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Technical Paper

Thin Wall Ceramic Catalyst Supports

1999-03-01
1999-01-0269
The stringent emissions regulations, notably for cold start, have led to design modifications in each of the converter components, notably the catalyst support. With the faster light–off requirement, the catalyst support must have a lower thermal mass so as to reach the 50% conversion temperature as quickly as possible. Simultaneously, for higher warmed–up efficiency, the catalyst support must offer higher geometric surface area. Similarly, for improved fuel economy and for preserving engine power, the catalyst support must exert lower back pressure. Indeed, these three performance requirements might be met by certain thin wall ceramic substrates, including 400/4.5 and 600/4.3, which have 22% lower thermal mass, 25% higher geometric surface area and 8% larger open frontal area than the standard 400/6.5 substrate. Testing by automakers and international laboratories on engine dynamometers has verified the above advantages of thin wall substrates.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports

2000-03-06
2000-01-0493
Stringent emissions standards with 95+% conversion efficiency requirements call for advanced ceramic catalyst supports with thinner walls, higher cell density and optimum cell shape. The extrusion technology for cellular ceramics has also made significant progress which permits the manufacture of advanced catalyst supports. Similarly, modifications in cordierite chemistry and the manufacturing process have led to improved microstructure from coatability and thermal shock points of view. The design of these supports, however, requires a systems approach to balance both the performance and durability requirements. Indeed as the wall gets thinner, the contribution of washcoat becomes more significant in terms of thermal mass, heat transfer, thermal expansion, hydraulic diameter and structural stiffness - all of which have an impact on performance and durability. For example, the thinner the wall is, the better the light-off performance will be.
Technical Paper

Performance Parameters for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports

1999-10-25
1999-01-3631
The stringent emissions legislation has necessitated advances in the catalytic converter system comprising the substrate, washcoat technology, catalyst formulation and packaging design. These advances are focused on reducing light-off emissions at lower temperature or shorter time, increasing FTP efficiency, reducing back pressure and meeting the mechanical and thermal durability requirements over 100,000 vehicle miles. This paper reviews the role of cordierite ceramic substrate and how its design can help meet the stringent emissions legislation. In particular, it compares the effect of cell geometry and size on performance parameters like geometric surface area, open frontal area, hydraulic diameter, thermal mass, heat transfer factor, mechanical integrity factor and thermal integrity factor - all of which have a bearing on emissions, back pressure and durability. The properties of advanced cell configurations like hexagon are compared with those of standard square cell.
Technical Paper

Thermal Durability of a Ceramic Wall-Flow Diesel Filter for Light Duty Vehicles

1992-02-01
920143
The thermal durability of a large frontal area cordierite ceramic wall-flow filter for light-duty diesel engine is examined under various regeneration conditions. The radial temperature distribution during burner regeneration, obtained by eight different thermocouples at six different axial sections of a 75″ diameter x 8″ long filter, is used together with physical properties of the filter to compute thermal stresses via finite element analysis. The stress-time history of the filter is then compared with the strength and fatigue characteristics of extruded cordierite ceramic monolith. The successful performance of the filter over as many as 1000 regenerations is attributed to three important design parameters, namely unique filter properties, controlled regeneration conditions, and optimum packaging design. The latter induces significant radial and axial compression in the filter thereby enhancing its strength and reducing the operating stresses.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Creep Behavior of Ceramic and Metal Substrates

1991-02-01
910374
The high temperature creep data for radial specimens, cut from metal and ceramic substrates and subjected to compressive loads representative of mounting and thermal pressure are presented as function of load and temperature. These data show that the creep resistance of metallic specimens under sustained loading varies with temperature and is orders of magnitude lower than that of ceramic specimens. The observed creep deformation in metallic specimens reduces their open frontal area and hydraulic diameter with potentially adverse impact on pressure drop across the metallic substrate.
Technical Paper

Impact of Washcoat Formulation on Properties and Performance of Cordierite Ceramic Converters

1991-10-01
912370
The dual requirement of high conversion efficiency and 50K mile durability for cordierite ceramic converters is achievable through optimization of washcoat and catalyst formulation. This paper presents new data for high temperature physical properties, light-off performance, conversion efficiency and pressure drop through an oval cordierite ceramic converter with triangular cell structure and two different washcoat formulations; namely standard vs high-tech. Both of the washcoat systems have a beneficial effect on strength properties with nominal impact on thermal shock resistance. Both the standard and high-tech catalysts provide identical light-off performance for CO, HC and NOx conversion. The high-tech washcoat and catalyst system, in particular, provides consistently superior conversion efficiency for CO, HC and NOx. The pressure drop across the catalyst depends on hydraulic diameter and is only 8% higher for high-tech washcoat than for standard washcoat.
Technical Paper

