The Influence of Variable Fuel Properties in High-Pressure Diesel Injectors
High pressurization of Diesel fuel in modern common-rail injectors, in addition to its effect on spray atomization, can result to increase of fuel density and viscosity in comparison to atmospheric conditions; moreover, due to the sharp de-pressurization experienced by the fuel at the inlet of the injection holes significant gradients of the above properties are established. Consequently, the characteristics of cavitation taking place at the entrance to the injection holes are affected. The present study quantifies the role of these effects in automotive Diesel injectors operating at pressures in excess of 1500 bar through use of a cavitation CFD model. The flow solver is accordingly modified to account for such effects during the solution of the conservation equations. Two different injector designs have been considered, both based on the same sac-type nozzle body; one with sharp-inlet cylindrical holes and one with tapered holes with inlet rounding.