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Technical Paper

Effects of Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on Soot Behavior in Diesel Flame

2005-09-11
2005-24-007
This paper describes the soot behavior in a diesel flame. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume chamber with quiescent atmosphere. Parameters were the ambient temperature and the oxygen concentration. The integrated image of flame was taken, the natural emission of flame was detected and the KL factor was found by means of classical technique of laser light extinction. The results were discussed by use of the apparent rate of heat release. As a result, the ignition delay and the vortex with large scale generated in a diesel spray affect the soot behavior in a diesel flame.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Vapor Concentration of Fuel Mixed with High Volatility Component and Low Volatility Component

2010-10-25
2010-01-2274
The premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion in a compression ignition (Cl) engine is one of countermeasures against the very much severe regulation for exhaust gas of engine out. The authors have been proposed to use the fuel mixed with high volatility component and low volatility component to actualize PCCI combustion. This kind of fuel injected forms a fine and lean spray by the flash boiling phenomena which depends on the pressure and the temperature. The role of the former fuel is to decrease in the generation of particulate matters (PM) and that of the latter one is to break out the ignition. Thus, it is very much significant to find the distribution of vapor concentration of both fuels in a spray. This paper describes both distributions in a single diesel spray by use of the technique of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a constant volume chamber with high temperature at high pressure as the fundamental research.
Technical Paper

Atomization of Spray under Low-Pressure Field from Pintle Type Gasoline Injector

1992-02-01
920382
This paper presents an atomization mechanism of a spray injected into the low-pressure field, as the subject of injection system in a suction manifold of gasoline engine. Pure liquid fuel, which is n-Pentane or n-Hexane is injected into quiescent gaseous atmosphere at room-temperature and low- pressure through pintle type electronic control injector. Fuel sprays are observed by taking photographs for variation of the back pressure and the changes in spray characteristics with the back pressure below atmospheric pressure are examined in detail. In particular, in the case of the back pressure below the saturated vapor pressure of fuel, the atomization mechanism is discussed from a viewpoint of flash boiling phenomena, those are bubble growth rate and so on.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray Impinging on a Flat Wall by Means of Exciplex Fluorescence Method -In Case of High Injection Pressure-

1997-10-01
972916
Diesel sprays injected into a combustion chamber of a small sized high-speed CI engine impinge surely on a piston surface and a cylinder wall. As a consequence, their vaporization, mixture formation and combustion processes are affected by impingement phenomena. And the other important factors affecting on the processes is the injection pressure. Then, the distribution of the vapor concentration in a single diesel spray impinging on a flat and hot wall was experimented by the exciplex fluorescence method, as a simple case. The injection pressure was varied in the range from 55 MPa to 120 MPa. It is found that the distribution of the vapor concentration in this case is much leaner than that in the case of the low injection pressure of 17.8MPa.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of Fuel Vapor Concentration in Diesel Spray by Exciplex Fluorescence Method

1997-02-24
970796
An unsteady single spray of n-tridecane which was mixed with a small quantity of exciplex - forming dopants, that is naphthalene and TMPD, was impinged on a flat wall surface with high temperature of 550 K at a normal angle. These experiments were carried out in a quiescent N2 atmosphere with high temperature of 700 K and high pressure of 2.5 MPa. It was possible to generate the fluorescence emissions from the vapor and liquid phases in this spray, when a laser light sheet from a Nd:YAG laser was passing through the cross section of the spray containing its central axis. Then, clear 2 - D images of vapor and liquid phases in the spray were acquired simultaneously by this method. And, the vapor concentration was analyzed quantitatively by applying Lambert - Beer's law to the measured TMPD monomer fluorescence intensity from vapor phase, and by correcting the intensity for the effect of the quenching process due to the ambient temperature and fuel concentration.
Technical Paper

Organized Structure and Motion in Diesel Spray

1997-02-24
970641
This paper deals with the particle distribution in Diesel spray under the non-evaporating condition from the analytical aspect based on our experimental results. In the analysis, TAB method of KIVA II code and the k-ε turbulent model were used, and the mono-disperse distribution of the initial parcel's diameter, whose size equals to the nozzle hole diameter, was utilized in conjunction with the breakup model. The size distribution of atomized droplets (i.e. the χ-squared distribution function) is justified with the degree of freedom. It is shown that the ambient gas, which is initially quiescent, is induced and led to a turbulent gas jet. The turbulent gas jet which has a equivalent momentum with the Diesel spray was also examined by Discrete Vortex method. The quantitative jet growth was shown to be possible for the estimation and determination in its initial boundary values at the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Free and Impinging Gas Jets by Means of Image Processing

1997-02-24
970045
A transient gas jet seems to be a model of a diesel spray because it has no vaporization process. Recently, CNG is utilized in a diesel engine. In the case of diesel engine, sprays or jets have the free state in some cases, and they are impinging surely on the piston surface in the other cases. The 2-D image of acetylene gas with tracer particles was taken by high-speed photography. In both jets, the outer shape was measured on the images and the characteristics of the internal flow was obtained by particle image velocimetry. Then, the physical models of these jets were constructed by use of experimental results.
Technical Paper

