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Technical Paper

Driveline Boom Interior Noise Prediction Based on Multi Body Simulation

2011-05-17
2011-01-1556
It is important to develop powertrain NVH characteristics with the goal of ultimately influencing/improving the in-vehicle NVH behavior since this is what matters to the end customer. One development tool called dB(VINS) based on a process called Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) is used for determining interior vehicle noise based on powertrain level measurements (mount vibration and radiated noise) in combination with standardized vehicle transfer functions. Although this method is not intended to replace a complete transfer path analysis and does not take any vehicle specific sensitivity into account, it allows for powertrain-induced interior vehicle noise assessments without having an actual test vehicle available. Such a technique allows for vehicle centric powertrain NVH development right from an early vehicle development stage.
Journal Article

Integration of Engine Start/Stop Systems with Emphasis on NVH and Launch Behavior

2013-05-13
2013-01-1899
Automatic engine start/stop systems are becoming more prevalent and increasing market share of these systems is predicted due to demands on improving fuel efficiency of vehicles. Integration of an engine start/stop system into a “conventional” drivetrain with internal combustion engine and 12V board system is a relatively cost effective measure to reduce fuel consumption. Comfort and NVH aspects will continue to play an important role for customer acceptance of these systems. Possible delay during vehicle launch due to the engine re-start is not only a safety relevant issue but a hesitating launch feel characteristic will result in reduced customer acceptance of these systems. The engine stop and re-start behavior should be imperceptible to the driver from both a tactile and acoustic standpoint. The lack of masking effects of the engine during the engine stop phases can cause other “unwanted” noise to become noticeable or more prominent.
Technical Paper

Sound Character of Electric Vehicles

2011-05-17
2011-01-1728
The electrification of vehicle propulsion has caused a significant change in many areas including the world of vehicle acoustics. Comments from the media currently range from “silently hums the future” to “electric car roars with V8 sound”. Decades of experience in designing brand-specific vehicle sound based on noise and vibration generated by combustion engines cannot be simply transferred to the upcoming vehicles driven purely by electric powertrains. Although electric vehicles are almost always considerably quieter than those powered by internal combustion engines, the interior noise is characterized by high-frequency noise components which can be subjectively perceived as annoying and unpleasant. Moreover, such disturbing noise is no longer masked by combustion engine noise. Fundamental questions regarding the sound design of electric vehicles have yet to be answered: it remains unclear what exactly the interior noise of an electric vehicle should sound like.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Source and Path Contributions to Sound Quality Using Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation

2011-05-17
2011-01-1685
It is commonly accepted that refined “powertrain sound quality” is essential to the development of a vehicle which will be well received by today's discriminating automotive customer. However, though there are several metrics which correlate well with a subjective impression of powertrain level inputs, what is ultimately important is the sound quality at driver's ear. Vehicle level powertrain sound quality is influenced by the powertrain noise and vibration (source) as well as the vehicle airborne and structureborne transfer functions (path). In development as well as benchmarking activities, it can be difficult to separate the influence of source and path on overall vehicle sound quality.
Technical Paper

NVH Target Cascading from Customer Interface to Vehicle Subsystems

2013-05-13
2013-01-1980
The definition of vehicle and powertrain level targets is one of the first tasks toward establishing where a vehicle will reside with respect to the current or future state of industry. Though development of sound quality metrics is ongoing to better correlate objective data with subjective assessments, target setting at the vehicle level is relatively straightforward. However, realization of these targets depends on effective cascading to system and component levels. Often, component level targets are derived based on experience from earlier development programs, or based on selected characteristics observed during component level benchmarking. An approach is presented here to complement current strategies for component level target definition. This approach involves a systematic concept for definition of component NVH targets based on desired vehicle level performance and a consequent target break down.
Technical Paper

