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Technical Paper

Advanced Simulation Technologies for Diesel Particulate Filters, A Fundamental Study on Asymmetric Channel Geometries

The pressure drop as well as the overall lifetime of wall flow diesel particulate filters is strongly influenced by the capability of storing non-combustible ash. One approach to reach low pressure drops and long filter lifetimes is the application of optimized channel geometries. This study presents a comprehensive simulation approach for filters with asymmetrical channel structures in the presence of soot and ash. The wall flow model, soot loading and regeneration approaches are discussed with all model equations. The soot filtration model distinguishes between the regimes of depth and cake filtration. The regeneration model takes into account soot regeneration reactions, catalytically supported soot reactions and catalytic wall reactions. The simulated pressure drop of filters with different channel diameters at different operating conditions is compared to measured values. The predicted pressure drop due to depth and cake filtration is compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Integrated 1D to 3D Simulation Workflow of Exhaust Aftertreatment Devices

Future limits on emissions for both gasoline and Diesel engines require adequate and advanced systems for the after-treatment of the exhaust gas. Computer models as a complementary tool to experimental investigations are an indispensable part to design reliable after-treatment devices such as catalytic converters and Diesel particulate filters including their influence on the power-train. Therefore, the objective of this contribution is to present an integrated 1D to 3D simulation workflow of of catalytic converters and Diesel particulate filters. The novelty of this approach is that parameters or set of parameters, obtained by a fast and efficient 1D-gas exchange and cycle simulation code for power-trains (AVL (2002a)), are readily transferable onto a 3D general purpose simulation code (AVL (2002b)). Thus, detailed aspects such as spatial distribution of temperatures or heat losses are investigated with only a single effort to estimate parameters.
Journal Article

Modeling of Catalyzed Particulate Filters - Concept Phase Simulation and Real-Time Plant Modeling on HiL

The present work introduces an extended particulate filter model focusing on capabilities to cover catalytic and surface storage reactions and to serve as a virtual multi-functional reactor/separator. The model can be classified as a transient, non-isothermal 1D+1D two-channel model. The applied modeling framework offers the required modeling depth to investigate arbitrary catalytic reaction schemes and it follows the computational requirement of running in real-time. The trade-off between model complexity and computational speed is scalable. The model is validated with the help of an analytically solved reference and the model parametrization is demonstrated by simulating experimentally given temperatures of a heat-up measurement. The detailed 1D+1D model is demonstrated in a concept study comparing the impact of different spatial washcoat distributions.