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Technical Paper

ATD Positioning Based on Driver Posture and Position

1998-11-02
983163
Current ATD positioning practices depend on seat track position, seat track travel range, and design seatback angle to determine appropriate occupant position and orientation for impact testing. In a series of studies conducted at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, driver posture and position data were collected in forty-four vehicles. The seat track reference points currently used to position ATDs (front, center, and rear of the track) were found to be poor predictors of the average seat positions selected by small female, midsize male, and large male drivers. Driver-selected seatback angle was not closely related to design seatback angle, the measure currently used to orient the ATD torso. A new ATD Positioning Model was developed that more accurately represents the seated posture and position of drivers who match the ATD statures.
Technical Paper

A New Database of Child Anthropometry and Seated Posture for Automotive Safety Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-1837
This paper presents a laboratory study of body dimensions, seated posture, and seatbelt fit for children weighing from 40 to 100 lb (18 to 45 kg). Sixty-two boys and girls were measured in three vehicle seats with and without each of three belt-positioning boosters. In addition to standard anthropometric measurements, three-dimensional body landmark locations were recorded with a coordinate digitizer in sitter-selected and standardized postures. This new database quantifies the vehicle-seated postures of children and provides quantitative evidence of the effects of belt-positioning boosters on belt fit. The data will provide guidance for child restraint design, crash dummy development, and crash dummy positioning procedures.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Driver Eye Position Model

1998-02-23
980012
SAE Recommended Practice J941 describes the eyellipse, a statistical representation of driver eye locations, that is used to facilitate design decisions regarding vehicle interiors, including the display locations, mirror placement, and headspace requirements. Eye-position data collected recently at University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) suggest that the SAE J941 practice could be improved. SAE J941 currently uses the SgRP location, seat-track travel (L23), and design seatback angle (L40) as inputs to the eyellipse model. However, UMTRI data show that the characteristics of empirical eyellipses can be predicted more accurately using seat height, steering-wheel position, and seat-track rise. A series of UMTRI studies collected eye-location data from groups of 50 to 120 drivers with statures spanning over 97 percent of the U.S. population. Data were collected in thirty-three vehicles that represent a wide range of vehicle geometry.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Seating Accommodation Model

1996-02-01
960479
Dynamic seat-position testing conducted recently at UMTRI on several different vehicles indicates that, in many cases, the current seating accommodation model represented in SAE J1517 does not accurately predict the distribution of driver seat positions. In general, J1517 tends to predict population percentile seat positions that are forward of observed percentile seat positions, and differences can be as much as 60 mm. It was hypothesized that vehicle factors other than seat height can have substantial and independent effects on driver seat position. The effects of steering-wheel position, seat height, seat-cushion angle, and transmission type on driver fore/aft seat position are being investigated, and results are being used to develop a new driver seating accommodation model called SAM.
Technical Paper

Lumbar Support in Auto Seats: Conclusions from a Study of Preferred Driving Posture

1996-02-01
960478
Prominent, longitudinally convex lumbar supports are frequently recommended for auto seats based on the assumption that such supports will induce sitters to choose postures with substantial lumbar lordosis. Lumbar lordosis has been associated with reduced spine loading as measured by pressure in the intervertebral disks. Data from a laboratory study of the influence of lumbar support on driving posture demonstrate that, on average, lumbar lordosis is not strongly affected by large increases in lumbar support prominence. These findings, and their implications for seat design, are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Biomechanics of 4-Point Seat Belt Systems in Frontal Impacts

2003-10-27
2003-22-0017
The biomechanical behavior of 4-point seat belt systems was investigated through MADYMO modeling, dummy tests and post mortem human subject tests. This study was conducted to assess the effect of 4-point seat belts on the risk of thoracic injury in frontal impacts, to evaluate the ability to prevent submarining under the lap belt using 4-point seat belts, and to examine whether 4-point belts may induce injuries not typically observed with 3-point seat belts. The performance of two types of 4-point seat belts was compared with that of a pretensioned, load-limited, 3-point seat belt. A 3-point belt with an extra shoulder belt that “crisscrossed” the chest (X4) appeared to add constraint to the torso and increased chest deflection and injury risk. Harness style shoulder belts (V4) loaded the body in a different biomechanical manner than 3-point and X4 belts.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Methods for Predicting Automobile Driver Posture

2000-06-06
2000-01-2180
Recent research in the ASPECT (Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools) program has led to the development of a new method for automobile driver posture prediction, known as the Cascade Model. The Cascade Model uses a sequential series of regression functions and inverse kinematics to predict automobile occupant posture. This paper presents an alternative method for driver posture prediction using data-guided kinematic optimization. The within-subject conditional distributions of joint angles are used to infer the internal cost functions that guide tradeoffs between joints in adapting to different vehicle configurations. The predictions from the two models are compared to in-vehicle driving postures.
Technical Paper

