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Technical Paper

Simulation of the Post-Oxidation in Turbo Charged SI-DI-Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0373
Turbocharged SI-DI-engines in combination with a reduction of engine displacement (“Downsizing”) offer the possibility to remarkably reduce the overall fuel consumption. In charged mode it is possible to scavenge fresh unburnt air into the exhaust system if a positive slope during the overlap phase of the gas exchange occurs. The matching of the turbo system in SI-engines always causes a trade-off between low-end torque and high power output. The higher mass flow at low engine speeds of an engine using scavenging allows a partial solution of this trade-off. Thus, higher downsizing grades and fuel consumption reduction potential can be obtained. Through scavenging the global fuel to air ratio deviates from the local in-cylinder fuel to air ratio. It is possible to use a rich in-cylinder fuel to air ratio, whereas the global fuel to air ratio remains stochiometrical. This could be very beneficial to reduce the effect of catalytic aging on the one hand and engine knock on the other hand.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Parameters Influencing the Spray-Wall Interaction in a GDI Engine - Prerequisite for the Prediction of Particulate Emissions by Numerical Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1089
Due to the EU6 emission standard that will be mandatory starting in September 2014 the particulate emissions of GDI engines come into the focus of development. For this reason, soot and the mechanisms responsible for the soot formation are of particular importance. A very significant source of particulate emissions from engines with gasoline direct injection is the wall film formation. Therefore, the analysis of soot emission sources in the CFD calculation requires a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain, with special emphasis on the spray-wall interaction and the wall film dynamics. The validation of the mentioned spray-wall interaction and wall film models is performed using basic experimental investigations, like the infrared-thermography and fluorescence based measurements conducted at the University of Magdeburg.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Fuel Impingement and Spray-Cooling on the Piston of a GDI Engine via Instantaneous Surface Temperature Measurements

2014-04-01
2014-01-1447
In order to comply with more and more stringent emission standards, like EU6 which will be mandatory starting in September 2014, GDI engines have to be further optimized particularly in regard of PN emissions. It is generally accepted that the deposition of liquid fuel wall films in the combustion chamber is a significant source of particulate formation in GDI engines. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction [1]. In order to quantify this temperature drop at combustion chamber surfaces, surface temperature measurements on the piston of a single-cylinder engine were conducted. Therefore, eight fast-response thermocouples were embedded 0.3 μm beneath the piston surface and the signals were transmitted from the moving piston to the data acquisition system via telemetry.
Technical Paper

Development Approach for the Investigation of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition in a Free-Piston Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0047
In this paper the development approach and the results of numerical and experimental investigations on homogeneous charge compression ignition in a free piston engine are presented. The Free Piston Linear Generator (FPLG) is a new type of internal combustion engine designed for the application in a hybrid electric vehicle. The highly integrated system consists of a two-stroke combustion unit, a linear generator, and a mass-variable gas spring. These three subsystems are arranged longitudinally in a double piston configuration. The system oscillates linearly between the combustion chamber and the gas spring, while electrical energy is extracted by the centrally arranged linear generator. The mass-variable gas spring is used as intermediate energy storage between the downstroke and upstroke. Due to this arrangement piston stroke and compression ratio are no longer determined by a mechanical system.
Technical Paper

Quasi-dimensional and Empirical Modeling of Compression-Ignition Engine Combustion and Emissions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0151
Two combustion models are presented: A quasi-dimensional approach, based on the injection shape and an empirical model. Both models have computation times of less than one second per cycle. The quasi-dimensional approach for CI combustion discretizes the injection jet in slices. Pilot-injections are modeled as separate zones. The forecast capability and the limitations of the model are discussed on the basis of measurements. Mentioned above the base of the quasi-dimensional model is the injection rate. Often it is difficult to obtain these data. There is therefore another empirical approach for combustion, which does not need the injection rate as input. Both models have to be calibrated. This can be done by an automatic calibration tool on the basis of the advanced Powell method. The differences and advantages compared with other optimization methods are shown. Emission-simulation models are highly important in simulating CI engines.
Journal Article

The Development of an Highly Modular Designed Zero-Dimensional Engine Process Calculation Code

2010-04-12
2010-01-0149
The main objective of the FVV-project “Cylinder Module” was the development of a profoundly modular designed concept for object-oriented modeling of in-cylinder processes of internal combustion engines. It was designed in such a way, that it can either be used as a stand-alone real working-process calculation tool or in tools for whole vehicle simulations. It is possible to run the “Cylinder Module”-code inside the FVV-“GPA”-software for transient vehicle and driving cycle simulations and it is possible to use the graphical user interface “ATMOS” of the “GPA”-project. The code can also be used as a user-subroutine in 1-D-flow simulation codes. Much effort was spent on the requirements of flexibility and expandability in order to be well prepared to cope with the diversity of both today's and future tasks. The code is freely available for members of the German Research Association for Combustion Engines (FVV).
Journal Article

