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Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels under High Injection Pressure with a Common Rail System

2010-10-25
2010-01-2268
Biodiesel has been paid more and more attention as a renewable fuel due to some excellent properties such as renewable, high cetane number, ultralow sulfur content, no aromatic hydrocarbon, high flash point, low CO2 emission when compared with diesel. While others physical properties like high viscosity, high surface tension, big density and bad volatility would spoil the spray characteristics of biodiesel fuel, which will affect the thermal efficiency when running in diesel engine. Accompanied with constant volume vessel and high speed video camera system, a high pressure common rail system, which could provide an injection pressure of 180 MPa, is used to investigate the characteristics of jatropha curcas biodiesel, palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuel. The effects of injection pressures and ambient densities on spray characteristics of these fuels are studied.
Technical Paper

Effect of First Cycle Fuel Injection Timing on Performance of a PFI Engine during Quick Start for HEV Application

2011-04-12
2011-01-0886
Idle stopping is one of the most important fuel saving methods for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). While the enriched injection strategy which was employed to ensure reliable ignition of first cycle will leads to even more fuel film stayed in the intake port, all of the liquid film will evaporate randomly and interfere the mixture air-fuel ratio of the followed cycles. The fuel transport of the first cycle should be enhanced to reduce the residual fuel film, and then the control of the cycle-by-cycle air-fuel ratio will become easier and the combustion and HC emissions will also be better. In this paper the mixture preparation characteristics of the unfired first cycle, as well as the combustion and HC emissions characteristics of the fired first cycle under various injection timing strategies such as close-valve injection, mid-valve injection, and open-valve injection were investigated.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Knock under DI-HCCI Combustion Mode with Ethanol/Gasoline Mixed Fuel

2013-04-08
2013-01-0544
Gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) can achieve high efficiency and extremely low NOX emissions. However, the working condition range of HCCI is limited by knock occurring during engine operation. To achieve an expanded HCCI working condition range, it is necessary to explore a method predicting knock cases accurately to avoid knock occurring. Based on a DI-HCCI engine with ethanol/gasoline mixed fuel, the knock cases under different conditions have been investigated. In-cylinder pressure signals are used to identify the knock cases and the knock oscillations are extracted with fast Fourier transform (FFT). The effects of the ethanol proportion in the fuel and air/fuel ratio on the characteristics of knock have been studied. The results have shown that the knock parameters, such as maximum frequency, start point angle and the duration, have close relationship with the knock intensity.
Technical Paper

Stratified Mixture Formation and Combustion Process for Wall-guided Stratified-charge DISI Engines with Different Piston Bowls by Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0595
This paper presents the simulation of in-cylinder stratified mixture formation, spray motion, combustion and emissions in a four-stroke and four valves direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine with a pent-roof combustion chamber by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The Extended Coherent Flame Combustion Model (ECFM), implemented in the AVL-Fire codes, was employed. The key parameters of spray characteristics related to computing settings, such as skew angle, cone angle and flow per pulse width with experimental measurements were compared. The numerical analysis is mainly focused on how the tumble flow ratio and geometry of piston bowls affect the motion of charge/spray in-cylinder, the formation of stratified mixture and the combustion and emissions (NO and CO₂) for the wall-guided stratified-charge spark-ignition DISI engine.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Cold Start Emissions from a Two-Stage Direct Injection Gasoline Engines Employing the Total Stoichiometric Ratio and Local Rich Mixture Start-up Strategy

2012-04-16
2012-01-1068
To improve the cold start performance and to reduce the misfire occurrence at cold start, the start-up strategy of total stoichiometric ratio combined with local rich mixture was applied in the study. The effect of injection strategy (the 1st injection timing, 2nd injection timing, 1st and 2nd fuel injection proportion and ignition timing) on the cold start HC emissions in the initial 10 cycles were investigated in a Two stage direct injection (TSDI) gasoline engine. The transient HC and NO emissions in the initial 10 cycles were analyzed, when the fuels are injected in the only 1st cycle and in the followed all cycles. The transient misfiring HC emissions were compared between the single and two-stage injection modes. In addition, the unburned HC (UBHC) emissions in the 1st cycle are compared among the TSDI engine, Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, Port fuel injection (PFI) engine and Liquefied petroleum gaseous (LPG) engine at the stoichiometric ratio.
Technical Paper

