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Technical Paper

A Study on the Life of the Bearing in Cooling/HVAC Fan Motors

This study aims to analyze the effect of design parameters on the lifespan of oil-impregnated sintered bearings. We experimented with both single and assembled bearings, and found that the bearing in a cooling/HVAC fan motor comes to the end of its life when the lubricating oil is decreased by half of the initial amount or more. We also found that the life could be extended by reducing the surface area exposed to ambient air and by setting proper oil flow paths inside. With these improvements, we were able to reduce oil consumption and more than double the life of the bearing.
Journal Article

Development of Black Surface Treatment Applicable to Bolts for Motorcycles

A black surface treatment without using hexavalent chromium and applicable to bolts of motorcycles has been developed. The surface treatment also satisfies the requirements of bolts for motorcycles such as fastening performance, corrosion resistance, weather resistance and appearance of outer finish. There is a method of coating a black chemical conversion film using trivalent chromium on the zinc-plated surface as one of the surface treatments that do not use the hexavalent chromium. Such a black film, however, is thinner than the film using hexavalent chromium, and unable to ensure satisfactory black appearance. Meanwhile, although the dip-coating using a black paint can provide a sufficient black color, it is necessary to apply coating two times to eliminate an irregular color. As a result, thick paint films are formed on the roots of thread, making it difficult to fit into the internal thread. To simultaneously solve the above-mentioned two issues, two measures were executed.
Technical Paper

Color Inspection System for Seat Belt Webbing Using Neural Networks

A system has been developed to take the place of experts employed in the visual inspection of difference in color appearance of dyed seat belt webbing The judgement of experts is likely to be affected by their physical conditions, making the acceptance region of difference in color appearance vague In this paper, three-layer neural networks are used to approximate the nonlinear relationship between color specification values in the L*a*b* uniform color space (published by the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage) and human color perception As a result of using neural networks, the system attained a maximum error rate of 0 9% compared with the judgement by experts and was put in practical use
Technical Paper

Development of Wireless Message for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications

This paper summarizes the development of a wireless message from infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) for safety applications based on Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). During the development of the Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure (RSZW/LC) safety applications [1], the Basic Information Message (BIM) was developed to wirelessly transmit infrastructure-centric information. The Traveler Information Message (TIM) structure, as described in the SAE J2735, provides a mechanism for the infrastructure to issue and display in-vehicle signage of various types of advisory and road sign information. This approach, though effective in communicating traffic advisories, is limited by the type of information that can be broadcast from infrastructures.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.