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Technical Paper

The Use of the Mobile Tire Traction Dynamometer in Research

The Mobile Tire Traction Dynamometer measures the braking and cornering traction of passenger car tires on outdoor pavements at highway speeds. Its hydrostatic wheel speed control system, wheel loading and positioning system, pavement wetting system, transducers and instrumentation are described in detail. The data processing methods for its several test modes are explained. Results of experiments (1) to determine the effect of the rate of change of slip on the peak braking coefficient, (2) to identify filters suitable for peak braking coefficient measurement, (3) to determine the effect of the rate of change of slip angle on the lateral force coefficient, and (4) to explore various pavement friction testing methods are included as examples of the use of this testing device.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Event Data Recorder Survivability in Crashes with Fire, Immersion, and High Delta-V

Event data recorders (EDRs) must survive regulatory frontal and side compliance crash tests if installed within a car or light truck built on or after September 1, 2012. Although previous research has shown that EDR data are surviving these tests, little is known about whether EDRs are capable of surviving collisions of higher delta-v, or crashes involving vehicle fire or immersion. The goal of this study was to determine the survivability of light vehicle EDRs in real world fire, immersion, and high change in velocity (delta-v) cases. The specific objective was to identify the frequency of these extreme events and to determine the EDR data download outcome when subject to damage caused by these events. This study was performed using three crash databases: the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), and the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS).
Technical Paper

Crash Severity: A Comparison of Event Data Recorder Measurements with Accident Reconstruction Estimates

The primary description of crash severity in most accident databases is vehicle delta-V. Delta-V has been traditionally estimated through accident reconstruction techniques using computer codes, e.g. Crash3 and WinSmash. Unfortunately, delta-V is notoriously difficult to estimate in many types of collisions including sideswipes, collisions with narrow objects, angled side impacts, and rollovers. Indeed, approximately 40% of all delta-V estimates for inspected vehicles in the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) 2001 are reported as unknown. The Event Data Recorders (EDRs), now being installed as standard equipment by several automakers, have the potential to provide an independent measurement of crash severity which avoids many of the difficulties of accident reconstruction techniques. This paper evaluates the feasibility of replacing delta-V estimates from accident reconstruction with the delta-V recorded by EDRs.