Methods for Laboratory Investigation of Truck and Bus Driver Postures

2000-12-04
2000-01-3405
Few studies have systematically examined the effects of truck and bus workstation geometry on driver posture and position. This paper presents methods for determining drivers' postural responses and preferred component locations using a reconfigurable vehicle mockup. Body landmark locations recorded using a three-dimensional digitizer are used to compute a skeletal-linkage representation of the drivers' posture. A sequential adjustment procedure is used to determine the preferred positions and orientations of key components, including the seat, steering wheel, and pedals. Data gathered using these methods will be used to create new design tools for trucks and buses, including models of driver-selected seat position, eye location, and needed component adjustment ranges. The results will also be used to create accurate posture-prediction models for use with human modeling software.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of the ASPECT Manikin

1999-03-01
1999-01-0963
The primary objective of the ASPECT (Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools) program was to develop a new generation of the SAE J826 H-point manikin. The new ASPECT manikin builds on the long-term success of the H-point manikin while adding new measurement capability and improved ease of use. The ASPECT manikin features an articulated torso linkage to measure lumbar support prominence; new contours based on human subject data; a new weighting scheme; lightweight, supplemental thigh, leg, and shoe segments; and a simpler, user-friendly installation procedure. This paper describes the new manikin in detail, including the rationale and motivation for the design features. The ASPECT manikin maintains continuity with the current SAE J826 H-point manikin in important areas while providing substantial new measurement capability.
Technical Paper

ASPECT: The Next-Generation H-Point Machine and Related Vehicle and Seat Design and Measurement Tools

1999-03-01
1999-01-0962
The ASPECT program was conducted to develop new Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools. This paper presents a summary of the objectives, methods, and results of the program. The primary goal of ASPECT was to create a new generation of the SAE J826 H-point machine. The new ASPECT manikin has an articulated torso linkage, revised seat contact contours, a new weighting scheme, and a simpler, more user-friendly installation procedure. The ASPECT manikin simultaneously measures the H-point location, seat cushion angle, seatback angle, and lumbar support prominence of a seat, and can be used to make measures of seat stiffness. In addition to the physical manikin, the ASPECT program developed new tools for computer-aided design (CAD) of vehicle interiors. The postures and positions of hundreds of vehicle occupants with a wide range of body size were measured in many different vehicle conditions.
Technical Paper

ASPECT Manikin Applications and Measurements for Design, Audit, and Benchmarking

1999-03-01
1999-01-0965
The ASPECT (Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools) manikin provides new capabilities for vehicle and seat measurement while maintaining continuity with previous practices. This paper describes how the manikin is used in the development of new designs, the audit verification of build, and in benchmarking competitive vehicles and seats. The measurement procedures are discussed in detail, along with the seat and package dimensions that are associated with the new tool.
Technical Paper

New Concepts in Vehicle Interior Design Using ASPECT

1999-03-01
1999-01-0967
The ASPECT (Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools) program developed a new physical manikin for seat measurement and new techniques for integrating the seat measurements into the vehicle design process. This paper presents an overview of new concepts in vehicle interior design that have resulted from the ASPECT program and other studies of vehicle occupant posture and position conducted at UMTRI. The new methods result from an integration of revised versions of the SAE seat position and eyellipse models with the new tools developed in ASPECT. Measures of seat and vehicle interior geometry are input to statistical posture and position prediction tools that can be applied to any specified user population or individual occupant anthropometry.
Technical Paper

Automobile Occupant Posture Prediction for Use with Human Models

1999-03-01
1999-01-0966
A new method of predicting automobile occupant posture is presented. The Cascade Prediction Model approach combines multiple independent predictions of key postural degrees of freedom with inverse kinematics guided by data-based heuristics. The new model, based on posture data collected in laboratory mockups and validated using data from actual vehicles, produces accurate posture predictions for a wide range of passenger car interior geometries. Inputs to the model include vehicle package dimensions, seat characteristics, and occupant anthropometry. The Cascade Prediction Model was developed to provide accurate posture prediction for use with any human CAD model, and is applicable to many vehicle design and safety assessment applications.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Airbag-Induced Thermal Skin Burn Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-1065
The UMTRI Airbag Skin Burn Model has been improved through laboratory testing and the implementation of a more flexible heat transfer model. A new impinging jet module based on laboratory measurements of heat flux due to high-velocity gas jets has been added, along with an implicit finite-difference skin conduction module. The new model can be used with airbag gas dynamics simulation outputs, or with heat flux data measured in the laboratory, to predict the potential for thermal skin burn due to exposure to airbag exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Frontal Crash Protection of Pregnant Drivers Based on Anthropometric Considerations

