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Technical Paper

Development of a High Sensitivity and High Response Portable Smoke Meter

The filtration efficiency of a DPF drops when it suffers a failure such as melting and cracks during regeneration. And then, on-board diagnostics (OBD) device has become needed worldwide to detect a DPF failure. In the development of an OBD soot sensor, evaluation of the sensor demands a portable instrument which can measure the soot concentration for on-board and in-field use. Some of the emission regulations require the in-field emission measurements under normal in-use operation of a vehicle. This study is intended to develop a high sensitivity and high response portable smoke meter for on-board soot measurements and a reference to OBD soot sensors under development. The smoke meter accommodates a 650 nm laser diode, and its principle is based on light extinction in high soot concentration range and backward light scattering for low soot concentration measurement.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurements of Temperatures of Flame and Wall Surface in a Combustion Chamber of Diesel Engine

In order to investigate the combustion phenomena in a combustion chamber of the diesel engine at transient operations, the simultaneous measurements of temperatures of flame and wall surface in a combustion chamber were conducted. The new technique for simultaneous measurements of flame temperature and wall surface was developed. Laser-Induced phosphorescence was used for the measurement of wall surface temperature which was coupled with the flame temperature measurement by a two-color pyrometry. The NOx and soot emissions were also measured simultaneously in transient operations. The relation between the temporal changes of emissions and temperatures of flame and surface wall are discussed. The results show that the temporal change of NOx emission during transient operation is similar to that of the average gas temperature in a chamber. On the other hand, the temporal change of soot emission is similar to neither that of flame temperature nor that of average gas temperature.
Technical Paper

Pyrene-LIF Thermometry of the Early Soot Formation Region in a Diesel Spray Flame

In order to investigate early soot formation process in diesel combustion, spectral analysis and optical thermometry of early soot formation region in a transient spray flame under diesel-like conditions (Pg2.8 MPa, Tg620-820K) was attempted via laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) from pyrene (C16H10) doped in the fuel. Pyrene is known to exhibit a temperature\-dependent variation of LIF spectrum; the ratio of S2/S1 fluorescence yields, from the lowest excited singlet state S1 and the second excited singlet state S2, depends on temperature. In the present study, pyrene was doped (1%wt) in a model diesel fuel (0-solvent) and the variation of LIF spectra from the pyrene in the spray flame in a rapid compression machine were examined at different ambient temperatures, ambient oxygen concentrations, measurement positions and timings after start of fuel injection.
Technical Paper

A Study on Effect of Heterogeneity of Oxygen Concentration of Mixture in a Combustion Chamber on Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Engine

In this study, the combustion characteristics of diesel flame achieved in a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) at various patterns of oxygen distribution in the chamber are investigated in order to clarify the effect of heterogeneity of oxygen distribution in diesel engines induced by EGR on the soot and NOx emissions. To make the heterogeneous distribution of oxygen in a combustion chamber, the mixtures with different oxygen concentrations are injected through the each different port located on the cylinder wall. Results indicate that the amount of oxygen entrained into the spray upstream the luminous flame region affects the NO emission from diesel flame strongly.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Advanced Diesel Combustion

The applicability of several popular diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement techniques to low temperature combustion is examined. The instruments' performance in measuring low levels of PM from advanced diesel combustion is evaluated. Preliminary emissions optimization of a high-speed light-duty diesel engine was performed for two conventional and two advanced low temperature combustion engine cases. A low PM (<0.2 g/kg_fuel) and NOx (<0.07 g/kg_fuel) advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and early injection timing was chosen as a baseline. The three other cases were selected by varying engine load, injection timing, injection pressure, and EGR mass fraction. All engine conditions were run with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. An extensive characterization of PM from these engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Mixing in Transient Spray by LES (Comparison between Numerical and Experimental Results of Transient Particle Laden Jets)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the turbulent mixing in a diesel spray by large eddy simulation (LES). As the first step for the numerical simulation of diesel spray by LES, the LES of transient circular gas jets and particle laden jets were conducted. The simulation of transient circular jets in cylindrical coordinates has numerical instability near the central axis. To reduce the instability of calculation, azimuthal velocity around the central axis is calculated by the linear interpolation and filter width around the axis is modified to the radial or axial grid scale level. A transient circular gas jet was calculated by the modified code and the computational results were compared with experimental results with a Reynolds number of about 13000. The computational results of mean velocity and turbulent intensity agreed with experimental results for z/D>10. Predicted tip penetration of the jet also agreed to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Ignition, Combustion and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine Equipped with a Micro-Hole Nozzle

