develop tools for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) design, energy analysis and energy management, with the aim of analyzing the effect of design, driving cycles, charging frequency and energy management on performance, fuel economy, range and battery life. A Chevrolet Equinox fueled by bio diesel B20 has been hybridized at the Center for Automotive Research (CAR), at The Ohio State University. The vehicle model has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment, and validated based on laboratory and test. The PHEV battery pack has been modeled starting from Li-Ion batteries experimental data and then implemented into the simulator. In order to simulate “real world” scenarios, custom driving cycles/typical days were identified starting from average driving statistics and well-known cycles.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Characterization of Off-Road Terrain Severity

2006-10-31
2006-01-3498
Highway and roadway surface measurement is a practice that has been ongoing for decades now. This sort of measurement is intended to ensure a safe level of road perturbances. The measurement may be conducted by a slow moving apparatus directly measuring the elevation of the road, at varying distance intervals, to obtain a road profile, with varying degrees of resolution. An alternate means is to measure the surface roughness at highway speeds using accelerometers coupled with high speed distance measurements, such as laser sensors. Vehicles out rigged with such a system are termed inertial profilers. This type of inertial measurement provides a sort of filtered roadway profile. Much research has been conducted on the analysis of highway roughness, and the associated metrics involved. In many instances, it is desirable to maintain an off-road course such that the course will provide sufficient challenges to a vehicle during durability testing.
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