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Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Phenomenological Mean Value Soot Model for Common-Rail Diesel Engines

A mean value soot model (MVSM) was developed and validated for the realtime prediction of the raw, engine-out soot emissions from common rail diesel engines. Through the consideration of five representative states during the combustion cycle, the developed MVSM determines the engine out soot emissions based on the soot formation and oxidation processes, using only parameters available from a standard engine control unit. 16 model parameters are used to describe the engine, fuel, and combustion characteristics, and must be determined for each engine and fuel combination. The MVSM was parameterized and validated using the measured soot emissions from two different engines operating with a total of three different fuels. After parameterization, the MVSM was capable of qualitatively and quantitatively reproducing the soot emissions for operating points throughout the entire operating map, including for operating regimes not considered during the parameterization.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Composition and Combustion Process on Thermodynamic Parameters of SI Engines

In the field of heavy-duty applications almost all engines apply the compression ignition principle, spark ignition is used only in the niche of CNG engines. The main reason for this is the high efficiency advantage of diesel engines over SI engines. Beside this drawback SI engines have some favorable properties like lower weight, simple exhaust gas aftertreatment in case of stoichiometric operation, high robustness, simple packaging and lower costs. The main objective of this fundamental research was to evaluate the limits of a SI engine for heavy-duty applications. Considering heavy-duty SI engines fuel consumption under full load conditions has a high impact on CO₂ emissions. Therefore, downsizing is not a promising approach to improve fuel consumption and consequently the focus of this work lies on the enhancement of thermal efficiency in the complete engine map, intensively considering knocking issues.
Journal Article

The Effect of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations on the NOx-SFC Tradeoff in Diesel Engines under Long Ignition Delay Conditions

Cycle-to-cycle variations in internal combustion engines are known to lead to limitations in engine load and efficiency, as well as increases in emissions. Recent research has led to the identification of the source of cyclic variations of pressure, soot and NO emissions in direct injection common rail diesel engines, when employing a single block injection and operating under long ignition delay conditions. The variations in peak pressure arise from changes in the diffusion combustion rate, caused by randomly occurring in-cylinder pressure fluctuations. These fluctuations result from the excitation of the first radial mode of vibration of the cylinder gases which arises from the rapid premixed combustion after the long ignition delay period. Cycles with high-intensity fluctuations present faster diffusion combustion, resulting in higher cycle peak pressure, as well as higher measured exhaust NO concentrations.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Combustion Model for Heat Release Rate Prediction in High-Speed DI Diesel Engines with Common Rail Injection

This paper presents a phenomenological single-zone combustion model which meets the particular requirements of high speed DI diesel engines with common rail injection. Therefore the model takes into account the freely selectable pilot and main injection and is strongly focusing on result parameters like combustion noise or NO-emission which are affected by this split injection. The premixed combustion, the mixing-controlled combustion and the ignition delay are key parts of the model. The model was developed and tested on more than 200 samples from three different engine types of DaimlerChrysler passenger car engines equipped with common rail injection. A user-friendly parameterization and a short computing time was achieved thanks to the simple structure of the model.
Technical Paper

Spray Model Based Phenomenological Combustion Description and Experimental Validation for a Dual Fuel Engine

The operation of dual fuel engines, operated with natural gas as main fuel, offers the potential of substantial savings in CO2. Nevertheless, the operating map area where low pollutant emissions are produced is very narrow. Especially at low load, the raw exhaust gas contains high concentrations of unburned methane and, with high pilot fuel portions due to ignition limitations, also soot. The analysis of the combustion in those conditions in particular is not trivial, since multiple combustion modes are present concurrently. The present work focuses on the evaluation of the individual combustion modes of a dual fuel engine, operated with natural gas as main and diesel as pilot fuel, using a combustion model. The combustion has been split in two partwise concurrent combustion phases: the auto-ignition phase and the premixed flame propagation phase.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of Unsteady Heat Flux Through an I.C. Engine Wall Including Soot Layer Dynamics