Virtual Powertrain Installation for Diesel Engine Sound Quality Development in a Light Duty Vehicle Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-0024
Increased customer expectation for NVH refinement creates a significant challenge for the integration of Diesel powertrains into passenger vehicles that might have been initially developed for gasoline engine applications. A significant factor in the refinement of Diesel powertrain sound quality is calibration optimization for NVH, which is often constrained by performance, emissions and fuel economy requirements. Vehicle level enablers add cost and weight to the vehicle and are generally bounded by vehicle architecture, particularly when dealing with a carry-over vehicle platform, as is often the case for many vehicle programs. These constraints are compounded by the need to make program critical sound package content decisions well before the availability of prototype vehicles with the right powertrain. In this paper, a case study on NVH development for integration of a light duty Diesel powertrain is presented.
Journal Article

7-XDCT: Compact and Cost-Efficient Dual Clutch Transmission for Small and Mid-Size Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1271
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. The ongoing trends of “downsizing” and “down speeding” have led to the development of turbocharged engines with low displacement and high torque density. In order to meet the launch response requirements with these engines as well as fuel economy needs, transmissions with large ratio spreads will need to be developed. Due to the lack of torque amplification from the torque converter, the next generation of dual clutch transmissions (DCT) will need to have larger launch ratios and ratio spreads than currently available in production today. This paper discusses the development of a new family of DCT (called “xDCT”) for use in front wheel drive vehicles, aimed at meeting some of these challenges. The xDCT family features two innovative concepts, the idea of “gear generation” and “supported shifts”.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Powertrain Noise with Special Emphasis on Impulsive Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2411
NVH refinement is an important aspect of the powertrain development process. Powertrain NVH refinement is influenced by overall sound levels as well as sound quality. The sound quality and hence the level of powertrain NVH refinement can be negatively affected by the presence of excessive impulsive noise. This paper describes a process used to develop an understanding of impulsive powertrain noise. The paper begins with an introductory discussion of various sources of impulsive noise in an automotive powertrain. Following this, the paper outlines a process for identifying the source of the impulsive powertrain noise using examples from case studies. The remainder of the paper focuses on certain examples of impulsive noise such as Diesel knocking noise, injector ticking, impulsive cranktrain noise, and gear rattle. For these examples, the development of key objective metrics, optimization measures, and improvement potential are examined.
Technical Paper

Evaluations of Combustion Parameters Using Engine Speed Fluctuation Measurements

2005-05-16
2005-01-2533
The combustion process in an IC engine is of significant importance for its noise and vibration characteristics in the vehicle. Describing the combustion process with thermodynamic metrics typically demands extensive instrumentation of the engine to obtain the cylinder pressure from the combustion chamber. This time consuming task often requires, that the engine be removed from the vehicle, instrumented with pressure transducers, and then either reinstalled in the vehicle and tested or installed in a test cell and evaluated. This paper describes a new relatively simple approach towards examining important combustion parameters. The technique is based on statistical analysis of the crankshaft's speed fluctuation. This approach requires relatively simple instrumentation of the engine and is therefore more applicable for vehicle level investigations.
Technical Paper

Application of Combustion Sound Level (CSL) Analysis for Powertrain

2009-05-19
2009-01-2168
Powertrain noise is a significant factor in determination of the overall vehicle refinement expected by today's discriminating automotive customer. Development of a powertrain to meet these expectations requires a thorough understanding of the contributing noise sources. Specifically, combustion noise greatly impacts the perception of sound levels and quality. The relevance of combustion noise development has increased with the advent of newer efficiency-driven technologies such as direct injection or homogeneous charge compression ignition. This paper discusses the application of a CSL (Combustion Sound Level) analysis-a method for the identification and optimization of combustion noise. Using CSL, it is possible to separate mechanical and combustion noise sources.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Body Systems Approach for Analysis of Launch Shudder in Rear Wheel Driven Vehicles