A Novel Closed Loop Control based on Ionization Current in Combustion Cycle at Cold Start in a GDI Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1339
As the invalidation of the oxygen sensor in the initial cycles at cold start, the engine can not operate based on the closed loop control based on oxygen sensor. And it may result in the misfire events and higher hydrocarbon (HC) emissions during this period. To solve this problem, a novel closed loop control based on ionization current in combustion cycle is proposed. The in-cylinder combustion quality is monitored by means of the ion current detection technique; meanwhile, if the misfire event is detected in the combustion cycle, the spark re-ignition is made in the current combustion cycle. In addition, to optimize the combustion and reduce HC emissions during cold start, the fuel injection quantity and ignition timing in the next cycle are adjusted based on the current ion current signal.
Technical Paper

A Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of GDI Engine for HEV at Quick Start

2014-10-13
2014-01-2709
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have attracted interest as automotive power-plants because of their potential advantages in down-sizing, fuel efficiency and in emissions reduction. However, GDI engines suffer from elevated unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions during start up process, which are sometimes worsened by misfires and partial burns. Moreover, as the engine is cranked to idle speed quickly in HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicle), the transients of quick starts are more dramatically than that in traditional vehicle, which challenge the optimization of combustion and emissions. In this study, test bench had been set up to investigate the GDI engine performances for ISG (Integrated Starter and Generator) HEVs during start up process. Based on the test system, cycle-controlled of the fuel injection mass, fuel injection timing and ignition timing can be obtained, as well as the cycle-resolved measurement of the HC concentrations and NO emissions.
Technical Paper

Cycle Resolved Combustion and Pre-Ignition Diagnostic Employing Ion Current in a PFI Boosted SI Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0881
An ion current sensor is employed in a 4 cylinder production SI engine for combustion diagnosis during combustion process, knock, and low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) detection. The results show that the ion current peak value and ion current peak phase have strong correlation with the cylinder pressure and pressure peak phase respectively. The COV of ion current integral value is greater than the COV of IMEP at the same operating condition. Results show that the ion current signal is sensitive to different lambdas. Using ion current signal, the knock in any given cylinder can be detected. Importantly, the ion sensor successfully detected the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) about more than 20 °CA before spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Biodiesel Spray and Combustion Characteristics

2006-10-16
2006-01-3250
In this paper, the spray and combustion characteristics of biodiesel and diesel were investigated. The spray pictures of single injection, by means of a diesel pump test-bed, were taken by a high-speed camera video system in an atmospheric condition, and the effects of the pump speed, nozzle orifice diameter and nozzle opening pressure on the fuel spray structure and characteristics were studied under atmosphere condition. The results showed that the general law of biodiesel spray characteristics was similar to that of diesel. However, the spray penetration of biodiesel was longer than that of diesel, and the spray angles of biodiesel were only half angle of diesel. The experiment of combustion characteristics was conducted in a vitiated coflow combustor with the same diesel pump test-bed. The images of combustion flame were recorded by the high-speed camera system. Then the ignition characteristics were evaluated from the digital pictures by computer.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Optimization during Engine Quick Start by Means of Cycle-by-Cycle Control Strategy for HEV Application

2009-11-02
2009-01-2718
Engine-off strategy are popular used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) for fuel saving. The engine of an HEV will start and stop frequently according to the road condition. In order to obtain excellent fuel economy and emissions performance, the fuel injection during engine quick start should be optimized. In this paper, the characteristic of mixture formation and the HC emissions at the first 5 cycles which contribute the most HCs were investigated. After the analysis of mixture preparation during start process, the HC emissions during engine quick start were optimized by means of cycle-by-cycle fuel injection control strategy. The fuel mixture concentration during start-up process fluctuates more dramatically under hot start condition. Typically, the mixture at 4th and 5th cycle is over-riched. Based on the original engine calibration, the fuel injection at the initial 5 cycles was optimized respectively.
Technical Paper