This paper deals with the influence of a wall soot layer of varying thickness on the unsteady heat transfer between the fluid and the engine cylinder wall during a full cycle of a four-stroke Diesel engine operation. For that purpose a computational investigation has been carried out, using a one-dimensional model of a multi-layer solid wall for simulating the transient response within the confinement of the combustion chamber. The soot layer is thereby of varying thickness over time, depending on the relative rates of deposition and oxidation. Deposition is accounted for due to a thermophoretic mechanism, while oxidation is described by means of an Arrhenius type expression. Results of the computations obtained so far show that the substrate wall temperature has a significant effect on the soot layer dynamics and thus on the wall heat flux to the combustion chamber wall.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx Emissions of D. I. Diesel Engines by Application of the Miller-System: An Experimental and Numerical Investigation

Emissions and performance parameters of a medium size, medium speed D.I. diesel engine with increased charge air pressure and reduced but fixed inlet valve opening period have been measured and compared to the standard engine. While power output and fuel consumption are slightly improved, nitric oxide emissions can be reduced by up to 20%. The measurements confirm the results of simulations for both performance and emissions, for which a quasidimensional model including detailed chemistry for nitric oxide prediction has been developed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Factors Influencing Particulate Matter Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

The relative amounts of heat released by premixed and by diffusion controlled combustion is varied in a compression-ignition engine run on the test bench through variation of four operating parameters. Exhaust gas is led to a differential mobility particle sizer and to filters that are loaded for gravimetric analysis. Particle size distributions are acquired in the 16÷630 nm range of electrical mobility diameters. Opacity readings of the exhaust gas are taken, cylinder pressure is indicated, a value for the combustion noise is computed; gaseous emissions are recorded and heat release rates based on cylinder pressure analysis are evaluated. Two full factorial experiments at 2 bar bmep 2000 rpm are run as 24 combinations of four factors: Injection pressure 400 and 1200 bar, with and without pilot injection, 1/3 and 1/4 mass-fraction exhaust gas recirculation, late, middle and early start of injection.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Diesel Particulate Emissions in Heavy-Duty DI-Diesel Engines with Common Rail Fuel Injection Influence of Injection Parameters and Fuel Composition

The findings presented in this paper result from a collaboration between two Federal Laboratories in Switzerland. In this research project the characteristics of the particulates from internal combustion engines were investigated in detail. Measurements were carried out on a single-cylinder research engine focusing on exhaust particulate matter emissions. The single-cylinder diesel engine is supercharged and features a common-rail direct injection system. This work analyzes the influence of fuel properties and injection parameters on the particulate number size distribution. For the fuel composition, five different fuels including low sulfur diesel, zero-sulfur and zero-aromatics diesel, two blending portions of oxygenated diesel additive and rapeseedmethylester were used. For the injection parameters the injection pressure, the start of injection and the fuel amount in the pilot- and in the post-injection phases were varied.
Technical Paper

Influence of EGR on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of Heavy Duty DI-Diesel Engines Equipped with Common-Rail Injection Systems

At the Internal Combustion Engines and Combustion Laboratory of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich we are currently developing low emission strategies for heavy duty diesel engines that engine manufacturers can implement to meet stringent emissions regulations. The technologies being studied include high-pressure fuel injection (with common-rail injection system), multiple injection strategies (with pilot or post injections), turbo charging, exhaust gas recirculation (cooled EGR), oxygenated fuels and the optimization of the air management system. This paper focuses on the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (cooled EGR) in combination with very high injection pressure. Measurements were carried out on a heavy-duty diesel single-cylinder research engine equipped with a modern common rail fuel injection. The engine investigations were conducted in different operating points in the engine map covering wide speed and load ranges.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Characteristics of Sprays Representative for Large 2-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine Combustion Systems