Quasi-Dimensional Modeling of CI-Combustion with Multiple Pilot- and Post Injections

2010-04-12
2010-01-0150
A new phenomenological CI combustion model was developed. Within this model the given injection rate may contain an arbitrary number of injections during one cycle. Another target was a short computation time of one second per cycle on average. The new approach should also have the ability to simulate a wide engine spectrum from passenger-car engines through to marine engines. The ignition delay is calculated separately for each single injection. In this way the model depicts the influence of pilot injections on the ignition delay of proximate injections. Each pilot injection is modeled as a single air-fuel mixture cloud with air entrainment. The burn rate of the pilot injection is modeled as a function of flame propagation and of the current local excess air ratio. If the local excess air ratio becomes too lean the pilot combustion stops or does not start at all. Main and post-injections are calculated by means of a slice approach.
Technical Paper

Fundamentals of Pressure Trace Analysis for Gasoline Engines with Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

2010-10-25
2010-01-2182
Regarding further development of gasoline engines several new technologies are investigated in order to diminish pollutant emissions and particularly fuel consumption. The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) seems to be a promising way to reach these targets. Therefore, in the past years there had been a lot of experimental efforts in this field of combustion system engineering. Negative valve overlap with pilot injection before pumping top dead center (PTDC) and an “intermediate” compression and combustion during PTDC, followed by the main injection after PTDC, is one way to realize and to proper control a HCCI operation. For conventional CI and SI combustion the pressure trace analysis (PTA) is a powerful and widely used tool to analyse, understand and optimize the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a CNG Driven SI Engine Within a Parallel Hybrid Power Train by Using EGR and an Oversized Turbocharger with Active-WG Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0820
The hybrid power train technology offers various prospects to optimize the engine efficiency in order to minimize the CO₂ emissions of an internal-combustion-engine-powered vehicle. Today different types of hybrid architectures like parallel, serial, power split or through-the-road concepts are commonly known. To achieve lowest fuel consumption the following hybrid electric vehicle drive modes can be used: Start/Stop, pure electric/thermal driving, recuperation of brake energy and the hybrid mode. The high complexity of the interaction between those power sources requires an extensive investigation to determine the optimal configuration of a natural-gas-powered SI engine within a parallel hybrid power train. Therefore, a turbocharged 1.0-liter 3-cylinder CNG engine was analyzed on the test bench. Using an optimized combustion strategy, the engine was operated at stoichiometric and lean air/fuel ratio applying both high- and low-pressure EGR.
Technical Paper

Improvement of a High-Performance CNG-Engine Based on an innovative Virtual Development Process

2011-09-11
2011-24-0140
Methane as an alternative fuel in motorsports? Actually this solution is well known for the reduction of CO₂ emissions but apparently it does not really awake race feelings. At the 2009 edition of the 24-hour endurance race on the Nürburgring the Volkswagen Motorsport GmbH, in addition to vehicles powered by gasoline engines, introduced two vehicles powered by innovative turbo-charged CNG engines for the first time. The aim was to prove, that also an "environment-friendly" concept is able to provide the required efficiency, dynamic and reliability for a successful participation in motorsports. After the success in the 2009 edition the engagement has been continued also in 2010, this time exclusively with CNG vehicles. Focusing on the CO₂ emission, reclusively the higher hydrogen content of methane which represents the main component of NG leads to a CO₂ reduction during the combustion of about 20% compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0141
In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Global Reaction Model for a Range of Gasolines and Kerosenes under HCCI Conditions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0024
Compact and computationally efficient reaction models capable of accurately predicting ignition delay and heat release rates are a prerequisite for the development of strategies to control and optimize HCCI engines. In particular for full boiling range fuels exhibiting two-stage ignition a tremendous demand exists in the engine development community. To this end, in a previous investigation, a global reaction mechanism was developed and fitted to data from shock tube experiments for n-heptane and five full boiling range fuels. By means of a genetic algorithm, for each of these fuels, a set of reaction rate parameters (consisting of pre-exponential factors, activation energies and concentration exponents) has been defined, without any change to the model form.
Journal Article

Novel Transient Wall Heat Transfer Approach for the Start-up of SI Engines with Gasoline Direct Injection

2010-04-12
2010-01-1270
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions limits require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. But with a fraction of nearly 45% of the burned fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis.
Journal Article

3D-CFD Virtual Engine Test Bench of a 1.6 Liter Turbo-Charged GDI-Race-Engine with Focus on Fuel Injection

