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Technical Paper

Thin Wall Ceramic Catalyst Supports

1999-03-01
1999-01-0269
The stringent emissions regulations, notably for cold start, have led to design modifications in each of the converter components, notably the catalyst support. With the faster light–off requirement, the catalyst support must have a lower thermal mass so as to reach the 50% conversion temperature as quickly as possible. Simultaneously, for higher warmed–up efficiency, the catalyst support must offer higher geometric surface area. Similarly, for improved fuel economy and for preserving engine power, the catalyst support must exert lower back pressure. Indeed, these three performance requirements might be met by certain thin wall ceramic substrates, including 400/4.5 and 600/4.3, which have 22% lower thermal mass, 25% higher geometric surface area and 8% larger open frontal area than the standard 400/6.5 substrate. Testing by automakers and international laboratories on engine dynamometers has verified the above advantages of thin wall substrates.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports

2000-03-06
2000-01-0493
Stringent emissions standards with 95+% conversion efficiency requirements call for advanced ceramic catalyst supports with thinner walls, higher cell density and optimum cell shape. The extrusion technology for cellular ceramics has also made significant progress which permits the manufacture of advanced catalyst supports. Similarly, modifications in cordierite chemistry and the manufacturing process have led to improved microstructure from coatability and thermal shock points of view. The design of these supports, however, requires a systems approach to balance both the performance and durability requirements. Indeed as the wall gets thinner, the contribution of washcoat becomes more significant in terms of thermal mass, heat transfer, thermal expansion, hydraulic diameter and structural stiffness - all of which have an impact on performance and durability. For example, the thinner the wall is, the better the light-off performance will be.
Technical Paper

Performance Parameters for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports

1999-10-25
1999-01-3631
The stringent emissions legislation has necessitated advances in the catalytic converter system comprising the substrate, washcoat technology, catalyst formulation and packaging design. These advances are focused on reducing light-off emissions at lower temperature or shorter time, increasing FTP efficiency, reducing back pressure and meeting the mechanical and thermal durability requirements over 100,000 vehicle miles. This paper reviews the role of cordierite ceramic substrate and how its design can help meet the stringent emissions legislation. In particular, it compares the effect of cell geometry and size on performance parameters like geometric surface area, open frontal area, hydraulic diameter, thermal mass, heat transfer factor, mechanical integrity factor and thermal integrity factor - all of which have a bearing on emissions, back pressure and durability. The properties of advanced cell configurations like hexagon are compared with those of standard square cell.
Technical Paper

Durable Packaging Design for Cordierite Ceramic Catalysts for Motorcycle Application

1993-03-01
930161
The motorcycle emissions regulations for both two-stroke and four-stroke engines, which are receiving worldwide attention, will go into effect in the very near future. To meet these regulations, the motorcycles will require a catalyst in conjunction with the muffler due to space limitations. The combination of high engine speeds, high vibrational acceleration, high HC and CO emissions, high oxidation exotherms, and stringent durability requirements, points to cordierite ceramic substrate as an ideal catalyst support. However, as an integral unit within the muffler, its packaging design must be capable of withstanding isothermal operating conditions which may exceed the upper intumescent temperature limit of the ceramic mat. This paper describes a durable packaging design for the ceramic catalyst which employs a hybrid ceramic mat, special end rings and gaskets, and high strength stainless steel can.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Biaxial Compressive Strength of Cordierite Ceramic Honeycombs

1993-03-01
930165
The stringent durability requirements approaching 100,000 vehicle miles for automotive substrates and 290,000 vehicle miles for large frontal area diesel substrates for 1994+ model year vehicles call for advanced packaging designs with thick ceramic mats and high mount densities. The latter result in high mounting pressure on the substrate and enhance its mechanical integrity against engine vibrations, road shocks and back pressure forces. A novel measurement technique which applies a uniform biaxial compressive load on the lateral surface of ceramic substrates, thereby simulating canning loads, is described. The biaxial compressive strength data obtained in this manner help determine the maximum mounting pressure and mat density for a durable packaging design. The biaxial compressive strength data for both round and non round substrates with small and large frontal area are presented.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Diesel Flow-Through Converters

1992-02-01
920145
The large frontal area cordierite ceramic flow-through converter for diesel emissions must meet the 290K vehicle mile durability requirement, almost a six fold increase over that of automotive converters. This paper compares the size, the geometry and the operating conditions of automotive vs. diesel converters and suggests ways to design the converter system to meet the challenging durability requirements without compromising its performance with respect to back pressure and conversion efficiency. It is shown that the mechanical durability of the system, which is critical for meeting the 290K vehicle mile durability, can best be met by ensuring good compatibility between the substrate and washcoat and by designing a rugged packaging system with positive mounting pressure under all driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Size Effect on the Strength of Ceramic Catalyst Supports

