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Technical Paper

Distribution of Vapor Concentration of Fuel Mixed with High Volatility Component and Low Volatility Component

2010-10-25
2010-01-2274
The premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion in a compression ignition (Cl) engine is one of countermeasures against the very much severe regulation for exhaust gas of engine out. The authors have been proposed to use the fuel mixed with high volatility component and low volatility component to actualize PCCI combustion. This kind of fuel injected forms a fine and lean spray by the flash boiling phenomena which depends on the pressure and the temperature. The role of the former fuel is to decrease in the generation of particulate matters (PM) and that of the latter one is to break out the ignition. Thus, it is very much significant to find the distribution of vapor concentration of both fuels in a spray. This paper describes both distributions in a single diesel spray by use of the technique of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a constant volume chamber with high temperature at high pressure as the fundamental research.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Non-Evaporative and Evaporative Diesel Spray in Constant Volume Vessel by Use of KIVALES

2006-10-16
2006-01-3334
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is applied to non-evaporative and evaporative diesel spray simulations. KIVALES, which is LES version of KIVA code, is used as the LES computational code. Modified TAB model is used as breakup model, and interpolated donor cell differencing scheme is employed to calculate convective terms. To validity LES simulation, LES results using KIVALES are compared with experimental results and simulated results with conventional RANS approach using KIVA3V res.2. The results show that the LES simulation of non-evaporative spray depends on the grid size in comparison with RANS simulation, and good agreement is obtained between experimental results and the LES results with fine grid (720,000 cells). Furthermore, asymmetric non-evaporative spray which has intermittency at the outer edge of sprays is simulated, since instantaneous turbulent flow field can be predicted directly in LES case.
Technical Paper

A Fundamental Study on Ignition Characteristics of Two-Component Fuel in a Diesel Spray

2006-10-16
2006-01-3383
The authors have explored the potential of fuel to control spray and its combustion processes in a diesel engine. Fuel has some potential for low emission and high thermal efficiency because its volatility and ignitability are one of the ultimate performing factors of the engines. In present study, the ignition process of mixed fuel spray was investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel and in a rapid compression and expansion machine, The ignition delay based on the diagram of rate of the heat release, the imaging of natural flame emissions and the numerical simulation were carried out to clarify the effect of the physical and chemical properties of mixed fuel on ignition characteristics.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Diesel Spray Combustion with Eddy-Dissipation Model and CIP Method by Use of KIVALES

2007-04-16
2007-01-0247
Three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) has been conducted for a diesel spray flame using KIVALES which is LES version of KIVA code. Modified TAB model, velocity interpolation model and rigid sphere model are used to improve the prediction of the fuel-mixture process in the diesel spray. Combustion is simulated using the Eddy-Dissipation model. CIP method was incorporated into the KIVALES in order to suppress the numerical instability on the combustible flow. The formation of soot and NO was simulated using Hiroyasu model and KIVA original model. Three different grid resolutions were used to examine the grid dependency. The result shows that the LES approach with 0.5 mm grid size is able to resolve the instantaneous spray with the intermittency in the spray periphery, the axi-symmetric shape and meandering flow after the end of injection as shown in the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Effect of Octane Rating and Charge Stratification on Combustion and Operating Range with DI PCCI Operation

2007-01-23
2007-01-0053
A single cylinder engine has been run with direct-injection premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation. The operation is fueled with primary reference fuels for a wide variety of injection timing and equivalence ratio to investigate the effect of charge stratification and octane rating on PCCI combustion. The test results showed that although the change of the injection timing can gain the high combustion efficiency for a wide range of equivalence ratio, the combustion phasing where the high combustion efficiency is accomplished is not varied only by changing the injection timings. Therefore, the only change of injection timings does not improve the thermal efficiency which is influenced by the combustion phasing. On the other hand, at the fixed compression ratio, inlet air temperature and so on, the octane rating is useful in altering the combustion phasing.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Auto-Ignition and Combustion of Unsteady Synthetic Gas Jet

2007-04-16
2007-01-0629
It is thought that the synthetic gas, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has a potential to be an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines, because a heating value of the synthetic gas is higher than one of hydrogen or natural gas. A purpose of this study is to acquire stable auto-ignition and combustion of the synthetic gas which is supposed to be applied into a direct-injection compression ignition engine. In this study, the effects of ambient gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations on auto-ignition characteristics of the synthetic gas with changing percentage of hydrogen (H2) or carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the synthetic gas. An electronically-controlled, hydraulically-actuated gas injector was used to control a precise injection timing and period of gaseous fuels, and the experiments were conducted in an optically accessible, constant-volume combustion chamber under simulated quiescent diesel engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Reformulated Biodiesel with Mixing of Lower Boiling Point Fuel

