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Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Studies of CAI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap and Simultaneous Chemiluminescence Analysis

2009-04-20
2009-01-1103
The negative valve overlap has been shown as one of the most effective means to achieve controlled autoignition combustion in a four-stroke gasoline engine. A number of researches have been carried out on the performance and emission characteristics of CAI engines but there are still some fundamental questions that are yet to be addressed such as in-cylinder process. In the present study, a Ricardo Hydra single cylinder, four stroke optical gasoline engine was instrumented to investigate CAI combustion through negative valve overlap configuration. The effects of direct fuel injection timings and direct air injection at lambda 1 were studied by means of simultaneous in-cylinder heat release study and high speed images of complete chemiluminescence emission, OH and CHO radicals. In particular, the minor combustion process during the NVO period with various air injection quantities was studied with both heat release analysis and chemiluminescence results.
Technical Paper

Investigation of CAI Combustion with Positive Valve Overlap and Enlargement of CAI Operating Range

2009-04-20
2009-01-1104
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was investigated in a Ricardo E6 single cylinder, four-stroke gasoline engine. CAI combustion was achieved by employing positive valve overlap in combination with variable compression ratios and intake air temperatures. The combustion characteristics and emissions were studied in order to understand the major advantages and drawbacks of CAI combustion with positive valve overlap. The enlargement of the CAI operational region was obtained by boosting intake air and adding external EGR. The lean-boosted operation elevated the range of CAI combustion to the higher load region, whilst the use of external EGR allowed the engine to operate with CAI combustion in the region between boosted and N/A CAI operational ranges. The results were analyzed to investigate combustion characteristics, performance and emissions of the boosted CAI operations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Cost Effective Air Hybrid Concept

2009-04-20
2009-01-1111
The air hybrid engine absorbs the vehicle kinetic energy during braking, stores it in an air tank in the form of compressed air, and reuses it to propel a vehicle during cruising and acceleration. Capturing, storing and reusing this braking energy to give additional power can therefore improve fuel economy, particularly in cities and urban areas where the traffic conditions involve many stops and starts. In order to reuse the residual kinetic energy, the vehicle operation consists of 3 basic modes, i.e. Compression Mode (CM), Expander Mode (EM) and normal firing mode. Unlike previous works, a low cost air hybrid engine has been proposed and studied. The hybrid engine operation can be realised by means of production technologies, such as VVT and valve deactivation. In this work, systematic investigation has been carried out on the performance of the hybrid engine concept through detailed gas dynamic modelling using Ricardo WAVE software.
Journal Article

The Performance Characteristics of an Production Oriented Air Hybrid Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0821
In a previous paper [ 1 ], the authors have proposed a cost effective air hybrid concept based on a proprietary intake system and cam profile switching (CPS) system [ 2 ]. It was shown through engine simulations that the pneumatic hybrid operation could be achieved with about 15% regenerative efficiency. The proposed air hybrid operation can be achieved with proven technologies and engine components and hence it represents a cost-effective, reliable and quick deployable solution for low carbon vehicles. In this work, a four-cylinder 2 litre diesel engine has been modelled to operate on refined air hybrid engine configurations and the braking and motoring performance of each configuration have been studied. Both air hybrid systems can be constructed with production technologies and incur minimum changes to the existing engine design.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of CAI Combustion with Alcohol Fuels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0843
Due to its potential for simultaneous improvement in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion has been subject to continuous research in the last several years. At the same time, there has been a lot of interest in the use of alternative fuels in order to reduce reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Therefore, this experimental study has been carried out to investigate the effect of alcohol fuels on the CAI combustion process and on the resulting engine performance. The experimental work was conducted on an optical single cylinder engine with an air-assisted injector. To achieve controlled autoignition, residual gas was trapped in the cylinder by using negative valve overlap and an intake air heater was used to ensure stable CAI combustion in the optical engine. Methanol, ethanol and blended fuels were tested and compared with the results of gasoline.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Split Injection in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0605
Over the last decade, the diesel engine has made dramatic progress in its performance and market penetration. However, in order to meet future emissions legislations, Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulate matters' (PM) emissions will need to be reduced simultaneously. Nowadays researchers are focused on different combustion modes which can have a great potential for both low soot and low NOx. In order to achieve this, different injection strategies have been investigated. This study investigates the effects of split injection strategies with high levels of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on combustion performance and emissions in a single-cylinder direct injection optical diesel engine. The investigation is focused on the effects of injection timing of split injection strategies. A Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder optical engine was used in which conventional experimental methods like cylinder pressure data, heat release analysis and exhaust emissions analysis were applied.
Technical Paper

Evaluations of Scavenge Port Designs for a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine by 3D CFD Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-1049
Abstract The 2-stroke engine has great potential for aggressive engine downsizing due to its double firing frequency which allows lower indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and peak in-cylinder pressure with the same output toque compared to the 4-stroke engine. With the aid of new engine technologies, e.g. direct injection, boost and variable valve trains, the drawbacks of traditional 2-stroke engine, e.g. low durability and high emissions, can be resolved in a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) engine. Compared to the loop-flow or cross-flow engines, the BUSDIG engine, where intake ports are integrated to the cylinder liner and controlled by the movement of piston top while exhaust valves are placed in the cylinder head, can achieve excellent scavenging performance and be operated with high boost.
Technical Paper

Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Evolution Processing in GDI Engines Using TRF-PAH Chemical Kinetic Mechanism

2016-04-05
2016-01-0690
Abstract In the present study, we developed a reduced TRF-PAH chemical reaction mechanism consisted of iso-octane, n-heptane and toluene as gasoline surrogate fuels for GDI (gasoline direct injection) spark ignition engine combustion simulation. The reduced mechanism consists of 85 species and 232 reactions including 17 species and 40 reactions related to the PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) formation. The present mechanism was validated for extensive validations with experimental ignition delay times in shock tubes and laminar flame speeds in flat flame adiabatic burner for gasoline/air and TRF/air mixtures under various pressures, temperatures and equivalence ratios related to engine conditions. Good agreement was achieved for most of the measurement. Mole fraction profiles of PAHs for n-heptane flame were also simulated and the experimental trends were reproduced well.
Technical Paper

Engine Downsizing through Two-Stroke Operation in a Four-Valve GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0674
Abstract With the introduction of CO2 emissions legislation in Europe and many countries, there has been extensive research on developing high efficiency gasoline engines by means of the downsizing technology. Under this approach the engine operation is shifted towards higher load regions where pumping and friction losses have a reduced effect, so improved efficiency is achieved with smaller displacement engines. However, to ensure the same full load performance of larger engines the charge density needs to be increased, which raises concerns about abnormal combustion and excessive in-cylinder pressure. In order to overcome these drawbacks a four-valve direct injection gasoline engine was modified to operate in the two-stroke cycle. Hence, the same torque achieved in an equivalent four-stroke engine could be obtained with one half of the mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Methane Slip Using Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1798
An experimental study has been carried out with the end goal of minimizing engine-out methane emissions with Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion (PMPC) in a natural gas-diesel Dual-Fuel™ engine. The test engine used is a heavy-duty single cylinder engine with high pressure common rail diesel injection as well as port fuel injection of natural gas. Multiple variables were examined, including injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentages, and rail pressure for diesel, conventional Dual-Fuel, and PMPC Dual-Fuel combustion modes. The responses investigated were pressure rise rate, engine-out emissions, heat release and indicated specific fuel consumption. PMPC reduces methane slip when compared to conventional Dual-Fuel and improves emissions and fuel efficiency at the expense of higher cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Valve Timings on Lean Boost CAI Operation in a Two-stroke Poppet Valve DI Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1794
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. In order to take advantage of the inherent ability to retain a large and varied amount of residual at part-load condition and its potential to achieve extreme engine downsizing of a poppet valve engine running in the 2-stroke cycle, a single cylinder 4-valves camless direct injection gasoline engine has been developed and employed to investigate the CAI combustion process in the 2-stroke cycle mode. The CAI combustion is initiated by trapped residual gases from the adjustable scavenging process enabled by the variable intake and exhaust valve timings. In addition, the boosted intake air is used to provide the in-cylinder air/fuel mixture for maximum combustion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Synergy between Boost and Valve Timings in a Highly Boosted Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Operating with Miller Cycle

2015-04-14
2015-01-1262
Abstract Gasoline engine downsizing has become a popular and effective approach to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars. This is typically achieved in the form of a boosted direct injection gasoline engine, which are typically equipped with variable valve timing (VVT) devices on the intake and/or exhaust valves. This paper describes the synergies between valve timings and boost based on experimental investigations in a single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine with variable cam phasing on both the intake and exhaust cams. Two cam profiles have been tested to realize Miller cycle and compared with the standard camshaft. One cam features a long opening duration and standard valve lift for Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) and the other cam has a short opening duration and low valve lift for Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC).
Journal Article

Numerical Analysis of a Downsized 2-Stroke Uniflow Engine

2014-10-01
2014-01-9051
In order to optimize the 2-stroke uniflow engine performance on vehicle applications, numerical analysis has been introduced, 3D CFD model has been built for the optimization of intake charge organization. The scavenging process was investigated and the intake port design details were improved. Then the output data from 3D CFD calculation were applied to a 1D engine model to process the analysis on engine performance. The boost system optimization of the engine has been carried out also. Furthermore, a vehicle model was also set up to investigate the engine in-vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Studies of the Control of In-cylinder Inhomogeneities in a 4VVAS Gasoline Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0052
In this research, numerical simulation using Star-CD is performed to investigate the mixing process of a single-cylinder experimental gasoline engine equipped with 4VVAS (4 Variable Valve System). Different engine operating conditions are studied with respect to valve parameters, including EVC (Exhaust Valve Closing), IVO (Intake Valve Opening), and IVL (Intake Valve Lift). The definitions of RGF (Residual Gas Fraction)/temperature statistical distribution and inhomogeneity are proposed and quantified, on which the influences of the aforementioned valve parameters are analyzed. Results reveal that, the distribution of in-cylinder residuals varies with valve parameter combinations. Intake valve timing has a greater effect on the in-cylinder distribution and inhomogeneity of residuals than intake valve lift. Earlier IVO leads to lower RGF inhomogeneity around TDC.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on DME Assisted Gasoline CAI/HCCI Combustion with Intake Re-Breathing Valve Strategy