In an attempt to achieve lean combustion in Diesel engines which has a potential for simultaneous reduction in no and soot, the authors developed a micro-hole nozzle which has orifices with a diameter as small as 0.06 mm. Combustion tests were carried out using a rapid compression-expansion machine which has a DI Diesel type combustion chamber equipped with the micro-hole nozzle. A comparison with the result of a conventional nozzle experiment revealed that the ignition delay was shortened by 30 %, and in spite of that, both peaks of initial premixed combustion and diffusion combustion increased significantly. The combustion in the case of the micro-hole nozzle experiment was accompanied with a decrease in soot emission, whereas an increase in NO emission.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Excitation-Emission Matrix of Shock-heated PAHs using a Multi-wavelength Laser Source

Measurements of Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) of shock-heated vapors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperature (750-1500K) and high pressure (0.3-1.3MPa) conditions were conducted using a multi-wavelength excitation laser in order to demonstrate the potential of the single-measurement EEM fluorometry for investigation of soot precursors. Argon-diluted vapors of naphthalene and pyrene, as PAH model compounds, were heated in an optically accessible shock tube. The PAH vapors were excited by a coherent multi-wavelength “rainbow” laser light generated by converting the 4th harmonic (266nm) of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser using a Raman cell frequency converter filled with high-pressure (2MPa) methane-hydrogen mixture.
Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Soot Formation Process in a Transient Spray Flame by Laser-induced Fluorescence and Incandescence Techniques

In order to investigate the soot formation process in a diesel spray flame, simultaneous imaging of soot precursor and soot particles in a transient spray flame achieved in a rapid compression machine was conducted by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and by laser-induced incandescence (LII) techniques. The 3rd harmonic (355nm) and the fundamental (1064nm) laser pulses from an Nd:YAG laser, between which a delay of 44ns was imposed by 13.3m of optical path difference, were used to excite LIF from soot precursor and LII from soot particles in the spray flame. The LIF and the LII were separately imaged by two image-intensified CCD cameras with identical detection wavelength of 400nm and bandwidth of 80nm. The LIF from soot precursor was mainly located in the central region of the spray flame between 40 and 55mm (270 to 370 times nozzle orifice diameter d0) from the nozzle orifice. The LII from soot particles was observed to surround the soot precursor LIF region and to extend downstream.
Technical Paper

An Air Cell DI Diesel Engine and Its Soot Emission Characteristics

A DI diesel engine with an air cell was developed as one of the combustion systems for reducing soot emission from diesel engines: The air is accumulated in the air cell during the compression stroke and is injected into the main chamber during a period after the end of injection. The air jet stirs the stagnant flame and promotes soot oxidation. A comparative experiments with the conventional system made it clear that the air-cell system effectively reduces soot emission at a medium and high load condition.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Droplet Diameter and Fuel Concentration in a Non-Evaporating Diesel Spray by Means of an image Analysis of Shadow Photographs

A new method was developed which measures the atomization characteristics of a non-evaporating, axisymmetric diesel spray: The film image density of the high speed focused shadow photographs of a spray was analyzed based on the incident light extinction principle, and the Sauter mean diameter and the fuel concentration distribution were calculated from the image data and the measured injection rate with the help of the onion peeling model. The measured Sauter mean diameter showed good agreement with the diameter measured by the conventional immersion method, and also the measured fuel concentration distribution along the spray axis was proved to coincide well with the predicted result by Che one dimentional quasi-steady jet model except at a region near the spray tip.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Rate of Heat Release of an Axisymmetrical Diesel Flame in a Rapid Compression Machine

A phenomenological model for predicting the rate of heat release of an axisymmetrical diesel flame which was achieved in a rapid compression machine has been proposed: Basing on the experimental observations, authors have introduced a new expression about the effects of abrupt thermal expansion due to the initial combustion on the air entrainment. A simple probability density function was also employed to express the distribution of the local equivalence ratio in the flame. The predicted rate of heat release showed good agreement with the experimental results in the diffusion combustion phase.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in a D.I. Diesel Engine by Means of Image Analysis of Nega-Color Photographs

A new technique was proposed for measuring instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factor of luminous flames. Here the principle of the two-color method was used to calculate flame temperature and KL factor from the two-color densities of a film image taken on a nega-color film. We applied this technique to the high speed nega-color photographs of flames in a D. I. diesel engine operated with varying swirl ratios, and discussed the measured results of instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factors.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine to Simulate Combustion in Diesel Engines

A rapid compression-expansion machine which can simulate the combustion processes in diesel engines is developed. The configuration of the combustion chamber is a 100 mm bore and a 90 mm stroke, and the compression ratio is 15. The piston is driven by an electro-hydraulic system with a thrust of 90 kN and the maximum frequency of 20 Hz. The whole system composed of a hydraulic actuator, a fuel injection system, and a valve driving unit is sequentially controlled by a computer. The reproducibility of the stop position of the piston at the end of compression is achieved with an accuracy of ±0.1 mm by employing a hydraulic-mechanical brake mechanism. The experiment shows that the combustion in the expansion stroke is achieved, and that the combustion characteristics such as the rate of heat release and indicated output as well as the exhaust emission can be measured.
Technical Paper