1999-03-01
1999-01-0711
Pregnant occupants pose a particular challenge to safety engineers because of their different anthropometry and the additional “occupant within the occupant.” A detailed study of the anthropometry and seated posture of twentytwo pregnant drivers over the course of their pregnancies was conducted. Subjects were tested in an adjustable seating buck that could be configured to different vehicle package geometries with varying belt anchorage locations. Each subject was tested four times over the course of her pregnancy to examine changes in seat positioning, seated anthropometry, and positioning of the lap and shoulder belts with gestational age. Data collected include preferred seating positions of pregnant drivers, proximity of the pregnant occupant to the steering wheel and airbag module, contours of the subjects’ torsos and abdomens relative to seat-belt centerline contours, and subject perceptions of their seated posture and proximity to vehicle components.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Driver Discomfort and Related Seat Design Factors in Extended-Duration Driving

1991-02-01
910117
A study of automotive seating comfort and related design factors was conducted, utilizing subjective techniques of seat comfort assessment and objective measures of the seat/subject interaction. Eight male subjects evaluated four different test seats during a short-term seating session and throughout a three-hour driving simulation. For the latter, subjects operated a static laboratory driving simulator, performing body-area discomfort evaluations at thirty-minute intervals. Cross-modality matching (CMM), a subjective assessment technique in which a stimulus is rated by matching to the level of another stimulus, was used during the long-term driving simulation to evaluate discomfort. Subject posture, muscle activity in the lower back and abdomen, and pressure levels at key support locations on the seat were monitored. In addition, a sonic digitizing system was used to record seat indentation contours and to characterize the subjects' spinal contours.
Technical Paper

Driver Anthropometry and Vehicle Design Characteristics Related to Seat Positions Selected Under Driving and Non-Driving Conditions

1979-02-01
790384
A sample population of 51 male and 57 female subjects ranging in age from 18 to 78 years was assembled and tested in six different vehicles for preferred seat positions under non-driving and driving conditions. Volunteer subjects were selected by age, stature, and weight criteria in order to match the U.S. adult population to the extent practical. Preliminary analyses of these data suggest that on a total sample basis there is little difference between seat positions selected under non-driving and driving conditions, but that individuals may show significant differences. The small differences in group mean positions observed in this study may be due to a seat belt and/or an initial seat position factor. Post-drive seat position results were analyzed in a variety of ways to identify factors that may influence a person's preferred seat position.
Technical Paper

Impact Sled Test Evaluation of Restraint systems Used in Transportation of Handicapped Children

1979-02-01
790074
A series of 16 sled impact tests was conducted at the Highway Safety Research Institute sled facility to evaluate the effectiveness of restraint devices and systems currently being used to transport school-bus and wheelchair-seated handicapped children. A sled impact pulse of 20 m.p.h. and 16 G's was used for all tests. Eight tests involved wheelchairs in forward-facing and side-facing orientations for head-on and 33-degree oblique impacts. Another eight tests involved forward-facing bus seats for head-on and 33-degree oblique impacts. The results generally point out the ineffectiveness of many currently used devices and systems for protecting the child in a bus collision. In six of the eight bus seat tests the dummy's head struck the back of the bus seat in front. This was primarily because of a lack of upper-torso restraint.
Technical Paper

Upper-Extremity Injuries From Steering Wheel Airbag Deployments

1997-02-24
970493
In a review of 540 crashes in which the steering-wheel airbag deployed, 38% of the drivers sustained some level of upper extremity injury. The majority of these were AIS-1 injuries including abrasions, contusions and small lacerations. In 18 crashes the drivers sustained AIS-2 or-3 level upper extremity injuries, including fractures of the radius and/or ulna, or of the metacarpal bones, all related to airbag deployments. It was determined that six drivers sustained the fracture(s) directly from the deploying airbag or the airbag module cover. The remaining 12 drivers had fractures from the extremity being flung into interior vehicle structures, usually the instrument panel. Most drivers were taller than 170 cm and, of the 18 drivers, 10 were males.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the SAE J826 3-D Manikin Measures of Driver Positioning and Posture

1994-03-01
941048
This study was initiated to evaluate the performance of the SAE J826 3-D manikin in seats that span a range of cushion firmness and contour levels. The manikin measures of H-point location, seatback angle, and seatpan angle (measured using a modified-manikin procedure) are compared with the human measures of hip-joint-center (HJC) location, torso angle, and thigh angle for forty drivers. The results indicate that the manikin H-point provides a reasonably consistent, though somewhat offset, measure of driver HJC location for the range of seats tested. This study found that seats with the same manikin-measured seatback angle produce different occupant torso angles. The data also suggest that for a given vehicle seat, the manikin-measured seatback angle can be used to predict the change in torso angle produced by adjusting the seatback inclination.
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