Fuel spray propagation and its morphology are important aspects for the in-cylinder mixture preparation in Diesel engines. Since there is still a lack of suitable measurements with regard to large 2-stroke marine Diesel engines combustion systems, a comprehensive data set of spray characteristics has been investigated using a test facility reflecting the specific features of such combustion systems. The spray penetration, area and cone angle were analysed for a variation of gas density (including the behaviour at evaporation and non-evaporating conditions), injection pressure and nozzle diameter. Moreover, spray and swirl flow interaction as well as fuel quality influences have been studied. To analyse the impacts and effects of each measured parameter, an empirical correlation for the spray penetration has been derived and discussed for all measurements presented.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Ignition Process of Pilot Injections Using CFD

State of the art high-pressure fuel injectors offer the ability to inject multiple times per cycle, and can reach very low fuel amounts per injection event. This behaviour allows the application of pilot injections in diesel engine applications or dual fuel engines. In both diesel and dual fuel engines, the amount of pilot fuel affects the engine efficiency. The understanding of the underlying ignition mechanism of the pilot fuel is required to optimize injection parameters and the engines’ fuel consumption. The present work focuses on the differences of ignition mechanisms between long and short injections. The investigation has been performed numerically, using CFD with a well-proven combustion model. The setup used employs a well characterized single orifice injector, injecting into a high temperature, pressurized environment with a composition of 15% oxygen.
Technical Paper

Combustion Features and Emissions of a DI-Diesel Engine with Air Path Optimization and Common Rail Fuel Injection

Emission and performance parameters of a medium size, and medium speed D.I. diesel engine equipped with a Miller System, a new developed High Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation System (HPEGR), a Common Rail (CR) system and a Turbocharger with Variable Turbine Geometry (VTG) have been measured and compared to the standard engine. While power output, fuel consumption, soot and other emissions are kept constant, nitric oxide emissions could be reduced by 30 to 50% depending on load and for the optimal combination of methods. Heat release rate analysis provides the reasons for the optimised engine behaviour in terms of soot and NOx emissions: The variable Nozzle Turbocharger helps deliver more oxygen to the combustion process (less soot) and lower the peak gas temperature (less NOx).
Technical Paper

Modeling of Ignition and Early Flame Development with Respect to Large Diesel Engine Simulation

A recently developed auto-ignition model based on a single transport equation in combination with a reduced kinetic scheme has been validated and tested in combination with a cascade jet and droplet breakup model. The validation has been performed by comparing ignition locations and delays for various thermodynamic conditions with experimental data from a high-pressure combustion cell. Also for medium-size diesel engine applications, predictions of ignition delay are in good agreement with experimental observations. In addition, a new approach to the modeling of the early flame development in diesel engine combustion is introduced. The reaction rate in the transition phase from the premixed to the mixing-controlled combustion mode is determined by means of a sub-grid scale model, which describes the evolution of a turbulent diffusion flame. The model has been tested during the early combustion phase of a medium-size, medium-speed DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

POMDME as an Alternative Pilot Fuel for Dual-Fuel Engines: Optical Study in a RCEM and Application in an Automotive Size Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine

Dual-fuel natural gas engines are seen as an attractive solution for simultaneous reduction of pollutant and CO2 emissions while maintaining high engine thermal efficiency. However, engines of this type exhibit a tradeoff between misfire as well as high UHC emissions for small pilot injection amounts and higher emissions of soot and NOX for operation strategies with higher pilot fuel proportion. The aim of this study was to investigate POMDME as an alternative pilot fuel having the potential to mitigate the emissions tradeoff, enabling smokeless combustion due to high degree of oxygenation, and being less prone to misfire due to its higher cetane number. Furthermore, POMDME can be synthetized carbon neutrally. First, characteristics of POMDME ignition in methane/air mixture and the transition into premixed flame propagation were investigated optically in a rapid compression-expansion machine (RCEM) by employing Schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence imaging.
Journal Article

