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Technical Paper

The Influence of High Pressure Fuel injection on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a High Speed Direct injection Diesel Engine

1989-02-01
890438
Conventional direct injection diesel engines for cars or light duty trucks, equipped with injection pumps of conventional types, such as distributor injection pumps and inline injection pumps, and operating at compression ratios of 18-19, are capable of offering a fuel consumption benefit of some 15% compared to chamber diesel engines. In terms of noise and exhaust emissions, and also black smoke characteristics, however, they are significantly inferior to the prechamber engine. In addition, they have a specific rated output which is some 20% lower. Only through the use of a compression ratio of 21 and high injection pressures it is possible to measurably diminish the drawbacks in respect of exhaust emissions and, to some extent, in respect of soot emissions. This in no way enhances the noise behaviour, though. For this reason, it is essential to employ measures such as injection rate shaping or split-injection.
Technical Paper

Design and Mechanics of the Four-Cylinder Engines with 2.0 and 2.2 Litres Displacement

1993-10-01
932926
The objective was to develop a modem engine to succeed the M 102; 2.6 million of these units were made between 1979 and today making it the most successful Mercedes-Benz four-cylinder petrol engine to date. The new M 111 coordinated production set-up together with the familiar M 104 six-cylinder four-valve engines and the 600 diesel series. Emphasis has been deliberately given to improved torque rather than very high volumetric efficiency. This has made it possible to apply four-valve technology, which was originally only to be found in motor racing, in such a way that ordinary customers can benefit form advantages such as high torque and raised power output, as well as reduced fuel consumption and emissions. Extensive noise-reducing measures in the engine ensure that, despite the higher power output and lower engine weight, noise levels have also been improved.
Technical Paper

Concepts for Ultra Low Emission Vehicles

1994-03-01
940469
To achieve low emission levels, the handicap of the TWC is its light-off characteristic. It achieves a maximum hot efficiency of nearly 100 %, but this requires a temperature in the range of 300 to 450 °C. To improve this time lag after cold start, the TWC needs additional help to reach the targets of future low (LEV) or ultra low emission (ULEV) levels. This paper describes the work on additional devices to reach the ULEV-levels such as: Electrical Heated Catalyst (EHC). Burner Heated Catalyst (BHC) Hydrocarbon Trap (HCT) as external device. Adsorber Coated Substrate (ACS) in the usual converter box. The comparison of these systems was done with a concept car. The low mileage exhaust results demonstrated the principal suitability of all these devices, but there is still much work to be done to meet the ULEV levels with the guaranted durability. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems are discussed, including estimated weight and cost.
Technical Paper

Secondary Air Injection with a New Developed Electrical Blower for Reduced Exhaust Emissions

1994-03-01
940472
Secondary air injection after cold start gives two effects for reduced exhaust emissions: An exothermic reaction at the hot exhaust valves occurs, which increases the temperature of the exhaust gas. It gives sufficient air to the catalyst during the cold start fuel enrichment that is necessary to prevent driveability problems. Handicaps for the wide use of air injection include space constraints, weight and price. An electrical air blower was choosen to best satisfy all these requirements. The development steps are described. The result is a three stage radialblower with extremly high revolutions of about 18000 rpm. The system configuration and the outcome are demonstrated on the new C-Class of Mercedes-Benz. The results show emission reductions higher than 50 %, while also satisfying the development goals of noise, volume, weight and cost requirements.
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