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Technical Paper

Effects of Mixedness and Ignition Timings on PCCI Combustion with a Dual Fuel Operation

2011-08-30
2011-01-1768
A dual fuel operation with different reactivity fuels has the possibility of optimizing performance and emissions in premixed charge compression ignition engines by controlling the spatial concentration and distribution of both fuels. In the present study, n-heptane and i-octane were independently injected through two different injectors. In-cylinder pressure analysis and emissions measurement were performed in a compression ignition engine. Injection timings, fuel quantity ratio between the injections were changed for the two cases, in which one fuel was injected using a port fuel injection system while the other was directly injected into the cylinder, in order to drastically vary mixture distributions and ignition timings. In addition, an optical diagnostic was performed in a rapid compression and expansion machine to develop an understanding of the ignition processes of the two mixtures.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Cavitating Flow inside the Nozzle Hole Using by Enlarged Acrylic Nozzle

2011-08-30
2011-01-2062
In this study, it is purpose to make clear the effect of cavitation phenomenon on the spray atomization. In this report, the cavitation phenomenon inside the nozzle hole was visualized and the pressure measurements along the wall of the nozzle hole were carried out by use of 25-times enlarged acrylic nozzle. For the representatives of regular gasoline, single and two-component fuels were used as a test fuel. In addition, various cavitating flow patterns same as experimental conditions were simulated by use of Barotropic model incorporated in commercial code of Star-CD scheme, and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetics Study on Ignition Characteristics of Biodiesel Surrogates

2011-08-30
2011-01-1926
Methyl butanoate (MB) and methyl decanoate (MD) are surrogates for biodiesel fuels. According to computational results with their detailed reaction mechanisms, MB and MD indicate shorter ignition delays than long alkanes such as n-heptane and n-dodecane do at an initial temperature over 1000 K. The high ignitability of these methyl esters was computationally analyzed by means of contribution matrices proposed by some of the authors. Due to the high acidity of an α-H atom in a carbonyl compound, hydroperoxy radicals are generated out of the equilibrium between forward and backward reactions of O₂ addition to methyl ester radicals by the internal transfer of an α-H atom in the initial stage of an ignition process. Some of the hydroperoxy methyl ester radicals can generate OH to activate initial reactions. MB has an efficient CH₃O formation path via CH₃ generated by the β-scission of an MB radical which has a radical site on the α-C atom to the carbonyl group.
Journal Article

Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray

2012-10-23
2012-32-0031
Ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel spray were examined for ranges of injection timing and intake-air oxygen concentration. Fuels used were binary mixtures of gasoline-like component i-octane (cetane number 12, boiling point 372 K) and diesel fuel-like component n-tridecane (cetane number 88, boiling point 510 K). Mass fraction of i-octane was also changed as the experimental variable. The experimental study was carried out in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and an exhaust gas recirculation system. The results demonstrated that the increase of the i-octane mass fraction with optimizations of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration reduced pressure rise rate and soot and NOx emissions without deterioration of indicated thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Atomization of Spray under Low-Pressure Field from Pintle Type Gasoline Injector

1992-02-01
920382
This paper presents an atomization mechanism of a spray injected into the low-pressure field, as the subject of injection system in a suction manifold of gasoline engine. Pure liquid fuel, which is n-Pentane or n-Hexane is injected into quiescent gaseous atmosphere at room-temperature and low- pressure through pintle type electronic control injector. Fuel sprays are observed by taking photographs for variation of the back pressure and the changes in spray characteristics with the back pressure below atmospheric pressure are examined in detail. In particular, in the case of the back pressure below the saturated vapor pressure of fuel, the atomization mechanism is discussed from a viewpoint of flash boiling phenomena, those are bubble growth rate and so on.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray Impinging on a Flat Wall by Means of Exciplex Fluorescence Method -In Case of High Injection Pressure-