Systems Approach to Packaging Design for Automotive Catalytic Converters

1990-02-01
900500
This paper addresses the packaging design for monolithic cordierite ceramic converters to meet the new, stringent durability requirements of the 1990's, while minimizing warranty cost for the automaker. These objectives are best met by using a systems approach during the early phases of packaging design, i.e. by examining design interactions between the ceramic monolith, alumina coating, ceramic mat or wiremesh mounting material with seals, stainless steel can, heatshields, and associated peripheral components. Failure of any one of these components can prove detrimental to converter durability. In this paper we take advantage of overall understanding of the observed failure modes and individual component behavior, and present new data for optimizing the total converter durability through initial design. In particular, the impact of symmetric gas entry, monolith contour, clamshell anisotropy, mount density, stiffener ribs, and heatshield insulation on total durability is highlighted.
Technical Paper

Cell Design for Ceramic Monoliths for Catalytic Converter Application

1988-10-01
881685
The shape and size of the unit cell of a ceramic monolith have a profound influence on its geometric and mechanical properties. These, in turn, affect the catalytic performance, converter durability and vehicle drive-ability. This paper presents the important relationships between cell geometry and monolith's open frontal area, geometric surface area, hydraulic diameter, bulk density, structural rigidity, strength and heat transfer characteristics of the monolith; both the square and triangular cells are considered. These relationships provide a rational basis for selecting the cell shape and size which will yield the best balance between the various performance requirements, i.e. light-off characteristics, conversion efficiency, back pressure and long-term dutability. It is shown that certain tradeoffs are necessary in selecting the final cell geometry which is best accomplished by prioritizing the various performance requirements.
Technical Paper

Thermal Shock Resistance of Oval Monolithic Heavy Duty Truck Converters

1988-02-01
880101
The long term durability of a heavy duty gasoline truck converter is addressed by examining thermal stresses due to radial temperature gradients under three different driving schedules. The pertinent physical properties of a catalyzed cordierite ceramic converter, with triangular cell structure, are first measured as function of temperature. These are followed by thermal mapping of mid-bed temperatures with the aid of thermocouples under various driving cycles on the truck dynamometer. Both the physical properties and the temperature distribution are then used as input parameters in the finite element thermal stress model to compute stresses in the oval converter.
Technical Paper

Failure Modes During Static and Impact Loading of Light-Weight Rectangular Glass Headlamps

1984-04-01
840745
An approximate analytical solution for stress distribution in the rectangular lens of a glass headlamp due to static and impact loading is presented. Both low mass/high velocity and high mass/low velocity impact data and the resulting failure modes are discussed. Generally, glass headlamp lenses break either due to Hertz stress (front surface under high localized tension), or due to flexural stress (back surface under tension due to bending), or the combination of two. Failure due to flexural stress is illustrated by a star-crack, while that due to Hertz stress is illustrated by a Hertzian cone or “bullet hole” in the lens. The failure mode during low mass/high velocity impact is predominantly Hertzian while that during high mass/low velocity impact is flexural for lenses 0.120″ to 0.150′ thick. No significant differences are observed in the impact resistance of standard and light-weight lenses in this thickness range.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Durability of Ceramic Honeycombs for Automotive Emissions Control

1985-02-01
850130
Ceramic honeycomb structures have been used successfully as catalyst supports in gasoline-powered vehicles for the past ten years. They are currently the leading candidate for trapping and oxidizing the carbonaceous particulate emissions in diesel-powered vehicles. In both of these applications the long term durability of the ceramic substrate is of prime importance. This, in turn, depends on the physical properties of cellular structure, cyclic nature of service loads and design of the mounting assembly. This paper examines the nature and dependence of both the mechanical and thermal stresses in the substrate on its geometry, properties, mounting parameters, and the operating conditions. It also compares the observed failure modes with those predicted by the theory. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations for optimal systems design and acceptable operating conditions which will promote the long term durability of the ceramic substrate.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Integrity of Ceramic Monolithic Converters

1981-11-01
811324
The converter assembly consists of a ceramic monolith with racetrack cross-section, a suitable “springy” mat wrapped around it and a clam-shell steel can to contain and guard these components against road hazards. The process to effect this assembly is rather dynamic and introduces directional loads onto the monolith in view of the anisotropic stiffness of the can. If these loads exceed certain values, they may cause failure of the monolith either by crushing it or by shearing it. In this paper we analyze the stiffness of various components of converter assembly, determine the load distribution around the monolith, and modify the design of can and monolith to make the load distribution more favorable. It is concluded that the converter assembly can be optimized and the failure of monoliths, if any, eliminated during closure. The present monoliths do not suffer from such failure.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Mounting Material for Ceramic Wail-Flow Diesel Filters

1984-02-01
840074
An important element of the diesel filter assembly is a resilient ceramic mat placed between the ceramic filter and the stainless steel can. It has four key functions: i) to provide adequate gripping pressure, ii) to permit free axial expansion of can, iii) to act as a seal for gases, and iv) to minimize temperature gradients in the filter, which require certain mat properties, namely low-to-medium compression modulus, low shear modulus, and low friction coefficient between mat and filter. This paper compares the properties and performance of two different mats, Interam® I and III, in “hot shake” and “exhaust gas simulator” tests. The results indicate that Interam® III is a superior material for diesel filter application and that a complete coverage by this mat will prolong the durability of the filter.
Technical Paper

