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Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation in a Direct Injected Spark Ignition Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-1909
We have performed simulations and experiments to characterize the mixture formation in spray-guided direct injected spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines and to help to understand features of the combustion process, which are characteristic for this engine concept. The 3-D computations are based on the KIVA 3 code, in which basic submodels of spray processes have been systematically modified at ETH during the last years. In this study, the break-up model for the hollow-cone spray typical for DISI engines has been validated through an extended comparison with both shadowgraphs and Mie-scattering results in a high-pressure-high-temperature, constant volume combustion cell at ambient conditions relevant for DISI operation, with and without significant droplet evaporation. Computational results in a single-cylinder research engine have been then obtained at a given engine speed for varying load (fuel mass per stroke), swirl and fuel injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Influence of EGR on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of Heavy Duty DI-Diesel Engines Equipped with Common-Rail Injection Systems

2001-09-24
2001-01-3497
At the Internal Combustion Engines and Combustion Laboratory of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich we are currently developing low emission strategies for heavy duty diesel engines that engine manufacturers can implement to meet stringent emissions regulations. The technologies being studied include high-pressure fuel injection (with common-rail injection system), multiple injection strategies (with pilot or post injections), turbo charging, exhaust gas recirculation (cooled EGR), oxygenated fuels and the optimization of the air management system. This paper focuses on the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (cooled EGR) in combination with very high injection pressure. Measurements were carried out on a heavy-duty diesel single-cylinder research engine equipped with a modern common rail fuel injection. The engine investigations were conducted in different operating points in the engine map covering wide speed and load ranges.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Diesel Particulate Emissions in Heavy-Duty DI-Diesel Engines with Common Rail Fuel Injection Influence of Injection Parameters and Fuel Composition

2001-09-24
2001-01-3573
The findings presented in this paper result from a collaboration between two Federal Laboratories in Switzerland. In this research project the characteristics of the particulates from internal combustion engines were investigated in detail. Measurements were carried out on a single-cylinder research engine focusing on exhaust particulate matter emissions. The single-cylinder diesel engine is supercharged and features a common-rail direct injection system. This work analyzes the influence of fuel properties and injection parameters on the particulate number size distribution. For the fuel composition, five different fuels including low sulfur diesel, zero-sulfur and zero-aromatics diesel, two blending portions of oxygenated diesel additive and rapeseedmethylester were used. For the injection parameters the injection pressure, the start of injection and the fuel amount in the pilot- and in the post-injection phases were varied.
Technical Paper

Oxygenated Fuels for Particulate Emissions Reduction in Heavy-Duty DI-Diesel Engines with Common-Rail Fuel Injection

2000-10-16
2000-01-2885
Oxygenated fuel additives are currently an important research topic for particulate emissions reduction in diesel engines with direct injection (DI) to meet future emission regulations. In this work more than twenty oxygenated hydrocarbons from the literature were considered as diesel fuel additives. Butylal (an acetal compound, chemical formula C9H20O2) offers significant advantages over most other oxygenates in that its physical properties are very close to those of common diesel fuel. Wear scar measurements were conducted to evaluate the lubricity characteristics of diglyme (C6H14O3), ethyldiglyme (C8H18O3), butylal and different diesel-butylal mixtures. The results reveal the low lubricity of all oxygenated compounds. Thus, for the engine tests, a lubricity improver has been added to the diesel-butylal mixtures.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Combustion Model for Heat Release Rate Prediction in High-Speed DI Diesel Engines with Common Rail Injection

2000-10-16
2000-01-2933
This paper presents a phenomenological single-zone combustion model which meets the particular requirements of high speed DI diesel engines with common rail injection. Therefore the model takes into account the freely selectable pilot and main injection and is strongly focusing on result parameters like combustion noise or NO-emission which are affected by this split injection. The premixed combustion, the mixing-controlled combustion and the ignition delay are key parts of the model. The model was developed and tested on more than 200 samples from three different engine types of DaimlerChrysler passenger car engines equipped with common rail injection. A user-friendly parameterization and a short computing time was achieved thanks to the simple structure of the model.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas Engines for Cogeneration: Highest Efficiency and Near-Zero-Emissions through Turbocharging, EGR and 3-Way Catalytic Converter