Misfiring Control in Current Cycle at Engine Start Employing Ion Sensing Technology

2009-11-02
2009-01-2713
In this paper a method of misfiring control in current cycle at engine start is presented. With this novel method, the high HC emissions of gasoline engine employed in traditional or hybrid electrical vehicles will be avoided. By the feedback of ion current signal, misfire phenomenon is identified within 30 degrees crank angle after spark plug ignited. Then, the ignition coil will be recharged and the plug sparked again to promote air fuel mixture oxidation and deplete the unburned hydrocarbon produces in exhaust gas. On the other hand, too late ignition will not always result in normal combustion, a kind of reaction similar with slow oxidation also occurs in such case.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Particulates and Exhaust Gases Emissions of DI Diesel Engine Employing Common Rail Fuel System Fueled with Bio-diesel Blends

2008-06-23
2008-01-1834
In this paper, characteristics of gas emission and particle size distribution are investigated in a common rail diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. Gas emission and particle size distribution are measured by AVL FTIR - SESAM and SMPS respectively. The results show that although biodiesel blends would result in higher NOx emissions, characteristics of NOx emissions were also dependent on the engine load for waste cooking oil methyl ester. Higher blend concentration results in higher NO2 emission after two diesel oxidation catalyst s (DOC). A higher blend concentration leads to lower CO and SO2 emissions. No significant difference of Alkene emission is found among biodiesel blends. The particle size distributions of diesel exhaust aerosol consist of a nucleation mode (NM) with a peak below 50N• m and an accumulation mode with a peak above 50N • m. B100 will result in lower particulates with the absence of NM.
Technical Paper

Effect of Additives on Diesel Spray Flames in a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere

2008-04-14
2008-01-0931
The active components, such as OH and their concentrations in the coflow, have a strong effect on the combustion process of diesel fuel spray flames in the Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere (CATA), which then will affect the soot incandescence of the spray flames. CO2 and H2O2, the additives which have contrary effect on the concentration of the active components, were mixed separately into the thermo-atmosphere before the jet spray were issued into the coflow, which changed the boundary condition around the central jet and influenced the combustion characteristics and soot incandescence. The combustion characteristics such as ignition delay and flame liftoff height of the central spray flames are measured and the linkage between these two parameters is investigated at different coflow temperatures.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cold-start Based on Cycle-by-Cycle Control Strategy in an EFI LPG Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-3059
This paper presents an investigation of cold starts based on a cycle-by-cycle control strategy in an LPG EFI engine. Experiments were carried out in a four-stroke, water-cooled, single cylinder, 125cc SI engine with an EFI system. Effects of the first injection pulse width and the first combustion cycle on the characteristics of the cold-start were analyzed based on the histories of transient engine speeds and cylinder pressures. The study focuses on how to realize the controllable ignition cycle and the single-cycle and multi-cycle combustions were tested based on the single starting injection pulse width. Test results show that the first combustion cycle has an important effect on HC emission and combustion stability of following cycles at cold-start. The injection pulse width is the key factor determining the characteristics of an ignition cycle during the cold-start.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of a Small Spark-Ignited LPG Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1738
This paper presents an experimental study of the emission characteristics of a small Spark-Ignited, LPG engine. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc SI engine for motorcycle is modified for using LPG fuel. The power output of LPG is above 95% power output of gasoline. The emission characteristics of LPG are compared with the gasoline. The test result shows that LPG for small SI engine will help to reduce the emission level of motorcycles. The HC and CO emission level can be reduced greatly, but NOx emissions are increased. The emission of motorcycle using LPG shows the potential to meet the more strict regulation.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Film Evaporation for Homogeneous Charge Preparation of Typical Fuels