1992-10-01
922333
The typical ceramic catalyst support for automotive application has a total volume of 1640 cm3. Approximately 10% of this volume is subjected to tensile thermal stresses due to a radial temperature gradient in service [1]*. These stresses are kept below 50% of the substrate strength to minimize fatigue degradation and to ensure long-term durability [2]. However, the tensile strength measurements are carried out in 4-point bending using 2.5 cm wide x 1.2 cm thick x 10 cm long modulus of rupture bars in which the specimen volume subjected to tensile stress is merely 3.2 cm3 or 0.2% of the total substrate volume [3]. Thus, a large specimen population is often necessary (50 specimens or more) to obtain the strength distribution representative of full substrate. This is particularly true for large frontal area substrates for diesel catalyst supports with an order of magnitude larger stressed volume. In this paper, the modulus of rupture data are obtained as function of specimen size.
Technical Paper

New Developments in Packaging of Ceramic Honeycomb Catalysts

1992-10-01
922252
The emissions regulations for the decade of 1990s are not only more stringent but are also required of vehicles other than passenger cars, for example both diesel and gasoline trucks as well as motorcycles. These latter applications involve different operating conditions in terms of space velocities, temperature profiles, and vibrational loads than those typical of passenger cars [1]*. In addition, the performance and durability requirements for these applications call for lower back pressure and longer service life. Furthermore, the space availability and the operating temperature range differ vastly so as to require special packaging designs to meet the durability requirements. This paper provides new data for ceramic insulating mats, both intumescent and non-intumescent [2,3], and ceramic substrates with thin and thick walls and square and triangular cell geometries [4], which are under development for non-passenger car applications indicated above.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Creep Behavior of Ceramic and Metal Substrates

1991-02-01
910374
The high temperature creep data for radial specimens, cut from metal and ceramic substrates and subjected to compressive loads representative of mounting and thermal pressure are presented as function of load and temperature. These data show that the creep resistance of metallic specimens under sustained loading varies with temperature and is orders of magnitude lower than that of ceramic specimens. The observed creep deformation in metallic specimens reduces their open frontal area and hydraulic diameter with potentially adverse impact on pressure drop across the metallic substrate.
Technical Paper

Impact of Washcoat Formulation on Properties and Performance of Cordierite Ceramic Converters

1991-10-01
912370
The dual requirement of high conversion efficiency and 50K mile durability for cordierite ceramic converters is achievable through optimization of washcoat and catalyst formulation. This paper presents new data for high temperature physical properties, light-off performance, conversion efficiency and pressure drop through an oval cordierite ceramic converter with triangular cell structure and two different washcoat formulations; namely standard vs high-tech. Both of the washcoat systems have a beneficial effect on strength properties with nominal impact on thermal shock resistance. Both the standard and high-tech catalysts provide identical light-off performance for CO, HC and NOx conversion. The high-tech washcoat and catalyst system, in particular, provides consistently superior conversion efficiency for CO, HC and NOx. The pressure drop across the catalyst depends on hydraulic diameter and is only 8% higher for high-tech washcoat than for standard washcoat.
Technical Paper

Systems Approach to Packaging Design for Automotive Catalytic Converters

1990-02-01
900500
This paper addresses the packaging design for monolithic cordierite ceramic converters to meet the new, stringent durability requirements of the 1990's, while minimizing warranty cost for the automaker. These objectives are best met by using a systems approach during the early phases of packaging design, i.e. by examining design interactions between the ceramic monolith, alumina coating, ceramic mat or wiremesh mounting material with seals, stainless steel can, heatshields, and associated peripheral components. Failure of any one of these components can prove detrimental to converter durability. In this paper we take advantage of overall understanding of the observed failure modes and individual component behavior, and present new data for optimizing the total converter durability through initial design. In particular, the impact of symmetric gas entry, monolith contour, clamshell anisotropy, mount density, stiffener ribs, and heatshield insulation on total durability is highlighted.
Technical Paper

Thermal Shock Resistance of Oval Monolithic Heavy Duty Truck Converters

1988-02-01
880101
The long term durability of a heavy duty gasoline truck converter is addressed by examining thermal stresses due to radial temperature gradients under three different driving schedules. The pertinent physical properties of a catalyzed cordierite ceramic converter, with triangular cell structure, are first measured as function of temperature. These are followed by thermal mapping of mid-bed temperatures with the aid of thermocouples under various driving cycles on the truck dynamometer. Both the physical properties and the temperature distribution are then used as input parameters in the finite element thermal stress model to compute stresses in the oval converter.
Technical Paper

Advanced Three-Way Converter System for High Temperature Exhaust Aftertreatment

1997-02-24
970265
An advanced three-way converter system with significant improvements in light-off performance, conversion efficiency, thermal stability and physical durability at high operating temperature is described. The converter system is comprised of a light-weight ceramic substrate with high surface area triangular cell structure, a new catalyst formulation with enhanced thermal stability and good substrate compatibility, and a durable packaging design which together lead to consistent improvements in high temperature performance and durability. Experimental data including FTP performance, canning trials, and high temperature vibration and thermal shock tests for both the advanced and standard three-way converter systems are presented.
Technical Paper

Failure Modes During Static and Impact Loading of Light-Weight Rectangular Glass Headlamps