1997-10-01
972916
Diesel sprays injected into a combustion chamber of a small sized high-speed CI engine impinge surely on a piston surface and a cylinder wall. As a consequence, their vaporization, mixture formation and combustion processes are affected by impingement phenomena. And the other important factors affecting on the processes is the injection pressure. Then, the distribution of the vapor concentration in a single diesel spray impinging on a flat and hot wall was experimented by the exciplex fluorescence method, as a simple case. The injection pressure was varied in the range from 55 MPa to 120 MPa. It is found that the distribution of the vapor concentration in this case is much leaner than that in the case of the low injection pressure of 17.8MPa.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of Fuel Vapor Concentration in Diesel Spray by Exciplex Fluorescence Method

1997-02-24
970796
An unsteady single spray of n-tridecane which was mixed with a small quantity of exciplex - forming dopants, that is naphthalene and TMPD, was impinged on a flat wall surface with high temperature of 550 K at a normal angle. These experiments were carried out in a quiescent N2 atmosphere with high temperature of 700 K and high pressure of 2.5 MPa. It was possible to generate the fluorescence emissions from the vapor and liquid phases in this spray, when a laser light sheet from a Nd:YAG laser was passing through the cross section of the spray containing its central axis. Then, clear 2 - D images of vapor and liquid phases in the spray were acquired simultaneously by this method. And, the vapor concentration was analyzed quantitatively by applying Lambert - Beer's law to the measured TMPD monomer fluorescence intensity from vapor phase, and by correcting the intensity for the effect of the quenching process due to the ambient temperature and fuel concentration.
Technical Paper

Organized Structure and Motion in Diesel Spray

1997-02-24
970641
This paper deals with the particle distribution in Diesel spray under the non-evaporating condition from the analytical aspect based on our experimental results. In the analysis, TAB method of KIVA II code and the k-ε turbulent model were used, and the mono-disperse distribution of the initial parcel's diameter, whose size equals to the nozzle hole diameter, was utilized in conjunction with the breakup model. The size distribution of atomized droplets (i.e. the χ-squared distribution function) is justified with the degree of freedom. It is shown that the ambient gas, which is initially quiescent, is induced and led to a turbulent gas jet. The turbulent gas jet which has a equivalent momentum with the Diesel spray was also examined by Discrete Vortex method. The quantitative jet growth was shown to be possible for the estimation and determination in its initial boundary values at the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Free and Impinging Gas Jets by Means of Image Processing

1997-02-24
970045
A transient gas jet seems to be a model of a diesel spray because it has no vaporization process. Recently, CNG is utilized in a diesel engine. In the case of diesel engine, sprays or jets have the free state in some cases, and they are impinging surely on the piston surface in the other cases. The 2-D image of acetylene gas with tracer particles was taken by high-speed photography. In both jets, the outer shape was measured on the images and the characteristics of the internal flow was obtained by particle image velocimetry. Then, the physical models of these jets were constructed by use of experimental results.
Technical Paper

Modeling Spray Impingement Considering Fuel Film Formation on the Wall

1997-02-24
970047
In this study, a new submodel concerning fuel film formation process is proposed in order to simulate the behavior of diesel spray impingement on relatively low temperature wall surface. Here, super - heating degree of the surface, defined by the temperature difference between the wall surface and the fuel saturated temperature, is newly considered for the behavior of impinged liquid droplets. In this spray impingement submodel, fuel film formation process, droplet interaction, film breakup process, and velocity and direction of dispersing droplets were considered based on several experimental results. This new submodel was incorporated into KIVA-II code, and the results were compared with experimental data KIVA-II original code and the spray / wall impingement model proposed by Naber & Reitz. As a result, it is found that the calculated results of impinging spray behavior by the new model agree well with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Fuel Vapor Concentration Inside a Flash Boiling Spray