2000-10-16
2000-01-2825
Combustion engines for decentralized power generation or cogeneration in general, are subject to increasingly stringent pollutant emissions regulations. Motivated by the Europe-;wide lowest allowable NOx levels in Switzerland - particularly in the Zurich metropolitan area with 50 mg/Nm3 at 5% O2 - and in close cooperation with industry, the I.C. Engines and Combustion Laboratory (LVV) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ) has investigated some new operating concepts and engine processes in order to overcome the dilemma between low emissions and high efficiency, which is usually encountered in engine optimization. Our final approach thereby involves the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) combined with stoichiometric mixture (λ = 1) and a 3-way catalytic converter. The engine is supercharged and the intake mixture aftercooled for high power density and thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Influence of Hydrogen-Rich-Gas Addition on Combustion, Pollutant Formation and Efficiency of an IC-SI Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0972
The addition of hydrogen-rich gas to gasoline in an Internal Combustion Engine seems to be particularly suitable to arrive at a near-zero emission Otto engine, which would be able to easily meet the most stringent regulations. In order to simulate the output of an on-board reformer that partially oxidizes gasoline, providing the hydrogen-rich gas, a bottled gas has been used. Detailed results of our measurements are here shown, such as fuel consumption, engine efficiency, exhaust emissions, analysis of the heat release rates and combustion duration, for both pure gasoline and blends with reformer gas. Additionally simulations have been performed to better understand the engine behaviour and NOx formation.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional Model for Estimating the Influence of Hydrogen-Rich Gas Addition on Turbulent Flame Speed and Flame Front Propagation in IC-SI Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0232
Addition of hydrogen-rich gas to gasoline in internal combustion engines is gaining increasing interest, as it seems suitable to reach near-zero emission combustion, able to easily meet future stringent regulations. Bottled gas was used to simulate the output of an on-board reformer (21%H2, 24%CO, 55%N2). Measurements were carried out on a 4-stroke, 2-cylinder, 0.5-liter engine, with EGR, in order to calculate the heat release rate through a detailed two-zone model. A quasi-dimensional model of the flame was developed: it consists of a geometrical estimate of the flame surface, which is then coupled with the heat release rate. The turbulent flame speed can then be inferred. The model was then applied to blends of gasoline with hydrogen-rich gas, showing the effect on the flame speed and transition from laminar to turbulent combustion.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Composition and Combustion Process on Thermodynamic Parameters of SI Engines

2012-09-10
2012-01-1633
In the field of heavy-duty applications almost all engines apply the compression ignition principle, spark ignition is used only in the niche of CNG engines. The main reason for this is the high efficiency advantage of diesel engines over SI engines. Beside this drawback SI engines have some favorable properties like lower weight, simple exhaust gas aftertreatment in case of stoichiometric operation, high robustness, simple packaging and lower costs. The main objective of this fundamental research was to evaluate the limits of a SI engine for heavy-duty applications. Considering heavy-duty SI engines fuel consumption under full load conditions has a high impact on CO₂ emissions. Therefore, downsizing is not a promising approach to improve fuel consumption and consequently the focus of this work lies on the enhancement of thermal efficiency in the complete engine map, intensively considering knocking issues.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Phenomenological Mean Value Soot Model for Common-Rail Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1277
A mean value soot model (MVSM) was developed and validated for the realtime prediction of the raw, engine-out soot emissions from common rail diesel engines. Through the consideration of five representative states during the combustion cycle, the developed MVSM determines the engine out soot emissions based on the soot formation and oxidation processes, using only parameters available from a standard engine control unit. 16 model parameters are used to describe the engine, fuel, and combustion characteristics, and must be determined for each engine and fuel combination. The MVSM was parameterized and validated using the measured soot emissions from two different engines operating with a total of three different fuels. After parameterization, the MVSM was capable of qualitatively and quantitatively reproducing the soot emissions for operating points throughout the entire operating map, including for operating regimes not considered during the parameterization.
Technical Paper