Modeling Spray Impingement Considering Fuel Film Formation on the Wall

1997-02-24
970047
In this study, a new submodel concerning fuel film formation process is proposed in order to simulate the behavior of diesel spray impingement on relatively low temperature wall surface. Here, super - heating degree of the surface, defined by the temperature difference between the wall surface and the fuel saturated temperature, is newly considered for the behavior of impinged liquid droplets. In this spray impingement submodel, fuel film formation process, droplet interaction, film breakup process, and velocity and direction of dispersing droplets were considered based on several experimental results. This new submodel was incorporated into KIVA-II code, and the results were compared with experimental data KIVA-II original code and the spray / wall impingement model proposed by Naber & Reitz. As a result, it is found that the calculated results of impinging spray behavior by the new model agree well with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Fuel Vapor Concentration Inside a Flash Boiling Spray

1997-02-24
970871
For current passenger vehicles, multi-point injection (MPI) systems are extensively employed for gasoline engines due to ease of control and rapid response. In these systems, the pressure within the intake manifold to which the injectors are installed can fall below the saturated vapor pressure of some hydrocarbon components present in the fuel. Such a condition leads to an atomization process in which flash boiling occurs. In the present work, the atomization process under flash boiling conditions has been characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental investigation has been carried out with a spray test facility consisting of a variable pressure chamber equipped with a pintle type fuel nozzle. Infrared Extinction/Scattering (IRES) is utilized to provide temporal and spatially resolved distribution of the fuel vapor concentration within the spray.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Configurations for Characteristics of Non-Reacting Diesel Fuel Spray

1997-02-24
970355
The spray structure under the pressurized atmosphere at a room temperature was examined by the various photographic methods. The fuel flow inside the nozzle was investigated by the transparent model nozzles. The experimental analysis of sprays yielded the spray dispersing angle, the distribution of fuel droplets inside the spray and the jet intact core length. The obtained results of those spray characteristics showed that the spray structure is divided into two spatial regimes due to their formation mechanisms. Within 10 mm from the nozzle, the spray dispersion is dominated by the turbulent states of fuel which are initiated inside the nozzle. At distance from the nozzle z > 20 - 40 mm, the spray consists of an induced gas vortex street whose length is about half of the spray width. It is proposed that the kinematic viscosity of ambient gas is a important factor which rules the process of momentum exchange form the fuel jet to the ambient gas.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ambient Gas Properties for Characteristics of Non-Reacting Diesel Fuel Spray

1997-02-24
970352
In this paper, spray characteristics were examined to deduce the effect of ambient gas properties. Considered ambient properties were the viscosity μa and density ρa, and thus the kinematic viscosity νa. The objective of this paper is to reveal the effect of compressibility of the ambient gas to spray formation. In the experiments, the changed ranges were And a standard-sac volume nozzle of hole diameter dn =0.25 mm (ln/dn=3.0) was used at constant injection pressure difference (Δp=16.2 MPa). Also the injection pressure was varied in the range of 55 to 120 MPa with a mini-sac volume nozzle of hole diameter dn =0.20 mm (ln/dn =5.5). Several different gases were used to change the ambient viscosity at a room temperature. From the experiments, it is obtained that larger the viscosity, the more the spray spreads in the radial direction, thus the spray angle gets larger and the tip penetration became shorter.
Technical Paper

Detection of Luminescence from Pre-Autoignition Reaction Zone in S.I. Engine

1997-02-24
970508
Knocking phenomenon in a spark ignition engine breaks out due to autoignition in the unburned gas region. Investigation on the pre-autoignition reaction, that is, the reaction of cool and blue flames happening before autoignition must be carried out in detail to control knocking. The reactions appear in an extremely short time before autoignition, so, much difficulties accompany an attempt to grasp the situation. In the experiments presented hear, progress situation of pre-autoignition reaction was made clear by visualized phenomena in a rapid compression and expansion machine (R.C.E.M), which had good reproducibility. Taken by two ultra high-speed video cameras. We determined the ignition delay time was caught by analyzing the emission of light from the combustion chamber before knocking occurrence.
Technical Paper

CO2 Mixed Fuel Combustion System for Reduction of NO and Soot Emission in Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970319
We propose a new concept on simultaneous reduction of NO and soot emissions in Diesel engine exhaust by the diesel fuel oil (n-Tridecane) with liquefied CO2 dissolved. The CO2 dissolved fuel is expected to undergo flash boiling or gas separation when being injected into the combustion chamber and improve spray atomization and mixing process both of which are primary factors to govern soot formation. Also the internal EGR effect caused by CO2 injected with the fuel is expected to NO formation. In order to assess this concept, combustion experiments were carried out using a rapid compression and expansion machine. Thus, flame characteristics and heat release rate were analyzed for the combustion process of diesel fuel and CO2 mixed fuel. And, it is revealed that the diesel fuel-liquefied CO2 mixed fuel can successfully reduce NO emission in a diesel combustion system.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient Gas Diffusion Flame