1997-02-24
970871
For current passenger vehicles, multi-point injection (MPI) systems are extensively employed for gasoline engines due to ease of control and rapid response. In these systems, the pressure within the intake manifold to which the injectors are installed can fall below the saturated vapor pressure of some hydrocarbon components present in the fuel. Such a condition leads to an atomization process in which flash boiling occurs. In the present work, the atomization process under flash boiling conditions has been characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental investigation has been carried out with a spray test facility consisting of a variable pressure chamber equipped with a pintle type fuel nozzle. Infrared Extinction/Scattering (IRES) is utilized to provide temporal and spatially resolved distribution of the fuel vapor concentration within the spray.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Configurations for Characteristics of Non-Reacting Diesel Fuel Spray

1997-02-24
970355
The spray structure under the pressurized atmosphere at a room temperature was examined by the various photographic methods. The fuel flow inside the nozzle was investigated by the transparent model nozzles. The experimental analysis of sprays yielded the spray dispersing angle, the distribution of fuel droplets inside the spray and the jet intact core length. The obtained results of those spray characteristics showed that the spray structure is divided into two spatial regimes due to their formation mechanisms. Within 10 mm from the nozzle, the spray dispersion is dominated by the turbulent states of fuel which are initiated inside the nozzle. At distance from the nozzle z > 20 - 40 mm, the spray consists of an induced gas vortex street whose length is about half of the spray width. It is proposed that the kinematic viscosity of ambient gas is a important factor which rules the process of momentum exchange form the fuel jet to the ambient gas.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ambient Gas Properties for Characteristics of Non-Reacting Diesel Fuel Spray

1997-02-24
970352
In this paper, spray characteristics were examined to deduce the effect of ambient gas properties. Considered ambient properties were the viscosity μa and density ρa, and thus the kinematic viscosity νa. The objective of this paper is to reveal the effect of compressibility of the ambient gas to spray formation. In the experiments, the changed ranges were And a standard-sac volume nozzle of hole diameter dn =0.25 mm (ln/dn=3.0) was used at constant injection pressure difference (Δp=16.2 MPa). Also the injection pressure was varied in the range of 55 to 120 MPa with a mini-sac volume nozzle of hole diameter dn =0.20 mm (ln/dn =5.5). Several different gases were used to change the ambient viscosity at a room temperature. From the experiments, it is obtained that larger the viscosity, the more the spray spreads in the radial direction, thus the spray angle gets larger and the tip penetration became shorter.
Technical Paper

Detection of Luminescence from Pre-Autoignition Reaction Zone in S.I. Engine

1997-02-24
970508
Knocking phenomenon in a spark ignition engine breaks out due to autoignition in the unburned gas region. Investigation on the pre-autoignition reaction, that is, the reaction of cool and blue flames happening before autoignition must be carried out in detail to control knocking. The reactions appear in an extremely short time before autoignition, so, much difficulties accompany an attempt to grasp the situation. In the experiments presented hear, progress situation of pre-autoignition reaction was made clear by visualized phenomena in a rapid compression and expansion machine (R.C.E.M), which had good reproducibility. Taken by two ultra high-speed video cameras. We determined the ignition delay time was caught by analyzing the emission of light from the combustion chamber before knocking occurrence.
Technical Paper

CO2 Mixed Fuel Combustion System for Reduction of NO and Soot Emission in Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970319
We propose a new concept on simultaneous reduction of NO and soot emissions in Diesel engine exhaust by the diesel fuel oil (n-Tridecane) with liquefied CO2 dissolved. The CO2 dissolved fuel is expected to undergo flash boiling or gas separation when being injected into the combustion chamber and improve spray atomization and mixing process both of which are primary factors to govern soot formation. Also the internal EGR effect caused by CO2 injected with the fuel is expected to NO formation. In order to assess this concept, combustion experiments were carried out using a rapid compression and expansion machine. Thus, flame characteristics and heat release rate were analyzed for the combustion process of diesel fuel and CO2 mixed fuel. And, it is revealed that the diesel fuel-liquefied CO2 mixed fuel can successfully reduce NO emission in a diesel combustion system.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient Gas Diffusion Flame