Advanced Emission and Fuel Economy Concept Using Combined Injection of Gasoline and Hydrogen in SI-Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-1270
In order to meet future requirements for emission reduction and fuel economy a variety of concepts are available for gasoline engines. In the recent past new pathways have been found using alternative fuels and fuel combinations to establish cost optimized solutions. The presented concept for a SI-engine consists of combined injection of gasoline and hydrogen. A hydrogen enriched gas mixture is being injected additionally to gasoline into the engine manifold. The gas composition represents the output of an onboard gasoline reformer. The simulations and measurements show substantial benefits to improve the combustion process resulting in reduced cold start and warm up emissions and optimized part load operation. The replacement of gasoline by hydrogen-rich gas during engine start leads to zero hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Predictive Phenomenological C.I. Combustion Modeling Optimization on the Basis of Bio-Inspired Algorithms

2005-04-11
2005-01-1119
A new approach within the well-known trade-off in combustion process simulations between computational efforts (and thus the capability for engine operating map calculations) on the one hand, and accuracy of predictions on the other, has been developed and applied successfully to diesel combustion, in particular to energy release and pollutant formation. Using phenomenological models in combination with bio-inspired algorithms (for parameter identification), it is now possible to predict thermal, chemical and injection related engine characteristics over an entire operating map including different types of fuel (e.g. diesel, water-in-diesel emulsions and oxygenated diesel).
Technical Paper

Combustion Features and Emissions of a DI-Diesel Engine with Air Path Optimization and Common Rail Fuel Injection

1998-08-11
981931
Emission and performance parameters of a medium size, and medium speed D.I. diesel engine equipped with a Miller System, a new developed High Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation System (HPEGR), a Common Rail (CR) system and a Turbocharger with Variable Turbine Geometry (VTG) have been measured and compared to the standard engine. While power output, fuel consumption, soot and other emissions are kept constant, nitric oxide emissions could be reduced by 30 to 50% depending on load and for the optimal combination of methods. Heat release rate analysis provides the reasons for the optimised engine behaviour in terms of soot and NOx emissions: The variable Nozzle Turbocharger helps deliver more oxygen to the combustion process (less soot) and lower the peak gas temperature (less NOx).
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulations and Tracer-LIF Diagnostics of Wall Film Dynamics in an Optically Accessible GDI Research Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0131
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and tracer-based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements were performed to study the dynamics of fuel wall-films on the piston top of an optically accessible, four-valve pent-roof GDI research engine for a total of eight operating conditions. Starting from a reference point, the systematic variations include changes in engine speed (600; 1,200 and 2,000 RPM) and load (1000 and 500 mbar intake pressure); concerning the fuel path the Start Of Injection (SOI=360°, 390° and 420° CA after gas exchange TDC) as well as the injection pressure (10, 20 and 35 MPa) were varied. For each condition, 40 experimental images were acquired phase-locked at 10° CA intervals after SOI, showing the wall-film dynamics in terms of spatial extent, thickness and temperature.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Ignition Process of Pilot Injections Using CFD

2019-09-09
2019-24-0129
State of the art high-pressure fuel injectors offer the ability to inject multiple times per cycle, and can reach very low fuel amounts per injection event. This behaviour allows the application of pilot injections in diesel engine applications or dual fuel engines. In both diesel and dual fuel engines, the amount of pilot fuel affects the engine efficiency. The understanding of the underlying ignition mechanism of the pilot fuel is required to optimize injection parameters and the engines’ fuel consumption. The present work focuses on the differences of ignition mechanisms between long and short injections. The investigation has been performed numerically, using CFD with a well-proven combustion model. The setup used employs a well characterized single orifice injector, injecting into a high temperature, pressurized environment with a composition of 15% oxygen.
Technical Paper