1984-04-01
840745
An approximate analytical solution for stress distribution in the rectangular lens of a glass headlamp due to static and impact loading is presented. Both low mass/high velocity and high mass/low velocity impact data and the resulting failure modes are discussed. Generally, glass headlamp lenses break either due to Hertz stress (front surface under high localized tension), or due to flexural stress (back surface under tension due to bending), or the combination of two. Failure due to flexural stress is illustrated by a star-crack, while that due to Hertz stress is illustrated by a Hertzian cone or “bullet hole” in the lens. The failure mode during low mass/high velocity impact is predominantly Hertzian while that during high mass/low velocity impact is flexural for lenses 0.120″ to 0.150′ thick. No significant differences are observed in the impact resistance of standard and light-weight lenses in this thickness range.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Durability of Ceramic Honeycombs for Automotive Emissions Control

1985-02-01
850130
Ceramic honeycomb structures have been used successfully as catalyst supports in gasoline-powered vehicles for the past ten years. They are currently the leading candidate for trapping and oxidizing the carbonaceous particulate emissions in diesel-powered vehicles. In both of these applications the long term durability of the ceramic substrate is of prime importance. This, in turn, depends on the physical properties of cellular structure, cyclic nature of service loads and design of the mounting assembly. This paper examines the nature and dependence of both the mechanical and thermal stresses in the substrate on its geometry, properties, mounting parameters, and the operating conditions. It also compares the observed failure modes with those predicted by the theory. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations for optimal systems design and acceptable operating conditions which will promote the long term durability of the ceramic substrate.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Integrity of Ceramic Monolithic Converters

1981-11-01
811324
The converter assembly consists of a ceramic monolith with racetrack cross-section, a suitable “springy” mat wrapped around it and a clam-shell steel can to contain and guard these components against road hazards. The process to effect this assembly is rather dynamic and introduces directional loads onto the monolith in view of the anisotropic stiffness of the can. If these loads exceed certain values, they may cause failure of the monolith either by crushing it or by shearing it. In this paper we analyze the stiffness of various components of converter assembly, determine the load distribution around the monolith, and modify the design of can and monolith to make the load distribution more favorable. It is concluded that the converter assembly can be optimized and the failure of monoliths, if any, eliminated during closure. The present monoliths do not suffer from such failure.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Mounting Material for Ceramic Wail-Flow Diesel Filters

1984-02-01
840074
An important element of the diesel filter assembly is a resilient ceramic mat placed between the ceramic filter and the stainless steel can. It has four key functions: i) to provide adequate gripping pressure, ii) to permit free axial expansion of can, iii) to act as a seal for gases, and iv) to minimize temperature gradients in the filter, which require certain mat properties, namely low-to-medium compression modulus, low shear modulus, and low friction coefficient between mat and filter. This paper compares the properties and performance of two different mats, Interam® I and III, in “hot shake” and “exhaust gas simulator” tests. The results indicate that Interam® III is a superior material for diesel filter application and that a complete coverage by this mat will prolong the durability of the filter.
Technical Paper

Strength and Thermal Shock Resistance of Segmented Wall-Flow Diesel Filters

1986-03-01
860008
The physical properties, including modulus of rupture, structural modulus and thermal expansion coefficient of segmented, large frontal area, ceramic wall-flow diesel filters are presented. The effect of cement composition, its coverage and segmentation pattern on these properties and on the failure modes during strength testing is discussed. Using these properties the mechanical and thermal integrities of LFA filter are computed and compared with those of monolithic filter,. The paper discusses both the high efficiency (EX-47, 100/17) and low efficiency (EX-66, 100/25) filter compositions.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Converter Technology for Automotive Emissions Control

1991-09-01
911736
This paper reviews the development and successful application of ceramic catalytic converters for controlling automotive exhaust emissions. It presents the scientific rationale for designing the high surface area substrate to meet both performance and durability requirements. This is followed by a step-by-step design process for each of the converter components. The initial design stage focuses on understanding automaker's requirements and optimizing component design commensurate with them. The intermediate stage involves laboratory testing of converter components in simulated environment and ensuring component compatibility from durability point of view. The final design stage addresses the critical tests on converter assembly to ensure performance and field durability. In addition, it examines the necessary trade-offs and associated design modifications and evaluates their impact on warranty cost for system failure.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Compressive Strength of Extruded Cordierite Ceramic Substrates

1995-02-01
950787
High temperature modulus of rupture (MOR) data, published previously, show that the ceramic catalyst supports get stronger with temperature due to the absence of water vapor and closure of microcracks which would otherwise act as stress concentrators [1, 2 and 3]*. The increased MOR value is partially responsible for the excellent durability of ceramic catalyst supports at high temperature. In this paper, we will present the compressive strength data of ceramic substrates at high temperature, namely the crush strength along B-axis and biaxial compressive strength of the whole substrate. Since the honeycomb strength is directly related to that of the individual cell wall, the compressive strength should also increase with temperature similar to the modulus of rupture. Accordingly, the ceramic substrates are capable of supporting higher mounting pressures exerted by the intumescent mat at high temperature [4].
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