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Technical Paper

Effect of Breakup Model on Diesel Spray Structure Simulated by Large Eddy Simulation

2009-09-13
2009-24-0024
LES of non-evaporative diesel spray have been performed to investigate the effects of breakup models of Modified TAB, WAVE and KHRT model on computational results. KIVALES that is LES version of KIVA code was used for base code. In our KIVALES, CIP scheme was incorporated in order to suppress the numerical diffusion. Results showed that the breakup model is significantly affected on the calculated spray shape, because the droplet diameter determined by breakup models affects on the transmittance of the droplet momentum into the ambient gas, the evolution of the vortex structure in the gas phase and the droplet dispersion by the vortex structure.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Vapor Concentration of Fuel Mixed with High Volatility Component and Low Volatility Component

2010-10-25
2010-01-2274
The premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion in a compression ignition (Cl) engine is one of countermeasures against the very much severe regulation for exhaust gas of engine out. The authors have been proposed to use the fuel mixed with high volatility component and low volatility component to actualize PCCI combustion. This kind of fuel injected forms a fine and lean spray by the flash boiling phenomena which depends on the pressure and the temperature. The role of the former fuel is to decrease in the generation of particulate matters (PM) and that of the latter one is to break out the ignition. Thus, it is very much significant to find the distribution of vapor concentration of both fuels in a spray. This paper describes both distributions in a single diesel spray by use of the technique of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a constant volume chamber with high temperature at high pressure as the fundamental research.
Technical Paper

Vaporization Characteristics and Liquid-Phase Penetration for Multi-Component Fuels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0529
The maximum liquid-phase penetration and vaporization behavior was investigated by using simultaneous measurement for mie-scattered light images and shadowgraph ones. The objective of this study was to analyze effect of variant parameters (injection pressure, ambient gas condition and fuel temperature) and fuel properties on vaporization behavior, and to investigate liquid phase penetration for the single- and multi-component fuels. The experiments were conducted in a constant-volume vessel with optical access. Fuel was injected into the vessel with electronically controlled common rail injector.
Technical Paper

Effect of Operational Condition on PM in Exhausted Gas through CI Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4077
The particulate matters (PM) containing in the exhaust gas through a CI engine affects strongly the human health. Thus, it is very significant to measure the mechanism of PM itself generation for actualization of a clean CI engine. On the standpoint mentioned above, the authors carried out the experiments of the characteristics of PM generated from a small high speed DI CI engine with a single cylinder. The variables were the equivalence ratio, the injection timing, the EGR rate and the sort of fuel. As a result, the effect of experimental condition on the distribution of PM is clear through experiments.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Micro Structure in a Diesel Spray by Use of Photography with High Spatial Resolution

2008-10-06
2008-01-2465
It is very much necessary for researchers and engineers whose work is the field of combustion in a CI engine to find the information of droplets in a diesel spray. The information is strongly required to construct the model of spray built in the numerical code for its simulation and to be used for the verification of the accuracy of the calculation. This paper describes the photographing system with high spatial resolution, the distribution of droplet size and the vortex scale caused by the droplets motion by means of this system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Convective Schemes on LES of Fuel Spray by Use of KIVALES

2008-04-14
2008-01-0930
In this study, a numerical experiment using a 2D convective equation and LES of an evaporative diesel spray for different convective schemes has been performed to examine effects of convective schemes on a fuel-air mixture formation of the diesel spray simulation and to determine the convective scheme used in KIVALES. In addition to KIVALES original schemes, such as QSOU, PDC and IDC, CIP was incorporated into KIVALES in order to calculate the convective terms with low numerical diffusion. The numerical experiment using the 2D convective equation showed that the numerical diffusion of CIP scheme was lowest in the convective schemes used in present study. However CIP scheme used was not a monotone scheme completely due to the overshoot and the undershoot of the scalar provided near the boundary. Hence, CIP scheme was employed for only the convective term of the LES momentum equation, while the other convective schemes were calculated using QSOU, which is a monotone scheme.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ambient Gas Conditions on Ignition and Combustion Process of Oxygenated Fuel Sprays

2003-05-19
2003-01-1790
This work presents the ignition delay time characteristics of oxygenated fuel sprays under simulated diesel engine conditions. A constant volume combustion vessel is used for the experiments. The fuels used in the experiments were three oxygenated fuels: diethylene glycol dibutyl ether, diethylene glycol diethyl ether, and diethylene glycol dimethyl ether. JIS 2nd class gas oil was used as the reference fuel. The ambient gas temperature and oxygen concentration were ranging from 700 to 1100K and from 21 to 9%, respectively. The results show that the ignition delay of each oxygenated fuel tested in this experiments exhibits shorter than that of gas oil fuel for the wide range of ambient gas conditions. Also, NTC (negative temperature coefficient) behavior which appears under shock tube experiment for homogenous fuel-air mixture was observed on low ambient gas oxygen concentration for each fuel. And at the condition, the ignition behavior exhibits two-stage phase.
Technical Paper