2005-04-11
2005-01-1935
Fuel films of several typical fuels were investigated by means of thermal gravity analysis (TGA). To make diesel homogeneous charge by means of film evaporation, it was concluded that to get 30%∼50% evaporation of film, the wall temperature should be set between 150°C and 180°C for diesel and 40°C∼60°C for gasoline, and to get 95% evaporation of film, the wall temperature should be set between 200°C and 250°C for diesel and 50°C∼100°C for gasoline, when the thickness of the fuel film is about 40 μ m. Based on the properties of fuels, the evaporation characteristics of diesel under 100°C should be improved.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Ethanol Fuel (E100) in a Small SI Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3262
An air-cooled, four-stroke, 125 cc electronic gasoline fuel injection SI engine for motorcycles is altered to burn ethanol fuel. The effects of nozzle orifice size, fuel injection duration, spark timing and the excess air/ fuel ratio on engine power output, fuel and energy consumptions and engine exhaust emission levels are studied on an engine test bed. The results show that the maximum engine power output is increased by 5.4% and the maximum torque output is increased by 1.9% with the ethanol fuel in comparison with the baseline. At full load and 7000 r/min, HC emission is decreased by 38% and CO emission is decreased 46% on average over the whole engine speed range. However, NOx levels are increased to meet the maximum power output. The experiments of the spark timing show that the levels of HC and NOx emission are decreased markedly by the delay of spark timing.
Technical Paper

In-Cycle Knocking Detection and Feedback Control Based on In-Cylinder Pressure and Ion Current Signal in a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0816
Due to much higher pressure and pressure rising rate, knocking is always of potential hazards causing damages in the engine and high NOX emissions. Therefore, the researchers have focused on knocking diagnosis and control for many years. However, there is still lack of fast response sensor detecting in-cycle knocking. Until now, the feedback control based on knocking sensor normally adjusts the injection and ignition parameters of the following cycles after knocking appears. Thus in-cycle knocking feedback control which requires a predictive combustion signal is still hard to see. Ion current signal is feasible for real-time in-cylinder combustion detection, and can be employed for misfiring and knocking detection. Based on incylinder pressure and ion current signals, the in-cycle knocking feedback control is investigated in this research. The 2nd-order differential of in-cylinder pressure, which means the response time of pressure rising rate dPR, is employed for knocking prediction.
Technical Paper

Auto-ignition Characteristics of Lubricant Droplets under Hot Co-Flow Atmosphere

2018-09-10
2018-01-1807
It has been revealed by researches that lubricant properties have a great effect on the low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) frequency in downsizing turbocharged direct-injection engines which are developed for better fuel economy. Droplets of lubricant or lubricant-gasoline mixture are considered to be the potential pre-ignition sources. Those droplets fly into the combustion chamber and ignite the gasoline-air mixture. To study lubricant droplets fundamentally, a novel set of droplet auto-ignition system is designed based on a Dibble Burner for this experiment. Influences of metallic additive contents, viscosities, lubricant diluted with gasoline and waste lubricant on the ignition delay of droplets are investigated by testing 12 groups of lubricants or lubricant-gasoline mixture. The equivalent diameter of each droplet generated by micro-syringes is around 2.1 mm. The co-flow temperature varies from 1123 K to 1223 K, and the experiments are carried out at atmospheric pressure.
Technical Paper

Knock and Pre-Ignition Detection Using Ion Current Signal on a Boosted Gasoline Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0792
In order to meet the ever more stringent demands on the CO2 emission reduction, downsized modern gasoline engine with highly boosted turbo charger meets new challenges such as super knock and pre-ignition, which will influence the engine combustion efficiency, smooth operation and even cause mechanical failure. A spark plug type ion current detection sensor was used in a 1.8L turbo charged gasoline engine. The ion-current wave signal differed greatly under different engine operating conditions such as without knock, with knock of different knock intensities. The frequency spectrum of ion-current was also studied, by the method of discrete Fourier transform (DFT). In knocking cycles, there were fluctuations of frequency 8-13 kHz both in the combustion pressure signal and in the ion current signal, proving the existence of knock information.
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