2013-09-08
2013-24-0149
In the last years motorsport is facing a technical revolution concerning the engine technology in every category, from touring car championships up to the F1. The strategy of the car manufacturers to bring motorsport engine technology closer to mass production one (e.g. turbo-charging, downsizing and direct injection) allows both to reduce development costs and to create a better image and technology transfer by linking motorsport activities to the daily business. Under these requirements the so-called Global Race Engine (GRE) concept has been introduced, giving the possibility to use one unique engine platform concept as basis for different engine specifications and racing categories. In order to optimize the performance of this kind of engines, especially due to the highly complex mixture formation mechanisms related to the direct injection, it is nowadays mandatory to resort to reliable 3D-CFD simulations.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Phlegmatization in Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2011-06-09
2011-37-0018
An approach for model-based control strategy design for diesel hybrid drive-trains has been developed, permitting the reduction of fuel consumption as well as of exhaust gas emissions. The control strategy consists of four core-functions: the SOC-management, the operation mode determination, the gear selection, and the thermal monitoring. Based on those different interpretations, a control strategy can be designed that leads to great reductions in fuel consumption or alternatively to a mentionable decline of nitrous oxides. In this trade-off, both aims can not be optimized at a time. Though, the strategy to be used is a compromise, designs for control strategies are possible that reduce both for a significant amount. Extending this control strategy by adding functions for transient behavior at start-up and load changes; phlegmatization enables additional potentials for emission reduction.
Technical Paper

A Way towards Remarkable Reduction of Co2-Emissions in Motorsports: The CNG-Engine

2011-06-09
2011-37-0006
Until a few years ago the discussion of reduction of CO₂ emissions was completely out of place in motorsports. Nowadays, also in this field, car manufacturers want to investigate different approaches towards a more responsible and sustainable concept. For this target an interesting and feasible solution is the use of methane as an alternative fuel. At the 2009 edition of the 24-hour endurance race of the Nürburgring the Volkswagen Motorsport GmbH, in addition to vehicles powered by gasoline engines, introduced two vehicles powered by turbocharged CNG engines. The aim was to prove that also an "environment-friendly" concept is able to provide the required efficiency, dynamic and reliability for a successful participation in motorsports. After the success in the 2009 edition the engagement has been continued in 2010; this time exclusively with CNG vehicles.
Journal Article

Some Useful Additions to Calculate the Wall Heat Losses in Real Cycle Simulations

2012-04-16
2012-01-0673
More than 20 years after the first presentation of the heat transfer equation according to Bargende [1,2], it is time to introduce some useful additions and enhancements, with respect to new and advanced combustion principles like diesel- and gasoline- homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). In the existing heat transfer equation according to Bargende the calculation of the actual combustion chamber surface area is formulated in accordance with the work of Hohenberg. Hohenberg found experimentally that in the piston top land only about 20-30% of the wall heat flux values from the combustion chamber are transferred to the liner and piston wall. Hohenberg explained this phenomenon that is caused by lower gas temperature and convection level in charge within the piston top land volume. The formulation just adds the existing piston top land surface area multiplied by a specified factor to the surface of the combustion chamber.
Journal Article

A New Approach for Modeling Cycle-to-Cycle Variations within the Framework of a Real Working-Process Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1315
For a reliable and accurate simulation of SI engines reproduction of their operation limits (misfiring and knock limit) and in this context the knowledge of cyclic combustion variations and their influence on knock simulation are mandatory. For this purpose in this paper a real working-process simulation approach for the ability to predict cycle-to-cycle variations (ccv) of gasoline engines is proposed. An extensive measurement data base of four different test engines applying various operation strategies was provided in order to gain a better understanding of the physical background of the cyclic variations. So the ccv initiated by dilution strategies (internal EGR, lean operation), the ccv at full load and at the knock limit could be investigated in detail. Finally, the model was validated on the basis of three further engines which were not part of the actual development process.
Technical Paper

A Novel CFD Approach for an Improved Prediction of Particulate Emissions in GDI Engines by Considering the Spray-Cooling on the Piston

2015-04-14
2015-01-0385
The emission of particulate matter from future GDI engines has to be optimized, to comply with more stringent emission standards such as EU6. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of particles have to be analyzed in detail. The understanding of the in-cylinder processes, necessary for this purpose, can only be achieved by a complementary use of optically accessible single-cylinder engines as well as the numerical simulation. This however leads to great demands on the 3D flow simulation. In this paper the complete CFD approach, incorporating a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain is shown. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction and thus also the particulate emissions. Nevertheless, in conventional CFD models, the spray cooling cannot be captured because of an assumed constant wall temperature.
Technical Paper

Ideal homogeneous combustion versus partly homogeneous combustion for PC diesel engines

2007-09-16
2007-24-0016
Because of its outstanding efficiency, the direct-injection diesel engine is the preferred drive source in many fields. However, its emission behavior, especially with regard to particulate and nitrogen-oxide emissions, is problematic. A promising approach to reducing emissions inside the engine is presented by various (partially) homogeneous diesel combustion processes, which use suitable mixture formation and combustion management to prevent the formation of nitrogen-oxide and soot. In this paper, starting out from an ideally homogeneous combustion process with manifold injection, two further partially homogeneous combustion processes with internal mixture formation are examined. With regard to the maximum obtainable indicated mean effective pressure and the combustion noise, the ideally homogeneous combustion process proved - in the examined configuration - not to be desirable.
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