Soot Kinetic Modeling and Empirical Validation on Smokeless Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

2003-05-19
2003-01-1789
This paper provides new insights on the mechanism of the smokeless diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels, based on a combination of soot kinetic modeling and optical diagnostics. The chemical effects of fuel compositions, including aromatics - paraffins blend, neat oxygenated fuels and oxygenate additives, on sooting equivalence ratio ‘ϕ’ - temperature ‘T’ dependence were numerically examined using a detailed soot kinetic model. To better understand the physical factors affecting soot formation in oxygenated fuel sprays, the effects of injection pressure and ambient gas temperature on the flame lift-off length and relative soot concentration in oxygenated fuel jets were experimentally investigated. The computational results show that the leaner mixture side of soot formation peninsula on the ϕ - T map, rather than the lower temperature one, should be utilized to suppress the formation of PAHs and ultra-fine particles together with the large reduction in particulate mass.
Technical Paper

On-Board Measurement of Engine Performance and Emissions in Diesel Vehicle Operated with Bio-diesel Fuel

2004-03-08
2004-01-0083
This paper describes the results of on-board measurement of engine performance and emissions in diesel vehicle operated with bio-diesel fuels. Here, two waste-cooking oils were investigated. One fuel is a waste-cooking oil methyl esters. This fuel is actually applied to a garbage collection vehicle with DI diesel engine (B100) and the city bus (B20; 80% gas oil is mixed into B100 in volume) as an alternative fuel of gas oil in Kyoto City. Another one is a fuel with ozone treatment by removing impurities from raw waste-cooking oils. Here, in order to improve the fuel properties, kerosene is mixed 70% volume in this fuel. This mixed fuel (i-BDF) is applied into several tracks and buses in Wakayama City. Then, these 3 bio-diesel fuels were applied to the on-board experiments and the results were compared with gas oil operation case.
Technical Paper

Flame Structure and Combustion Characteristics in Diesel Combustion Fueled with Bio-diesel

2004-03-08
2004-01-0084
The Flame structure and combustion characteristics for two waste-cooking oils were investigated in detail. One fuel is the waste-cooking oil methyl esters. This fuel is actually applied to the garbage collection vehicle with DI diesel engine (B100) and the city bus (B20; 80% gas oil is mixed into B100 in volume) as an alternative fuel of gas oil in Kyoto City. Another one is the fuel with ozone treatment by removing impurities from raw waste-cooking oils. Here, in order to improve the fuel properties, kerosene is mixed 70% volume in this fuel. This mixed fuel (i-BDF) is applied into several tracks and buses in Wakayama City. In the experiments, the used fuels were gas oil, i-BDF, B100 and B20. Spray characteristics and basic combustion properties were measured inside a rapid compression and an expansion machine (RCEM).
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Intermediate Products Generated During Diesel Combustion by Means of Total Gas Sampling

2004-10-25
2004-01-2923
It is very significant to take the intermediate products in diesel combustion for understanding the generation of exhaust emissions like SOF, dry soot and so on. The products generated in a constant volume combustion chamber were sampled by pricking a sheet of polyester film installed in the chamber to freeze the chemical reaction. The gas was analyzed by a gas chromatography. The fuel used was n-heptane. It is able to explain the generation of exhaust emissions by the experimental results. The other objective is to simulate the intermediate products. It is capable of explaining the relation between the simulated and experimental results.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Transient Spray of Fuel with Multiple Components

2005-10-24
2005-01-3846
Almost all the researches relating to the characteristics of transient spray have carried out by using the fuel with only single component. However, the actual fuel oil supplying to a reciprocating engine has multiple components. Thus, this paper describes the experimental results on the characteristics of a transient spray formed by the mixed fuel with three kinds of pure fuel. The state of periphery of non evaporating spray near the nozzle outlet was arranged by the dimensionless number. And the technique of laser Induced fluorescence (LIF) was applied to an evaporating spray to find the state of mixing.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on Soot Behavior in Diesel Flame

2005-09-11
2005-24-007
This paper describes the soot behavior in a diesel flame. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume chamber with quiescent atmosphere. Parameters were the ambient temperature and the oxygen concentration. The integrated image of flame was taken, the natural emission of flame was detected and the KL factor was found by means of classical technique of laser light extinction. The results were discussed by use of the apparent rate of heat release. As a result, the ignition delay and the vortex with large scale generated in a diesel spray affect the soot behavior in a diesel flame.
Technical Paper

Controlling PCCI Combustion with Mixed Fuel - Application of Flashing Spray to Early Injection