2007-04-16
2007-01-0621
Authors propose the reformulation technique of physical properties of Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) by mixing lower boiling point fuels. In this study, waste cooking oil methyl ester (B100), which have been produced in Kyoto city, is used in behalf of BDF. N-Heptane (C7H16) and n-Dodecane (C12H26) are used as low and medium boiling point fuel. Mixed fuel of BDF with lower boiling point fuels have lighter quality as compared with neat BDF. This result is based on the chemical-thermo dynamical liquid-vapor equilibrium theory. This paper describes fundamental spray and combustion characteristics of mixed fuel of B100 with lower boiling point fuels as well as the reformulation technique. By mixing lower boiling point fuel, lighter quality fuels can be refined. Thus, mixed fuels have higher volatility and lower viscosity. Therefore, vaporization of mixed fuel spray is promoted and liquid phase penetration of mixed fuel shortens as compared with that of neat BDF.
Technical Paper

Controlling PCCI Combustion with Mixed Fuel - Application of Flashing Spray to Early Injection

2007-04-16
2007-01-0624
A diesel engine operating in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) mode promises the reduction of engine-out emissions of NOx and particulate matter. A serious issue for PCCI operation with the early injection timing during the compression stroke is the difficulty of controlling the mixture formation process. In this study, a mixed fuel consisting of high volatility fuel and high ignitability one is applied in order to develop a control technique for the mixture preparation. In particular, we focuses on a flash boiling phenomenon of mixed fuel. For pure substance, the quality of flashing spray is dominated by the degree of superheat. In contrast, that of mixed fuel is affected much by low boiling point fuel.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Micro Structure in a Diesel Spray by Use of Photography with High Spatial Resolution

2008-10-06
2008-01-2465
It is very much necessary for researchers and engineers whose work is the field of combustion in a CI engine to find the information of droplets in a diesel spray. The information is strongly required to construct the model of spray built in the numerical code for its simulation and to be used for the verification of the accuracy of the calculation. This paper describes the photographing system with high spatial resolution, the distribution of droplet size and the vortex scale caused by the droplets motion by means of this system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Convective Schemes on LES of Fuel Spray by Use of KIVALES

2008-04-14
2008-01-0930
In this study, a numerical experiment using a 2D convective equation and LES of an evaporative diesel spray for different convective schemes has been performed to examine effects of convective schemes on a fuel-air mixture formation of the diesel spray simulation and to determine the convective scheme used in KIVALES. In addition to KIVALES original schemes, such as QSOU, PDC and IDC, CIP was incorporated into KIVALES in order to calculate the convective terms with low numerical diffusion. The numerical experiment using the 2D convective equation showed that the numerical diffusion of CIP scheme was lowest in the convective schemes used in present study. However CIP scheme used was not a monotone scheme completely due to the overshoot and the undershoot of the scalar provided near the boundary. Hence, CIP scheme was employed for only the convective term of the LES momentum equation, while the other convective schemes were calculated using QSOU, which is a monotone scheme.
Technical Paper

OH Radical Generation and Soot Formation/Oxidation in DI Diesel Engine

1998-10-19
982630
OH radical generated in a DI diesel engine has a close relationship to soot oxidation. To clarify this fact, the distribution of the natural emission of OH radical was captured by means of an interference filter system and that of soot was detected by the simultaneous application of a laser induced incandescence (LB) and a laser induced scattering (LIS). The experiments were carried out in a small sized high-speed DI diesel engine installed with an optical access view. The generation of OH radical and the formation/oxidation of soot are discussed by using both images.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Intermediate Products Generated During Diesel Combustion by Means of Total Gas Sampling

2004-10-25
2004-01-2923
It is very significant to take the intermediate products in diesel combustion for understanding the generation of exhaust emissions like SOF, dry soot and so on. The products generated in a constant volume combustion chamber were sampled by pricking a sheet of polyester film installed in the chamber to freeze the chemical reaction. The gas was analyzed by a gas chromatography. The fuel used was n-heptane. It is able to explain the generation of exhaust emissions by the experimental results. The other objective is to simulate the intermediate products. It is capable of explaining the relation between the simulated and experimental results.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Through Diesel Combustion of Mixed Fuel Oil Composed of Fuel with High Volatility and that with Low Volatility

2004-06-08
2004-01-1845
The mixed fuel composed of two kinds of fuel oil whose boiling temperature is different each other forms the fine spray with minute droplets when its condition crosses over the two-phase region. It is expected that the fuel with low volatility dominates the ignition delay and that with high volatility does the generation of particulate matter. The experiments were carried out in a rapid compression and expansion machine and in an actual high-speed small sized diesel engine by use of this kind of fuel. The experimental results prove this expectation.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling and Laser Diagnostics of Soot Formation Process in Diesel Jet Flame