2009-05-19
2009-01-2073
Driveline shudder is a low-frequency (10 Hz - 30 Hz) vibration issue of vehicles that can occur under various test conditions. Specifically, launch shudder is an issue that can be prevalent under vehicle take-off conditions. Factors that typically contribute to launch shudder include stick-slip excitation of friction materials (clutches) and driveline excitations, in particular, on rear wheel drive (RWD) vehicles. Shudder caused by the driveline excitation is generally related to the universal joints (Cardan joints) in the driveline system. In this case, the u-joint forces and kinematics induce a 2nd order excitation when operated under a driveline angle. This document focuses on launch shudder phenomena resulting from driveline system excitation on a RWD vehicle. An initial treatment of the physics governing launch shudder and typical factors influencing the shudder levels in vehicle are provided.
Journal Article

Aspects of NVH Integration in Hybrid Vehicles

2009-05-19
2009-01-2085
NVH refinement is an important aspect of the powertrain development and vehicle integration process. The depletion of fossil-based fuels and increase in price of gasoline have prompted most vehicle manufacturers to embrace propulsion technologies with varying degrees and types of hybridization. Many different hybrid vehicle systems are either on the market, or under development, even up to all-electric vehicles. Each hybrid vehicle configuration brings unique NVH challenges that result from a variety of sources. This paper begins with an introductory discussion of hybrid propulsion technologies and associated unique vehicle NVH challenges inherent in the operation of such hybrid vehicles. Following this, the paper outlines a two-dimensional landscape of typical customer vehicle maneuvers mapped against hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) operational modes.
Technical Paper

Cold Start Engine Clatter Noise Evaluations

2005-05-16
2005-01-2455
Internal combustion engine noise is primarily composed of combustion and mechanical noise shares. Mechanical noise contributions in engines have increased relevance at low load conditions when combustion related noise is not significant. Current literature on mechanical noise in engines includes: piston pin ticking, piston secondary motion, and valvetrain impacts. A mechanical noise source from excitation of piston tertiary motion is described here in the form of a case study on an engine exhibiting a cold start “clatter” noise. Targeted experimental measurements were initially used to rule out potential mechanisms such as impacts resulting from piston pin ticking and piston secondary motion. Experimental modification studies and piston load and kinematics modeling led to discovery of instability of the piston which is understood to excite tertiary motion of the piston and result in impulsive “clatter” noise under certain low load/speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Shift Quality With Emphasis on Powertrain Integration and Vehicle Sensitivity

2005-05-16
2005-01-2303
A customer's perception of vehicle quality very closely parallels the noise vibration and harshness (NVH) characteristics of the vehicle. Consequently, automotive manufacturers are investing significant resources into optimizing the NVH performance of their vehicles. Automatic transmission shift quality is one of a number of attributes where NVH optimization is critical towards providing customers with a pleasant driving experience. This paper addresses various aspects of understanding, quantifying and optimizing a vehicle's shift quality characteristics. Following an introductory treatment of automatic transmission planetary gear systems, the interaction between the engine/transmission system during shifts is summarized. Various shift quality metrics used to quantify a vehicle's response and its sensitivity to transient inputs are provided. Approaches to manage the engine torque output during the shifts are discussed.
Technical Paper

NVH Refinement of Diesel Powered Sedans with Special Emphasis on Diesel Clatter Noise and Powertrain Harshness

2007-05-15
2007-01-2378
NVH refinement of passenger vehicles is crucial to customer acceptance of contemporary vehicles. This paper describes the vehicle NVH development process, with specific examples from a Diesel sedan application that was derived from gasoline engine-based vehicle architecture. Using an early prototype Diesel vehicle as a starting point, this paper examines the application of a Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) technique in the development process. Accordingly, structureborne and airborne noise shares are analyzed in the time-domain under both steady-state and transient test conditions. The results are used to drive countermeasure development to address structureborne and airborne noise refinement. Examples are provided to highlight the refinement process for “Diesel knocking” under idle as well as transient test conditions. Specifically, the application of VINS to understanding the influence of high frequency dynamic stiffness of hydro-mounts on Diesel clatter noise is examined.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Driveline Integration for Optimized Vehicle NVH Characteristics