Numerical Study of the Influence of EGR on In-Cylinder Soot Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine using CMC

This paper presents numerical simulations of in-cylinder soot evolution in the optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine of Sandia Laboratories performed with the conditional moment closure (CMC) model employing a reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism coupled with a two-equation soot model. The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on in-cylinder processes is studied considering different ambient oxygen volume fractions (8 - 21 percent), while maintaining intake pressure and temperature as well as the injection configuration unchanged. This corresponds to EGR rates between 0 and 65 percent. Simulation results are first compared with experimental data by means of apparent heat release rate (AHRR) and temporally resolved in-cylinder soot mass, where a quantitative comparison is presented. The model was found to fairly well reproduce ignition delays as well as AHRR traces along the EGR variation with a slight underestimation of the diffusion burn portion.
Journal Article

Extending the NOx Reduction Potential with Miller Valve Timing Using Pilot Fuel Injection on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

New emission legislations applicable in the near future to sea-going vessels, off-road and off-highway vehicles require drastic nitric oxides emission reduction. A promising approach to achieve part of this decrease is charge air temperature reduction using Miller timing. However, it has been shown in literature that the reduction potential is limited, achieving a minimum in NOx emissions at a certain end-of-compression temperature. Further temperature reduction has shown to increase NOx emissions again. Some studies have shown that this increase is correlated to an increased amount of premixed combustion. In this work, the effects of pilot injection on engine out NOx emissions for very early intake valve closure (i.e. extreme Miller), high boost pressures and cold end-of-compression in-cylinder conditions are investigated. The experiments are carried out on a 3.96L single cylinder heavy-duty common-rail Diesel engine operating at 1000 rpm and at constant global air-to-fuel ratio.
Journal Article

Comparison and Sensitivity Analysis of Turbulent Flame Speed Closures in the RANS G-Equation Context for Two Distinct Engines

Three-dimensional reactive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a crucial role in IC engine development tasks complementing experimental efforts by providing improved understanding of the combustion process. A widely adopted combustion model in the engine community for (partially) premixed combustion is the G-Equation where the flame front is represented by an iso-level of an arbitrary scalar G. A convective-reactive equation for this iso-surface is solved, for which the turbulent flame speed ST must be provided. In this study, the commonly used and well-established Damköhler approach is compared to a novel correlation, derived from an algebraic closure for the scalar dissipation of reaction progress as proposed by Kolla et al. [1].
Journal Article

Development and Experimental Validation of a Fast Spray Ignition Model for Diesel Engines Using Insights from CFD Spray Calculations

Modern Diesel engines have become ever more complex systems with many degrees of freedom. Simultaneously, with increasing computational power, simulations of engines have become more popular, and can be used to find the optimum set up of engine operation parameters which result in the desired point in the emission-efficiency trade off. With increasing number of engine operation parameter combinations, the number of calculations increase exponentially. Therefore, adequate models for combustion and emissions with limited calculation costs are required. For obvious reasons, the accuracy of the ignition timing is a key point for the following combustion and emission model quality. Furthermore, the combination of mixing and chemical processes during the ignition delay is very challenging to model in a fast way for a wide range of operation conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Soot Dynamics at Engine-Relevant Conditions

Formation of soot in an auto-igniting n-dodecane spray under diesel engine relevant conditions has been investigated numerically. As opposed to research addressing turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) by coupling diffusive turbulence models with more sophisticated models in the context of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS), this study employs the advanced sub-grid scale k-equation model in the framework of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) together with the uninvolved Direct Integration (DI) approach. A reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism has been employed and artificially accelerated in order to predict the ignition for n-dodecane accurately. Soot processes have been modelled with an extended version of the semi-empirical, two-equation model of Leung, which considers C2H2 as the soot precursor and accounts for particle inception, surface growth by C2H2 addition, oxidation by O2, oxidation by OH and particle coagulation.