1997-10-01
972965
CNG is one of the future fuel for a CI engine. Recently, the general tendency is the use of the high pressure injection system over 100 MPa in a CI engine for the near future severe regulation. Combustion phenomenon in a CI engine with such injection system is like a transient gas diffusion flame. The flow in a gas diffusion flame was investigated by the particle image velocimetry on its 2-D images, the relative soot concentration, the temperature and the relative CO2 concentration was detected in the experiments. And the model of transient gas diffusion flame was constructed by use of experimental data.
Technical Paper

Effect of ADOIL TAC Additive on Diesel Combustion

1991-11-01
912555
Abstract Some papers on the combustion in a diesel engine have been already presented to discuss the effect of the additive called ADOIL TAC. A bottom view DI diesel engine driven at 980rpm with no load was used in the experiment presented here, in order to make clear this effect. JIS second class light diesel fuel oil was injected through a hole nozzle at the normal test run. The additive was intermixed 0.01 vol. % in this fuel oil, in the experiments to compare with the normal combustion. The flame was taken by direct high-speed photography. Profiles of flame temperature and KL were detected on the film by image processing, applying the two-color method. Soot was visualized by high-speed laser shadowgraphy, and the heat release rate was calculated using the cylinder pressure diagram. Discussion on the effect of the additive on the combustion phenomena was made by using all the data.
Technical Paper

Knocking Phenomena in a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

1992-02-01
920064
In this study, a rapid compression and expansion machine(RCEM) with a pancake combustion chamber was designed to investigate fundamentally on the knocking phenomena in spark ignition(S.I) engines. This RCEM is intended to simulate combustion in an actual engine. The homogeneous pre-mixture of n-pentane and air was charged into a quiescent atmosphere of the chamber. Then, the combustion field become simpler in this machine than it in a real S.I. engine. Also, the combustion phenomena, that is a cylinder pressure history, the behavior of flame propagation and so on, with high reproducibility are realized in this machine. The phenomena caught in this experiment were so-called low speed knocking. And, this knocking characteristics such as a knock intensity and a knock mass fraction were revealed by the cylinder pressure analysis varying the charge pressure and the equivalence ratio of the mixture, a compression ratio and an ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Vizualization of Evaporative Diesel Spray Impinging Upon Wall Surface by Exciplex Fluorescence Method

1992-02-01
920578
A single diesel spray of n-decane which was miscible with a small quantity of exciplex dopants was injected from a hole nozzle into a quiescent high-temperature and high-pressure atmosphere of nitrogen, and was impinged in a normaldirection upon a flat wall with elevated temperature. This experiment was to serve as a simplified model of the actual state in a combustion chamber of diesel engines. When a thin sheet of laser light from Nd:YAG laser is passing through the cross section of this spray containing its central axis, it is able to generate fluorescent emissions from vapor and liquid phases in this evaporating spray. Then, clear 2-dimensional images concerning the concentration distributions of vapor and liquid phases were obtained simultaneously, by an exciplex fluorescence method using an image-intensifier and a CCD camera system. The dispersion processes of vapor and liquid phases in this impinging spray near the wall were analyzed with an image analyzer.
Technical Paper

Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

1992-02-01
920697
It is unavoidable that a DI diesel engine exhausts a blue and white smoke at starting, especially in the cold atmosphere. In the experiments presented here, a small DI diesel engine started under the conditions of coolant and suction air whose minimum temperatures were 255 K and 268 K, respectively. The flame was photographed by high-speed photography, the temperature of flame and the soot concentration were measured by two-color method, and CO2 concentration was detected by luminous method. The engine cannot be started over several cycles when the coolant temperature is 255 K and suction air temperature is 268 K. As the temperature of coolant and suction air are decreasing, the maxima of the cylinder pressure, the flame temperature, the soot concentration and CO2 concentration are decreasing. Luminous small dots or small lumps of flame become scattered in the piston cavity.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Combustion in an IDI Diesel Engine with a Swirl Chamber Made of Ceramics

1992-02-01
920696
There is a concept that the increase in the temperature of charge in a combustion chamber and the shield of heat transferred through a chamber wall can facilitate the oxidation of soot and reduce the discharge of soot from the engine. In the experiments presented here in, an IDI diesel engine was used to inspect the concept. The engine was installed a bigger sized cylindrical swirl chamber which was equipped with two flat quarts windows, in order to observe the combustion phenomena and to apply the optical measurement. The experiments were carried out using two types of divided chambers, that is, the swirl chamber made of ceramics and that made of steel, to examine the the effects mentioned above.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking Mechanism Applying the Chemical Luminescence Method

1995-02-01
951005
One of the most effective means of improving the thermal efficiency and the specific fuel consumption in spark ignition engines is the increase of the compression ratio. However, there is a limit to it because of the generation of knocking combustion due to the rise of temperature and pressure in the unburnt mixture. Also in turbo charged spark ignition engines, the ignition timing cannot be advanced until MBT in order to avoid the knocking phenomena. Generally speaking, it is very difficult to investigate the phenomena in an actual engine, because there are many restriction and the phenomena are too complex and too fast. According-ly, it is advantageous to reveal the phenomena fundamentally, including the autoignition process of the end-gas by using simplified model equipment. Therefore, a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) with a pan-cake combustion chamber was designed and developed for the experiments presented here.
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