2007-04-16
2007-01-0624
A diesel engine operating in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) mode promises the reduction of engine-out emissions of NOx and particulate matter. A serious issue for PCCI operation with the early injection timing during the compression stroke is the difficulty of controlling the mixture formation process. In this study, a mixed fuel consisting of high volatility fuel and high ignitability one is applied in order to develop a control technique for the mixture preparation. In particular, we focuses on a flash boiling phenomenon of mixed fuel. For pure substance, the quality of flashing spray is dominated by the degree of superheat. In contrast, that of mixed fuel is affected much by low boiling point fuel.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Auto-Ignition and Combustion of Unsteady Synthetic Gas Jet

2007-04-16
2007-01-0629
It is thought that the synthetic gas, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has a potential to be an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines, because a heating value of the synthetic gas is higher than one of hydrogen or natural gas. A purpose of this study is to acquire stable auto-ignition and combustion of the synthetic gas which is supposed to be applied into a direct-injection compression ignition engine. In this study, the effects of ambient gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations on auto-ignition characteristics of the synthetic gas with changing percentage of hydrogen (H2) or carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the synthetic gas. An electronically-controlled, hydraulically-actuated gas injector was used to control a precise injection timing and period of gaseous fuels, and the experiments were conducted in an optically accessible, constant-volume combustion chamber under simulated quiescent diesel engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Instantaneous and Statistical Structures of Non-Evaporative Diesel Spray

2007-07-23
2007-01-1899
Instantaneous and statistical spray structures of diesel sprays are examined with numerical simulation and experiment. KIVALES, which is LES version of KIVA code, is used as the computational code. Injection velocity profiles measured by momentum method are employed for the initial condition of the calculation. In the experiment, shadowgraph photography is performed to measure macroscopic spray structure. LES approach predicts the instantaneous structure, which are the heterogeneity and intermittency in the periphery of the spray and the cyclic variability of each injection event. Moreover, LES can predict both the instantaneous and statistical spray structures.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Through Diesel Combustion of Mixed Fuel Oil Composed of Fuel with High Volatility and that with Low Volatility

2004-06-08
2004-01-1845
The mixed fuel composed of two kinds of fuel oil whose boiling temperature is different each other forms the fine spray with minute droplets when its condition crosses over the two-phase region. It is expected that the fuel with low volatility dominates the ignition delay and that with high volatility does the generation of particulate matter. The experiments were carried out in a rapid compression and expansion machine and in an actual high-speed small sized diesel engine by use of this kind of fuel. The experimental results prove this expectation.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling and Laser Diagnostics of Soot Formation Process in Diesel Jet Flame

2004-03-08
2004-01-1398
This work investigates the soot formation process in diesel jet flame using a detailed kinetic soot model implemented into the KIVA-3V multidimensional CFD code and 2D imaging by use of time-resolved laser induced incandescence (LII). The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver using Message Passing Interface (MPI). This allows for the chemical reactions to be simulated in parallel on multiple CPUs. The detailed soot model used is based on the method of moments, which begins with fuel pyrolysis, followed by the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, their growth and coagulation into spherical particles, and finally, surface growth and oxidation of the particles. The model can describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of soot formation processes such as soot precursors distributions, nucleation rate and surface reaction rate.
Technical Paper

Effect of Octane Rating and Charge Stratification on Combustion and Operating Range with DI PCCI Operation

2007-01-23
2007-01-0053
A single cylinder engine has been run with direct-injection premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation. The operation is fueled with primary reference fuels for a wide variety of injection timing and equivalence ratio to investigate the effect of charge stratification and octane rating on PCCI combustion. The test results showed that although the change of the injection timing can gain the high combustion efficiency for a wide range of equivalence ratio, the combustion phasing where the high combustion efficiency is accomplished is not varied only by changing the injection timings. Therefore, the only change of injection timings does not improve the thermal efficiency which is influenced by the combustion phasing. On the other hand, at the fixed compression ratio, inlet air temperature and so on, the octane rating is useful in altering the combustion phasing.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Reformulated Biodiesel with Mixing of Lower Boiling Point Fuel

2007-04-16
2007-01-0621
Authors propose the reformulation technique of physical properties of Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) by mixing lower boiling point fuels. In this study, waste cooking oil methyl ester (B100), which have been produced in Kyoto city, is used in behalf of BDF. N-Heptane (C7H16) and n-Dodecane (C12H26) are used as low and medium boiling point fuel. Mixed fuel of BDF with lower boiling point fuels have lighter quality as compared with neat BDF. This result is based on the chemical-thermo dynamical liquid-vapor equilibrium theory. This paper describes fundamental spray and combustion characteristics of mixed fuel of B100 with lower boiling point fuels as well as the reformulation technique. By mixing lower boiling point fuel, lighter quality fuels can be refined. Thus, mixed fuels have higher volatility and lower viscosity. Therefore, vaporization of mixed fuel spray is promoted and liquid phase penetration of mixed fuel shortens as compared with that of neat BDF.
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