1997-10-01
972965
CNG is one of the future fuel for a CI engine. Recently, the general tendency is the use of the high pressure injection system over 100 MPa in a CI engine for the near future severe regulation. Combustion phenomenon in a CI engine with such injection system is like a transient gas diffusion flame. The flow in a gas diffusion flame was investigated by the particle image velocimetry on its 2-D images, the relative soot concentration, the temperature and the relative CO2 concentration was detected in the experiments. And the model of transient gas diffusion flame was constructed by use of experimental data.
Technical Paper

Effect of ADOIL TAC Additive on Diesel Combustion

1991-11-01
912555
Abstract Some papers on the combustion in a diesel engine have been already presented to discuss the effect of the additive called ADOIL TAC. A bottom view DI diesel engine driven at 980rpm with no load was used in the experiment presented here, in order to make clear this effect. JIS second class light diesel fuel oil was injected through a hole nozzle at the normal test run. The additive was intermixed 0.01 vol. % in this fuel oil, in the experiments to compare with the normal combustion. The flame was taken by direct high-speed photography. Profiles of flame temperature and KL were detected on the film by image processing, applying the two-color method. Soot was visualized by high-speed laser shadowgraphy, and the heat release rate was calculated using the cylinder pressure diagram. Discussion on the effect of the additive on the combustion phenomena was made by using all the data.
Technical Paper

Heat Flux between Impinged Diesel Spray and Flat Wall

1991-11-01
912460
In a high-speed DI diesel engine, fuel sprays impinge surely on a wall of a piston cavity. Then the phenomenon of the heat transfer between the impinged spray and the wall appears and it has the strong effect on the combustion processes of the engine. The purpose of this study are to clarify basically the heat transfer characteristics. In the experiments, the fuel was injected into the quiescent inert atmosphere with a high temperature under high pressure field, and an evaporative single diesel spray was impinging upon a flat wall. And, the temperature distribution on the wall surface in a radial direction was detected by the Loex-Constantan thin film thermo-couples. Thus, the heat flux between the impinged spray and the wall surface was calculated from the temperature profile within the wall by Fourier's equation using the finite difference method, under the assumption of the one-dimensional heat conduction.
Technical Paper

Knocking Phenomena in a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

1992-02-01
920064
In this study, a rapid compression and expansion machine(RCEM) with a pancake combustion chamber was designed to investigate fundamentally on the knocking phenomena in spark ignition(S.I) engines. This RCEM is intended to simulate combustion in an actual engine. The homogeneous pre-mixture of n-pentane and air was charged into a quiescent atmosphere of the chamber. Then, the combustion field become simpler in this machine than it in a real S.I. engine. Also, the combustion phenomena, that is a cylinder pressure history, the behavior of flame propagation and so on, with high reproducibility are realized in this machine. The phenomena caught in this experiment were so-called low speed knocking. And, this knocking characteristics such as a knock intensity and a knock mass fraction were revealed by the cylinder pressure analysis varying the charge pressure and the equivalence ratio of the mixture, a compression ratio and an ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Vizualization of Evaporative Diesel Spray Impinging Upon Wall Surface by Exciplex Fluorescence Method

1992-02-01
920578
A single diesel spray of n-decane which was miscible with a small quantity of exciplex dopants was injected from a hole nozzle into a quiescent high-temperature and high-pressure atmosphere of nitrogen, and was impinged in a normaldirection upon a flat wall with elevated temperature. This experiment was to serve as a simplified model of the actual state in a combustion chamber of diesel engines. When a thin sheet of laser light from Nd:YAG laser is passing through the cross section of this spray containing its central axis, it is able to generate fluorescent emissions from vapor and liquid phases in this evaporating spray. Then, clear 2-dimensional images concerning the concentration distributions of vapor and liquid phases were obtained simultaneously, by an exciplex fluorescence method using an image-intensifier and a CCD camera system. The dispersion processes of vapor and liquid phases in this impinging spray near the wall were analyzed with an image analyzer.
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