2007-05-15
2007-01-2246
Customer requirements for quiet and more comfortable vehicles have steadily increased. Requirements for lightweight vehicle designs and the need for more fuel efficient engines are often contradictory to the customer expectations for NVH refinement. The driveline can be a significant source of NVH issues in the vehicle. The increasing complexity of modern driveline systems as well as the existence of several variants in the driveline architecture (front wheel, rear wheel and four-wheel/all-wheel drive, automatic-, manual-, automatic-shifted manual transmission, etc.) can make the driveline integration task very challenging. Due to the multitude of driveline components and potential driveline excitations sources, several driveline-related noise and vibration problems within different frequency ranges have to be understood and controlled to ensure a well refined vehicle.
Technical Paper

Shifter Cable Vibration Transfer and Kinematic Simulation: Case Study

2005-05-16
2005-01-2379
The shifter lever is one of the main customer contact points in the vehicle. Vibration levels at this contact point have an effect on perceived vehicle quality. For this reason, shifter lever vibration and the corresponding transfer paths from the transmission to the shifter lever need to be considered during vehicle development. On a recent program, experimental measurements identified the shifter cable to be a significant transfer path for shifter lever vibration. An integrated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) and experimental effort was undertaken to model and optimize the shifter lever and cable assembly for reduced vibration. Experimental data was used to better understand the vibration phenomenon, set boundary conditions for the CAE modeling, and for correlation. The CAE model contains the shifter lever assembly and a detailed cable assembly model.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality and Engine Performance Development Utilizing Air-to-Air Simulation and Interior Noise Synthesis

2003-05-05
2003-01-1652
The sound quality and performance of an automotive engine are both significantly influenced by the “air-to-air” system, i.e., the intake system, the exhaust system, and the engine gas dynamics. Only a full systems approach can result in an optimized air-to-air system, which fulfills engine performance requirements, overall sound pressure level targets for airborne vehicle noise, as well as sound quality demands. This paper describes an approach, which considers the intake system, engine, and exhaust system within one CAE model that can be utilized for engine performance calculations as well as acoustic simulations. Examples comparing simulated and measured sound are discussed. Finally, the simulated sound (e.g., at the tailpipe of the exhaust system) is combined with an interior noise simulation technique to evaluate its influence inside the vehicle's interior.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Powerplant Integration With Emphasis on Mount and Bracket Optimization

2003-05-05
2003-01-1468
Optimization of the interface between the powerplant and vehicle frame/body is critical to obtaining superior interior structureborne noise and vibration characteristics in the vehicle. This paper demonstrates the combination of new and existing simulation/experimental methodologies for powerplant integration, including results from case studies. Multi-body simulation based methodologies are used to optimize the location, number, and type of powerplant mounts on a vehicle, taking into account the input forcing from the engine and frequency-dependent mount properties. Upon obtaining the first prototype vehicle, a procedure to evaluate the effectiveness of the powerplant mounts using a vibrational power flow technique, is described. The influence of mount bracket resonances on interior vehicle sound is shown and a new procedure to optimize mount brackets, provided.
Technical Paper

Study of Low-Frequency Driveline Clunk During Static Engagements

2003-05-05
2003-01-1480
Driveline clunk during static engagements on vehicles with automatic transmissions is a phenomenon that can adversely affect customer perception of vehicle quality. Tuning a vehicle's static engagement characteristics for superior shift quality demands a good understanding of the inputs to the vehicle driveline, the response of the driveline, and the sensitivity of the vehicle to such inputs. This paper describes a case study conducted on a rear wheel drive vehicle with an automatic transmission and independent rear suspension to understand and reduce the severity of driveline engagement clunk to acceptable levels. Finally, the results of the study are used to develop guidelines for such vehicles to ensure superior shift quality during static engagements.
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