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Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effects of Certain Alcohol and Furan-Based Biofuels on Controlled Auto Ignition

For gasoline engines controlled autoignition provides the vision of enabling the fuel consumption benefit of stratified lean combustion systems without the drawback of additional NOx aftertreatment. In this study the potential of certain biofuels on this combustion system was assessed by single-cylinder engine investigations using the exhaust strategy "combustion chamber recirculation" (CCR). For the engine testing sweeps in the internal EGR rate with different injection strategies as well as load sweeps were performed. Of particular interest was to reveal fuel differences in the achievable maximal load as well as in the NOx emission behavior. Additionally, experiments with a shock tube and a rapid compression machine were conducted in order to determine the ignition delay times of the tested biofuels concerning controlled autoignition-relevant conditions.
Technical Paper

Potential of the Spray-guided Combustion System in Combination with Turbocharging

Based on the TurboDISI engine presented earlier [1], [2], a new Spray Guided Turbo (SGT) concept with enhanced engine performance was developed. The turbocharged engine was modified towards utilizing a spray-guided combustion system with a central piezo injector location. Higher specific power and torque levels were achieved by applying specific design and cooling solutions. The engine was developed utilizing a state-of-the-art newly developed charge motion design (CMD) process in combination with single cylinder investigations. The engine control unit has a modular basis and is realized using rapid prototyping hardware. Additional fuel consumption potentials can be achieved with high load EGR, use of alternative fuels and a hybrid powertrain. The CO2 targets of the EU (120 g/km by 2012 in the NEDC) can be obtained with a mid-size vehicle applying the technologies presented within this paper.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Potential of Water Injection for Gasoline Engines

Gasoline engine powertrain development for 2025 and beyond is focusing on finding cost optimal solutions by balancing electrification and combustion engine efficiency measures. Besides Miller cycle application, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and variable compression ratio, the injection of water has recently gained increased attention as a promising technology for significant CO2 reduction. This paper gives deep insight into the fuel consumption reduction potential of direct water injection. Single cylinder investigations were performed in order to investigate the influence of water injection in the entire engine map. In addition, different engine configurations were tested to evaluate the influence of the altering compression ratios and Miller timings on the fuel consumption reduction potential with water injection.
Technical Paper

λDSF: Dynamic Skip Fire with Homogeneous Lean Burn for Improved Fuel Consumption, Emissions and Drivability

Dynamic skip fire (DSF) has shown significant fuel economy improvement potential via reduction of pumping losses that generally affect throttled spark-ignition (SI) engines. In DSF operation, individual cylinders are fired on-demand near peak efficiency to satisfy driver torque demand. For vehicles with a downsized-boosted 4-cylinder engine, DSF can reduce fuel consumption by 8% in the WLTC (Class 3) drive cycle. The relatively low cost of cylinder deactivation hardware further improves the production value of DSF. Lean burn strategies in gasoline engines have also demonstrated significant fuel efficiency gains resulting from reduced pumping losses and improved thermodynamic characteristics, such as higher specific heat ratio and lower heat losses. Fuel-air mixture stratification is generally required to achieve stable combustion at low loads.