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Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Fuel Impingement and Spray-Cooling on the Piston of a GDI Engine via Instantaneous Surface Temperature Measurements

In order to comply with more and more stringent emission standards, like EU6 which will be mandatory starting in September 2014, GDI engines have to be further optimized particularly in regard of PN emissions. It is generally accepted that the deposition of liquid fuel wall films in the combustion chamber is a significant source of particulate formation in GDI engines. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction [1]. In order to quantify this temperature drop at combustion chamber surfaces, surface temperature measurements on the piston of a single-cylinder engine were conducted. Therefore, eight fast-response thermocouples were embedded 0.3 μm beneath the piston surface and the signals were transmitted from the moving piston to the data acquisition system via telemetry.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Technical Paper

A Novel CFD Approach for an Improved Prediction of Particulate Emissions in GDI Engines by Considering the Spray-Cooling on the Piston

The emission of particulate matter from future GDI engines has to be optimized, to comply with more stringent emission standards such as EU6. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of particles have to be analyzed in detail. The understanding of the in-cylinder processes, necessary for this purpose, can only be achieved by a complementary use of optically accessible single-cylinder engines as well as the numerical simulation. This however leads to great demands on the 3D flow simulation. In this paper the complete CFD approach, incorporating a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain is shown. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction and thus also the particulate emissions. Nevertheless, in conventional CFD models, the spray cooling cannot be captured because of an assumed constant wall temperature.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Analysis with a Fast Response 3D-CFD Tool

Main limiting factor in the application of 3D-CFD simulations within an engine development is the very high time demand, which is predominantly influenced by the number of cells within the computational mesh. Arbitrary cell coarsening, however, results in a distinct distortion of the simulation outcome. It is rather necessary to adapt the calculation models to the new mesh structure in order to ensure reliability and predictability of the 3D-CFD engine simulation. In the last decade, a fast response 3D-CFD tool was developed at FKFS in Stuttgart. It aims for a harmonized interaction between computational mesh, implemented calculation models and defined boundary conditions in order to enable fast running simulations for engine development tasks. Their susceptibility to errors is significantly minimized by various measures, e.g. extension of the simulation domain (full engine) and multi-cycle simulations.
Technical Paper

Virtual Development of Injector Spray Targeting by Coupling 3D-CFD Simulations with Optical Investigations

Further improvements of internal combustion engines to reduce fuel consumption and to face future legislation constraints are strictly related to the study of mixture formation. The reason for that is the desire to supply the engine with homogeneous charge, towards the direction of a global stoichiometric blend in the combustion chamber. Fuel evaporation and thus mixture quality mostly depend on injector atomization features and charge motion within the cylinder. 3D-CFD simulations offer great potential to study not only injector atomization quality but also the evaporation behavior. Nevertheless coupling optical measurements and simulations for injector analysis is an open discussion because of the large number of influencing parameters and interactions affecting the fuel injection’s reproducibility. For this purpose, detailed numerical investigations are used to describe the injection phenomena.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Homogenization Model Considering Direct Fuel Injection and EGR for SI Engines

As a consequence of reduced fuel consumption, direct injection gasoline engines have already prevailed against port fuel injection. However, in-cylinder fuel homogenization strongly depends on charge motion and injection strategies and can be challenging due to the reduced available time for mixture formation. An insufficient homogenization has generally a negative impact on the combustion and therefore also on efficiency and emissions. In order to reach the targets of the intensified CO2 emission reduction, further increase in efficiency of SI engines is essential. In this connection, 0D/1D simulation is a fundamental tool due to its application area in an early stage of development and its relatively low computational costs. Certainly, inhomogeneities are still not considered in quasi dimensional combustion models because the prediction of mixture formation is not included in the state of the art 0D/1D simulation.
Technical Paper

The Application of E-Fuel Oxymethylene Ether OME1 in a Virtual Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for Ultra-Low Emissions

For long haul transport, diesel engine due to its low fuel consumption and low operating costs will remain dominant over a long term. In order to achieve CO2 neutrality, the use of electricity-based, synthetic fuels (e-fuels) provides a solution. Especially the group of oxymethylene ethers (OME) is given much attention because of its soot-free combustion. However, the new fuel properties and the changed combustion characteristics place new demands on engine design. Meanwhile, the use of new fuels also creates new degrees of freedom to operate diesel engines. In this work, the application of dimethoxymethane (OME1) is investigated by means of 1D simulation at three operating points in a truck diesel engine. The subsystems of fuel injection, air path and exhaust gas are sequentially adjusted for the purpose of low emissions, especially for low nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Unburned Hydrocarbon Model for Diesel Engines

Intensified emission regulations as well as consumption demands lead to an increasing significance of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions for diesel engines. On the one hand, the quantity of hydrocarbon (HC) raw emissions is important for emission predictions as well as for the exhaust after treatment. On the other hand, HC emissions are also important for predicting combustion efficiency and thus fuel consumption, since a part of unreleased chemical energy of the fuel is still bound in the HC molecules. Due to these reasons, a simulation model for predicting HC raw emissions was developed for diesel engines based on a phenomenological two-zone model. The HC model takes three main sources of HC emissions of diesel engines into account: Firstly, it contains a sub-model that describes the fuel dribble out of the injector after the end of injection. Secondly, HC emissions from cold peripheral zones near cylinder walls are determined in another sub-model.