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Technical Paper

Distribution of Vapor Concentration of Fuel Mixed with High Volatility Component and Low Volatility Component

2010-10-25
2010-01-2274
The premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion in a compression ignition (Cl) engine is one of countermeasures against the very much severe regulation for exhaust gas of engine out. The authors have been proposed to use the fuel mixed with high volatility component and low volatility component to actualize PCCI combustion. This kind of fuel injected forms a fine and lean spray by the flash boiling phenomena which depends on the pressure and the temperature. The role of the former fuel is to decrease in the generation of particulate matters (PM) and that of the latter one is to break out the ignition. Thus, it is very much significant to find the distribution of vapor concentration of both fuels in a spray. This paper describes both distributions in a single diesel spray by use of the technique of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a constant volume chamber with high temperature at high pressure as the fundamental research.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Transient Spray of Fuel with Multiple Components

2005-10-24
2005-01-3846
Almost all the researches relating to the characteristics of transient spray have carried out by using the fuel with only single component. However, the actual fuel oil supplying to a reciprocating engine has multiple components. Thus, this paper describes the experimental results on the characteristics of a transient spray formed by the mixed fuel with three kinds of pure fuel. The state of periphery of non evaporating spray near the nozzle outlet was arranged by the dimensionless number. And the technique of laser Induced fluorescence (LIF) was applied to an evaporating spray to find the state of mixing.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Non-Evaporative and Evaporative Diesel Spray in Constant Volume Vessel by Use of KIVALES

2006-10-16
2006-01-3334
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is applied to non-evaporative and evaporative diesel spray simulations. KIVALES, which is LES version of KIVA code, is used as the LES computational code. Modified TAB model is used as breakup model, and interpolated donor cell differencing scheme is employed to calculate convective terms. To validity LES simulation, LES results using KIVALES are compared with experimental results and simulated results with conventional RANS approach using KIVA3V res.2. The results show that the LES simulation of non-evaporative spray depends on the grid size in comparison with RANS simulation, and good agreement is obtained between experimental results and the LES results with fine grid (720,000 cells). Furthermore, asymmetric non-evaporative spray which has intermittency at the outer edge of sprays is simulated, since instantaneous turbulent flow field can be predicted directly in LES case.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Diesel Spray Combustion with Eddy-Dissipation Model and CIP Method by Use of KIVALES

2007-04-16
2007-01-0247
Three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) has been conducted for a diesel spray flame using KIVALES which is LES version of KIVA code. Modified TAB model, velocity interpolation model and rigid sphere model are used to improve the prediction of the fuel-mixture process in the diesel spray. Combustion is simulated using the Eddy-Dissipation model. CIP method was incorporated into the KIVALES in order to suppress the numerical instability on the combustible flow. The formation of soot and NO was simulated using Hiroyasu model and KIVA original model. Three different grid resolutions were used to examine the grid dependency. The result shows that the LES approach with 0.5 mm grid size is able to resolve the instantaneous spray with the intermittency in the spray periphery, the axi-symmetric shape and meandering flow after the end of injection as shown in the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Organized Structure and Motion in Diesel Spray

1997-02-24
970641
This paper deals with the particle distribution in Diesel spray under the non-evaporating condition from the analytical aspect based on our experimental results. In the analysis, TAB method of KIVA II code and the k-ε turbulent model were used, and the mono-disperse distribution of the initial parcel's diameter, whose size equals to the nozzle hole diameter, was utilized in conjunction with the breakup model. The size distribution of atomized droplets (i.e. the χ-squared distribution function) is justified with the degree of freedom. It is shown that the ambient gas, which is initially quiescent, is induced and led to a turbulent gas jet. The turbulent gas jet which has a equivalent momentum with the Diesel spray was also examined by Discrete Vortex method. The quantitative jet growth was shown to be possible for the estimation and determination in its initial boundary values at the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Research on Unsteady Pre-mixed Combustion in Non-Uniform Distribution of Fuel Concentration

2001-09-24
2001-01-3487
It is significant for understanding the phenomena in a stratified charge engine and an SI engine with direct injection system to carry out the fundamental research. The experiments were conducted in a constant volume chamber with atmospheric condition. The pre-mixed charge composed of ethylene and air was charged with various equivalence ratio, the second charge with the same composition was injected into the chamber, thereafter, the combustion started by a spark plug. The phenomena were analyzed by use of the experimental results of shadowgraph, [OH] natural emission, pressure history and NOx and UHC in the exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study On Transient Gas Jet

1984-01-01
845036
This paper presents the experimental study on the characteristics of a transient gas jet. Helium was injected instantaneously into a quiescent atmosphere with constant pressure. The distributions of instantaneous static pressure, radial and axial velocities and concentration at measuring points in the jet, which is obtained by the statistical data processing, are discussed to explain a transient mixture formation in the jet. The analogy between this jet and a diesel spray as for this mixture formation are also discussed by using these results.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ambient Gas Properties for Characteristics of Non-Reacting Diesel Fuel Spray

1997-02-24
970352
In this paper, spray characteristics were examined to deduce the effect of ambient gas properties. Considered ambient properties were the viscosity μa and density ρa, and thus the kinematic viscosity νa. The objective of this paper is to reveal the effect of compressibility of the ambient gas to spray formation. In the experiments, the changed ranges were And a standard-sac volume nozzle of hole diameter dn =0.25 mm (ln/dn=3.0) was used at constant injection pressure difference (Δp=16.2 MPa). Also the injection pressure was varied in the range of 55 to 120 MPa with a mini-sac volume nozzle of hole diameter dn =0.20 mm (ln/dn =5.5). Several different gases were used to change the ambient viscosity at a room temperature. From the experiments, it is obtained that larger the viscosity, the more the spray spreads in the radial direction, thus the spray angle gets larger and the tip penetration became shorter.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Configurations for Characteristics of Non-Reacting Diesel Fuel Spray

1997-02-24
970355
The spray structure under the pressurized atmosphere at a room temperature was examined by the various photographic methods. The fuel flow inside the nozzle was investigated by the transparent model nozzles. The experimental analysis of sprays yielded the spray dispersing angle, the distribution of fuel droplets inside the spray and the jet intact core length. The obtained results of those spray characteristics showed that the spray structure is divided into two spatial regimes due to their formation mechanisms. Within 10 mm from the nozzle, the spray dispersion is dominated by the turbulent states of fuel which are initiated inside the nozzle. At distance from the nozzle z > 20 - 40 mm, the spray consists of an induced gas vortex street whose length is about half of the spray width. It is proposed that the kinematic viscosity of ambient gas is a important factor which rules the process of momentum exchange form the fuel jet to the ambient gas.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray Impinging on a Flat Wall by Means of Exciplex Fluorescence Method -In Case of High Injection Pressure-

1997-10-01
972916
Diesel sprays injected into a combustion chamber of a small sized high-speed CI engine impinge surely on a piston surface and a cylinder wall. As a consequence, their vaporization, mixture formation and combustion processes are affected by impingement phenomena. And the other important factors affecting on the processes is the injection pressure. Then, the distribution of the vapor concentration in a single diesel spray impinging on a flat and hot wall was experimented by the exciplex fluorescence method, as a simple case. The injection pressure was varied in the range from 55 MPa to 120 MPa. It is found that the distribution of the vapor concentration in this case is much leaner than that in the case of the low injection pressure of 17.8MPa.
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