Strength and Thermal Shock Resistance of Segmented Wall-Flow Diesel Filters

1986-03-01
860008
The physical properties, including modulus of rupture, structural modulus and thermal expansion coefficient of segmented, large frontal area, ceramic wall-flow diesel filters are presented. The effect of cement composition, its coverage and segmentation pattern on these properties and on the failure modes during strength testing is discussed. Using these properties the mechanical and thermal integrities of LFA filter are computed and compared with those of monolithic filter,. The paper discusses both the high efficiency (EX-47, 100/17) and low efficiency (EX-66, 100/25) filter compositions.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Converter Technology for Automotive Emissions Control

1991-09-01
911736
This paper reviews the development and successful application of ceramic catalytic converters for controlling automotive exhaust emissions. It presents the scientific rationale for designing the high surface area substrate to meet both performance and durability requirements. This is followed by a step-by-step design process for each of the converter components. The initial design stage focuses on understanding automaker's requirements and optimizing component design commensurate with them. The intermediate stage involves laboratory testing of converter components in simulated environment and ensuring component compatibility from durability point of view. The final design stage addresses the critical tests on converter assembly to ensure performance and field durability. In addition, it examines the necessary trade-offs and associated design modifications and evaluates their impact on warranty cost for system failure.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Compressive Strength of Extruded Cordierite Ceramic Substrates

1995-02-01
950787
High temperature modulus of rupture (MOR) data, published previously, show that the ceramic catalyst supports get stronger with temperature due to the absence of water vapor and closure of microcracks which would otherwise act as stress concentrators [1, 2 and 3]*. The increased MOR value is partially responsible for the excellent durability of ceramic catalyst supports at high temperature. In this paper, we will present the compressive strength data of ceramic substrates at high temperature, namely the crush strength along B-axis and biaxial compressive strength of the whole substrate. Since the honeycomb strength is directly related to that of the individual cell wall, the compressive strength should also increase with temperature similar to the modulus of rupture. Accordingly, the ceramic substrates are capable of supporting higher mounting pressures exerted by the intumescent mat at high temperature [4].
Technical Paper

Robust Packaging System for Diesel/Natural Gas Oxidation Catalysts

1996-02-01
960471
The 290,000 vehicle-mile durability requirement for diesel/natural gas oxidation catalysts calls for robust packaging systems which ensure a positive mounting pressure on the ceramic flow-through converter under all operating conditions. New data for substrate/washcoat interaction, intumescent mat performance in dry and wet states, and high temperature strength and oxidation resistance of stainless steels, and canning techniques insensitive to tolerance stack-up are reviewed which help optimize packaging durability. Factors contributing to robustness of converter components are identified and methods to quantify their impact on design optimization are described. CERAMIC FLOW-THROUGH catalysts for diesel exhaust aftertreatment have met with much success since their introduction in 1993.
Technical Paper

Experimental Verification of Residual Compression in Tempered Automotive Glass with Holes

2003-01-18
2003-26-0012
Tempered float glass is commonly used for both side windows and backlites in the automotive industry. The success of such products is primarily attributed to high level of residual compression, following tempering, which provides abrasion resistance as well as 3X higher functional strength to sustain mechanical, vibrational and thermal stresses during the vehicle's lifetime. Certain applications of tempered glass, however, require mounting holes whose surface-finish must be controlled carefully to withstand transient tensile stresses during tempering. Simultaneously, the nature and magnitude of residual compression at the hole must provide sufficient robustness to bear mounting, vibrational and thermal stresses throughout the life of the vehicle. This paper presents (i) analysis of residual compression at the hole, (ii) measurement of biaxial strength of annealed glass with hole at center, and (iii) measurement of biaxial strength of tempered glass with hole at center.
Technical Paper

New Developments in Diesel Oxidation Catalysts and Diesel Particulate Filters

2003-01-18
2003-26-0017
Stringent emissions legislation for diesel-powered vehicles, soon to go into effect, has led to new advances in both Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). This paper reviews some of the new developments in DOC support design which lead to improved light-off behavior and higher overall emissions performance through lower thermal mass, higher Geometric Surface Area (GSA) and larger Open Frontal Area (OFA) than those afforded by the standard cordierite 400/6.5 cell configuration. The four different DOC supports examined in this paper include 400/4, 200/8, 300/8 and 400/6.5 - the last one serving as baseline.
Technical Paper

Substrate/Washcoat Interaction in Thin Wall Ceramic Substrates

1999-01-13
990013
Stringent emissions standards for HC, CO and NOx have necessitated the development of thin wall ceramic substrates which offer higher surface area, larger open frontal area and lower thermal mass. Such substrates offer the additional benefit of being compact which make them ideal for manifold mounting in the engine compartment. These attributes of ceramic substrates, following washcoat and catalyst application, translate directly into quick light-off, high conversion efficiency and low back pressure. To preserve these advantages at high operating temperature and still meet 100,000 mile vehicle durability, the thermomechanical interaction between the substrate and thin wall washcoat system must be managed carefully via formulation, % loading and the calcination process. This paper presents the physical properties data for thin wall ceramic substrates before and after the washcoat application.
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