2015-09-01
2015-01-1818
In order to investigate feasibility of DME (Di-methyl ether) assisted gasoline CAI (controlled-auto ignition) combustion, direct DME injection is employed to act as the ignition source to trigger the auto-ignition combustion of premixed gasoline/air mixture with high temperature exhaust gas. Intake re-breathing valve strategy is adopted to obtain internal exhaust recirculation (EGR) that regulates heat release rate and ignitability of the premixed gasoline and air mixture. The effects of intake re-breathing valve timing and 2nd DME injection timing of different split injection ratios were investigated and discussed in terms of combustion characteristics, emission and efficiencies. The analyses showed that re-breathing intake valve timing had a large effect on the operation range of CAI combustion due to EGR and intake temperature variation.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Studies of High Injection Pressure Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion in a Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1819
Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is an advanced combustion concept to simultaneously reduce the NOx and soot emissions whilst retaining high engine efficiencies. In order to have a better understanding of gasoline PPC operation in terms of mixture formation, combustion and emissions characteristics, the investigation was carried out at 1200 bar injection pressure using the combination of thermodynamic and optical diagnostic analysis in a single cylinder common rail fuel injection engine with optical access. The PPC operation was achieved with a combination of high dilution and higher intake charge temperature at part-load condition using primary reference fuel (PRF). Split injections of two fuel distribution strategies (50:50 and 70:30) were studied.
Technical Paper

The Modeling and Design of a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1970
Engine downsizing of the spark ignition gasoline engine is recognized as one of the most effective approaches to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. However, further engine downsizing beyond 50% in a 4-stroke gasoline engine is limited by the occurrence of abnormal combustion events as well as much greater thermal and mechanical loads. In order to achieve aggressive engine downsizing, a boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine concept has been proposed and researched by means of CFD simulation and demonstration in a single cylinder engine. In this paper, the intake port design on the in-cylinder flow field and gas exchange characteristics of the uniflow 2-stroke cycle was investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In particular, the port orientation on the in-cylinder swirl, the trapping efficiency, charging efficiency and scavenging efficiency was analyzed in details.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Potential of Premixed Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas/Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0790
Abstract Natural Gas (NG) is currently a cost effective substitute for diesel fuel in the Heavy-Duty (HD) diesel transportation sector. Dual-Fuel engines substitute NG in place of diesel for decreased NOx and soot emissions, but suffer from high engine-out methane (CH4) emissions. Premixed Dual-Fuel Combustion (PDFC) is one method of decreasing methane emissions and simultaneously improving engine efficiency while maintaining low NOx and soot levels. PDFC utilizes an early diesel injection to adjust the flammability of the premixed charge, promoting more uniform burning of methane. Engine experiments were carried out using a NG and diesel HD single cylinder research engine. Key speeds and loads were explored in order to determine where PDFC is effective at reducing engine-out methane emissions over Conventional Dual-Fuel which uses a single diesel injection for ignition.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Load Ethanol Dual-Fuel Combustion using Single and Split Diesel Injections on a Heavy-Duty Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0778
Abstract The use of two different fuels to control the in-cylinder charge reactivity of compression ignition engines has been shown as an effective way to achieve low levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions. The port fuel injection of ethanol on a common rail, direct injected diesel engine increases this reactivity gradient. The objective of this study is to experimentally characterize the controllability, performance, and emissions of ethanol-diesel dual-fuel combustion in a single cylinder heavy-duty engine. Three different diesel injection strategies were investigated: a late split, an early split, and an early single injection. The experiments were performed at low load, where the fuel conversion efficiency is typically reduced due to incomplete combustion. Ethanol substitution ratios varied from 44-80% on an energy input basis.
Journal Article

Investigation of Early and Late Intake Valve Closure Strategies for Load Control in a Spark Ignition Ethanol Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0643
Abstract The more strict CO2 emission legislation for internal combustion engines demands higher spark ignition (SI)engine efficiencies. The use of renewable fuels, such as bioethanol, may play a vital role to reduce not only CO2 emissions but also petroleum dependency. An option to increase SI four stroke engine efficiency is to use the so called over-expanded cycle concepts by variation of the valve events. The use of an early or late intake valve closure reduces pumping losses (the main cause of the low part load efficiency in SI engines) but decreases the effective compression ratio. The higher expansion to compression ratio leads to better use of the produced work and also increases engine efficiency. This paper investigates the effects of early and late intake valve closure strategies in the gas exchange process, combustion, emissions and engine efficiency at unthrottled stoichiometric operation.
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