2004-03-08
2004-01-1398
This work investigates the soot formation process in diesel jet flame using a detailed kinetic soot model implemented into the KIVA-3V multidimensional CFD code and 2D imaging by use of time-resolved laser induced incandescence (LII). The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver using Message Passing Interface (MPI). This allows for the chemical reactions to be simulated in parallel on multiple CPUs. The detailed soot model used is based on the method of moments, which begins with fuel pyrolysis, followed by the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, their growth and coagulation into spherical particles, and finally, surface growth and oxidation of the particles. The model can describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of soot formation processes such as soot precursors distributions, nucleation rate and surface reaction rate.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Study of Single Droplet and Droplets Array Combustion with Premixed Gas

2002-03-04
2002-01-0648
In the actual spray combustion fields, coupled combustion process should be occurred, between the pre-evaporate fuel component and remaining liquid droplets. Therefore it is insufficient to clarify the fundamental spray combustion mechanism with use of only droplet or only premixed mixture analyze method. In this study, the premixed mixture - droplets coupled combustion field was focused as a model of the actual spray combustion field. In the experiments, the effect of the flame pattern and the combustion rate constant by the interference between the droplets were clarified with the variation of fuels used by droplets. Besides, the effect of the premixed gas surrounding the droplets was clarified by the experiment on coupled combustion. The experiments were carried out under the normal gravity field and the micro gravity field to estimate the effect of convection in combustion field
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis on Soot Formation Process In DI Diesel Combustion Chamber by Use of Optical Diagnostics

2002-03-04
2002-01-0893
Soot formation process inside the combustion chamber of an DI diesel engine is focused as a phenomenological basic scheme by using several optical diagnostics technique for the improvement of diesel exhaust emission. We have conducted the series of optical measurement research for the clarification of combustion field in an DI diesel engine. Then, this paper is a kind of review by adding the fuel vapor properties and particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis with focusing the soot formation process. The experiments were carried out in a small sized high-speed DI diesel engine installed with an optical access view. The spray characteristics and its flow field in 2-D field were measured by laser sheet scattering (LIS) method and PIV scheme.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient Gas Diffusion Flame

1997-10-01
972965
CNG is one of the future fuel for a CI engine. Recently, the general tendency is the use of the high pressure injection system over 100 MPa in a CI engine for the near future severe regulation. Combustion phenomenon in a CI engine with such injection system is like a transient gas diffusion flame. The flow in a gas diffusion flame was investigated by the particle image velocimetry on its 2-D images, the relative soot concentration, the temperature and the relative CO2 concentration was detected in the experiments. And the model of transient gas diffusion flame was constructed by use of experimental data.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Free and Impinging Gas Jets by Means of Image Processing

1997-02-24
970045
A transient gas jet seems to be a model of a diesel spray because it has no vaporization process. Recently, CNG is utilized in a diesel engine. In the case of diesel engine, sprays or jets have the free state in some cases, and they are impinging surely on the piston surface in the other cases. The 2-D image of acetylene gas with tracer particles was taken by high-speed photography. In both jets, the outer shape was measured on the images and the characteristics of the internal flow was obtained by particle image velocimetry. Then, the physical models of these jets were constructed by use of experimental results.
Technical Paper

Organized Structure and Motion in Diesel Spray

1997-02-24
970641
This paper deals with the particle distribution in Diesel spray under the non-evaporating condition from the analytical aspect based on our experimental results. In the analysis, TAB method of KIVA II code and the k-ε turbulent model were used, and the mono-disperse distribution of the initial parcel's diameter, whose size equals to the nozzle hole diameter, was utilized in conjunction with the breakup model. The size distribution of atomized droplets (i.e. the χ-squared distribution function) is justified with the degree of freedom. It is shown that the ambient gas, which is initially quiescent, is induced and led to a turbulent gas jet. The turbulent gas jet which has a equivalent momentum with the Diesel spray was also examined by Discrete Vortex method. The quantitative jet growth was shown to be possible for the estimation and determination in its initial boundary values at the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Fuel Design Concept for Low Emission in Engine Systems 4th Report: Effect of Spray Characteristics of Mixed Fuel on Exhaust Concentrations in Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1038
In this study, the novel fuel design concept has been proposed in order to realize the low emission and combustion control in engine systems. In this fuel design concept, the mixed fuels with a high volatility fuel (gasoline or gaseous fuel components) and a low volatility fuel (gas oil or fuel oil components) are used in order to improve the spray characteristics by flash boiling. In our previous papers on this study, the fundamental characteristics of spray and its combustion of mixed fuel were reported. In this paper, heat release and exhaust emission (smoke, NOx and THC) characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine operated with the mixed fuels were investigated under each load. The exhaust performance of diesel engine could be improved using mixed fuel, because fuel properties and spray characteristics were controlled by changing mixing fraction of the mixed fuel.
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