Spray Model Based Phenomenological Combustion Description and Experimental Validation for a Dual Fuel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0098
The operation of dual fuel engines, operated with natural gas as main fuel, offers the potential of substantial savings in CO2. Nevertheless, the operating map area where low pollutant emissions are produced is very narrow. Especially at low load, the raw exhaust gas contains high concentrations of unburned methane and, with high pilot fuel portions due to ignition limitations, also soot. The analysis of the combustion in those conditions in particular is not trivial, since multiple combustion modes are present concurrently. The present work focuses on the evaluation of the individual combustion modes of a dual fuel engine, operated with natural gas as main and diesel as pilot fuel, using a combustion model. The combustion has been split in two partwise concurrent combustion phases: the auto-ignition phase and the premixed flame propagation phase.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Pre-Chamber Combustion Systems for Lean Burn Gas Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0260
The current trend in automobiles is towards electrical vehicles, but for the most part these vehicles still require an internal combustion engine to provide additional range and flexibility. These engines are under stringent emissions regulations, in particular, for the reduction of CO2. Gas engines which run lean burn combustion systems provide a viable route to these emission reductions, however designing these engines to provide sustainable and controlled combustion under lean conditions at λ=2.0 is challenging. To address this challenge, it is possible to use a scavenged Pre-Chamber Ignition (PCI) system which can deliver favorable conditions for ignition close to the spark plug. The lean charge in the main combustion chamber is then ignited by flame jets emanating from the pre-chamber nozzles. Accurate prediction of flame kernel development and propagation is essential for the analysis of PCI systems.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of Pre-Chamber Combustion in an Optically Accessible RCEM

2019-04-02
2019-01-0224
In this work, numerical simulations of an automotive-sized scavenged pre-chamber mounted in an optically-accessible rapid compression-expansion machine (RCEM) have been carried out using two different turbulence models: Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The RANS approach is combined with the G-equation combustion model, whereas the LES approach is coupled with the flamelet generated manifold (FGM) model for partially-premixed combustion. Simulation results are compared with experimental data in terms of OH* chemiluminescence in the main chamber. Both RANS and LES results were found to qualitatively reproduce the main features observed experimentally in terms of spatial flame development. Simulation results are further analysed by means of early flame propagation within the pre-chamber (related to the fuel and turbulence intensity distributions) and the ignition process in the main chamber.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Turbulence and Fuel-Air Mixing within a Scavenged Pre-Chamber Using RANS and LES

2019-04-02
2019-01-0198
It is well-known that the spatial distribution of turbulence intensity and fuel concentration at spark-time play a pivotal role on the flame development within the pre-chamber in gas engines equipped with a scavenged pre-chamber. The combustion within the pre-chamber is in turn a determining factor in terms of combustion behaviour in the main chamber, and accordingly it influences the engine efficiency as well as pollutant emissions such as NOx and unburned hydrocarbons. This paper presents a numerical analysis of fuel concentration and turbulence distribution at spark time for an automotive-sized scavenged pre-chamber mounted at the head of a rapid compression-expansion machine (RCEM). Two different pre-chamber orifice orientations are considered: straight and tilted nozzles. The latter introduce a swirling flow within the pre-chamber. Simulations have been carried out using with two different turbulence models: Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES).
Technical Paper

Flamelet Generated Manifolds Applied to Dual-Fuel Combustion of Lean Methane/Air Mixtures at Engine Relevant Conditions Ignited by n Dodecane Micro Pilot Sprays

2019-04-02
2019-01-1163
In this study, a novel 3D-CFD combustion model employing Flamelet Generated Manifolds (FGM) for dual fuel combustion was developed. Validation of the platform was carried out using recent experimental results from an optically accessible Rapid Compression Expansion Machine (RCEM). Methane and n-dodecane were used as model fuels to remove any uncertainties in terms of fuel composition. The model used a tabulated chemistry approach employing a reaction mechanism of 130 species and 2399 reactions and was able to capture non-premixed auto ignition of the pilot fuel as well as premixed flame propagation of the background mixture. The CFD model was found to predict well all phases of the dual fuel combustion process: I) the pilot fuel ignition delay, II) the Heat Release Rate of the partially premixed conversion of the micro pilot spray with entrained methane/air and III) the sustained background mixture combustion following the consumption of the spray plume.
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