Particulate Formation and Flame Structure in Diesel Engines

The present paper describes the particulate formation in diesel flames considering the flame structure and its similarity to that of gaseous turbulent diffusion flames. A comparison of spatial variations of soot concentration, equivalence ratio and flame temperature between diesel flames and turbulent diffusion flames reveals the facts that soot particles are mostly farmed in a region where the equivalence ratio is near stoichiometric and the flame temperature is the highest in both flames, and that in diesel flames this region exists generally near the flame tip. A close inspection of high speed photographs of diesel flames suggests the three major routes of soot emission from diesel engines: quenching of flamelets detached from the flame tip due to 1) the flame impingement onto the wall; and 2) cooling of the flamelets by the bulk air; and 3) survival of soot containing flamelets inside the flame.
Technical Paper

Stratification of Swirl Intensity in the Axial Direction for Control of Turbulence Generation During the Compression Stroke

Control of turbulence during the compression stroke is suggested by both theoretical calculations and experimental results obtained with an LDV measurement in a motored engine. The authors have found experimentally that when an axial distribution of swirl intensity exists, a large-scale annular vortex is formed inside the cylinder during the compression stroke and this vortex generates and transports turbulence energy. A numerical calculation is adopted to elucidate this phenomenon. Then, an axial stratification of swirl intensity is found to generate a large-scale annular vortex during the compression stroke by an interaction between the piston motion and the axial pressure gradient. The initial swirl profile is parametrically varied to assess its effect on the turbulence parameters. Among calculated results, turbulence energy is enhanced strongest when the swirl intensity is highest at the piston top surface and lowest at the bottom surface of the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Fuel Vapor Concentration in an Unsteady Evaporating Spray via a 2-D Mie-Scattering Imaging Technique

The cross-sectional distribution of fuel vapor concentration in an evaporating spray was measured quantitatively by a new scattering imaging technique, silicone particle scattering imaging method, which was proposed in a previous paper[1]. When fuel containing silicone oil injected into a nitrogen environment at high temperature, the volatile base fuel in the droplets vaporized rapidly, leaving behind small droplets of silicone oil suspended in the vapor-gas mixture. The silicone oil droplets were illuminated by a thin laser sheet, and the scattered light was imaged by a CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of vapor concentration was estimated from the scattering image of the silicone oil droplets by Mie scattering theory. The results demonstrated clearly the inhomogeneity of the fuel vapor concentration. The distribution of vapor concentration was discontinuous, and islands of rich mixture with a scale of several millimeters existed in the center region of the spray.
Technical Paper

Effect of High Pressure Injection on Soot Formation Processes in a Rapid Compression Machine to Simulate Diesel Flames

The characteristics of diesel spray and flame in a quiescent atmosphere were studied as a function of injection pressure ranging from 30 to 110 MPa. Measurements included the spray form and Sauter mean diameter of a non-evaporating spray, the liquid phase penetration of an evaporating spray and the visualization of sooting zone in a flame. Experimental results show that high pressure injection improves the atomization and air entrainment of non-evaporating spray and that the liquid phase penetration of evaporating spray is hardly affected by injection pressure, demonstrating a promotion of evaporation with injection pressure. Visualization of the sooting zone in a flame made it clear that high pressure injection is advantageous in reducing soot formation and shortening the combustion duration.
Technical Paper

A New Technique for the Measurement of Sauter Mean Diameter of Droplets in Unsteady Dense Sprays

A new technique is developed for the in-situ measurement of Sauter mean diameter of droplets in non-evaporating transient dense sprays. This method analyzes the image of a shadowpicture of a spray based on the incident light extinction principle, and allows the sizing of Sauter mean diameter of whole droplets in a transient spray with any shape. In addition, this method allows the measurement of the local droplet size in a quasi-steady region of an axisymmetric spray if the conservation equations regarding mass and momentum are included in the calculation and data analysis. A calibration was carried out using glass beads as test particles: this was proved to have an accuracy of Sauter mean diameter measurement within 10%, on average. Applications of the new technique to both diesel and gasoline (EFI) sprays have been made.
Technical Paper

Mixing Enhancement in Diesel-Like Flames via Flame Impingement on Turbulence-Generating Plates

Soot concentration is very high in the periphery near the head of an unsteady spray flame which is achieved in a quiescent atmosphere in a rapid compression machine. To reduce soot concentration in this region, it was intended to improve fuel-air mixing by letting the flame impinge on a turbulence-generating plate. Two types of turbulence-generating plates, one donut-type, the other cross-type, were tested. Soot concentration in the flame was imaged using the laser shadow technique. The effect of injection pressure on soot reduction by the flame impingement was also investigated. The overall soot concentration is reduced significantly in the case when the flame impinges on the cross-type turbulence-generating plate at 50 mm (333 nozzle diameters) from the nozzle exit. The flame impingement on the cross-type turbulence-generating plate at 333 nozzle diameters makes soot reduction little dependent on injection pressures.