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Technical Paper

Development of a POD-Based Analysis Approach for Quantitative Comparison of Spray Structure Variations in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

Strong cycle-to-cycle variations of fuel spray are observed due to the highly transient in-cylinder airflow in spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. The spray structure comparison based on ensemble-averaged image may be misleading sometimes because the spray images for the same engine running condition could be different from cycle to cycle. Also, the visual comparison of spray images from many cycles is only qualitative and very time-consuming. Therefore, the present paper provides a novel approach to make quantitative comparison of spray structures from different engine conditions, or comparison between experiment and simulation (such as large eddy simulation, LES). The methodology is based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which has been utilized for in-cylinder turbulent flow research for over a decade.
Technical Paper

Flow-field Evaluation of Superheated Fuel Sprays using High-Speed PIV

Spray atomization and evaporation are expected to be improved by injecting fuel at a superheated state. However, the breakup mechanism and evaporation processes of superheated sprays have not been clarified. In previous studies [1], the multi-hole spray flow-field on the vertical plane through the spray axis was investigated by using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results showed that the spray plumes collapse to the spray axis under high superheat conditions. It's also proven that the superheat degree is the predominant factor influencing the structure and the flow-field of the spray. To further understand this process, the interaction among spray plumes on three cross-sectional planes under various superheated conditions is investigated. In this study, n-hexane sprays generated from an eight-hole DI injector were measured using a high-speed PIV system. The results provide insight to the spray-collapse processes and the interaction between the spray plumes.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Liquid and Vapor Distributions in Flash Boiling Fuel Sprays using Planar Laser Induced Exciplex Technique

The flash boiling phenomenon occurs at some operating conditions when fuel is directly injected into the cylinder of a homogeneous charge spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine due to the higher temperature of the injected fuel and lower back pressure. A flash boiling spray has significantly different characteristics from a conventional DI gasoline spray. In this paper, the planar laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (PLIEF) technique with two specially designed dopants of the fluorobenzene (FB) and the diethyl-methyl-amine (DEMA) in n-hexane was implemented to investigate the liquid and vapor phases of sprays from a multi-hole injector. A vapor phase calibration was carried out to quantitatively correlate the fluorescence signal with vapor concentration. The quantitative vapor concentration distribution is then obtained by applying the calibration.
Technical Paper

Flow Field Characterization of Superheated Sprays from a Multi-Hole Injector by Using High-Speed PIV

Superheated spray is expected to improve the fuel atomization and evaporation processes by introducing fuel temperature as a new control parameter in spark-ignited direct-injection (SIDI) engines. In this study, flow fields of n-hexane spray from a multi-hole injector in both vertical and cross-sectional directions were investigated by using high-speed particle image velocimetry (HS-PIV) within the lower density regions. The results provide insight to the spray-collapsing processes under various superheated conditions. It was found that in axial direction, the vertical velocity increases while the radial velocity decreases with increasing superheat degree, which determines the convergent spray structure. In cross-sectional direction, the dynamic variation of the spray structure and interaction among spray plumes were investigated. The relationship between the spray structure and flow field was found. The flow patterns during and after the injection are significantly different.
Journal Article

Particle Number Emissions Reduction Using Multiple Injection Strategies in a Boosted Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Gasoline Engine

Spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engine, especially in downsized boosted engine platform, has proven to be one of the most promising concepts to improve vehicle fuel economy. SIDI engines are also getting a larger share of the gasoline engine market which is traditionally dominated by the port fuel injection (PFI) engines in the U.S., European and Chinese vehicles. However, higher particle number emissions associated with operating the engine at higher loads pose additional challenges for meeting future stringent emissions regulations. In this study, the potential of using multiple injection strategies (double injection and triple injection strategy during the intake stroke in homogeneous combustion mode) to reduce particle number emissions in a 2.0 liter boosted SIDI gasoline engine at 1000 rpm, 11 bar BMEP condition was investigated using Horiba MEXA SPCS1000 PN measurement instrument.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Effects of Fuel Type and Injection Conditions on Spray Evaporation Using Optical Diagnostics

Comparing with port-fuel-injection (PFI) engine, the fuel sprays in spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines play more important roles since they significantly influence the combustion stability, engine efficiency as well as emission formations. In order to design higher efficiency and cleaner engines, further research is needed to understand and optimize the fuel spray atomization and vaporization. This paper investigates the atomization and evaporation of n-pentane, gasoline and surrogate fuels sprays under realistic SIDI engine conditions. An optical diagnostic technique combining high-speed Mie scattering and Schlieren imaging has been applied to study the characteristics of liquid and vapor phases inside a constant volume chamber under various operating conditions. The effects of ambient temperature, fuel temperature, and fuel type on spray atomization and vaporization are analyzed by quantitative comparisons of spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Soft Spray Formation of a Low-Pressure High-Turbulence Fuel Injector for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

Currently, high-pressure fuel systems and swirl injectors dominate direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine applications worldwide. Besides its advantage of good atomization due to the high pressure, this technology also has many inherent drawbacks, such as, high system cost, complicated system configuration, excessive wall wetting, lack of spray tailoring flexibility, etc., which limit the benefits available from the DISI concept. To overcome these drawbacks, a low-pressure direct injection (LPDI) fuel injector was developed which utilizes a novel high-turbulence nozzle to produce a soft spray, with droplet size comparable to the high-pressure swirl injector sprays, but much reduced penetration. This unique nozzle design provides a degree of independent control of injector flow, spray droplet size, spray angle, penetration, and spray distribution pattern.
Technical Paper

Diesel Spray Characterization at Ultra-High Injection Pressure of DENSO 250 MPa Common Rail Fuel Injection System

High fuel injection pressure has been regarded as a key controlling factor for internal combustion engines to achieve good combustion performance with reduced emissions and improved fuel efficiency. For common-rail injection system (CRS) used in advanced diesel engines, fuel injection pressure can often be raised to beyond 200 MPa. Although characteristics of diesel spray has been thoroughly studied, little work has been done at ultra-high injection pressures. In this work, the characteristics of CRS diesel spray under ultra-high injection pressure up to 250 MPa was investigated. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume chamber. The injection pressure varied from 50 MPa to up to 250 MPa. Both non-evaporating condition and evaporating condition were studied. A single-hole injector was specially designed for this investigation.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Optical Technique for Measuring Diesel Spray Penetration

A new optical measuring technique of tip penetration of a diesel fuel spray was developed by detecting the arrival times of the spray tip at several light sheets which were preset at various axial locations downstream. Verified by the instantaneous photographic technique, it was confirmed that this technique is effective, with sufficient accuracy, for measuring the spray tip penetration much more easily than the conventional photographic technique. The tip penetrations of diesel sprays injected through single-hole nozzles with various orifice lengths and diameters has been investigated over a wide range of the operating conditions by this technique. The spray injected through two multihole nozzles, either with or without a sac volume, has also been characterized. The results showed that the spray tip penetration is affected somewhat by the operating conditions. Eventually it is affected by the injected fuel momentum flowrate, nozzle geometry and ambient gas density.
Technical Paper

Study of Flash Boiling Spray Combustion in a Spark Ignition Direct Injection Optical Engine Using Digital Image Processing Diagnostics

Flash boiling spray has been proven to be a useful method in providing finer fuel droplet and stronger evaporation in favor of creating a homogeneous fuel-air mixture. Combustion characteristics of flash boiling spray are thus valuable to be investigated systematically for aiding the development of efficient internal combustion system. An experimental study of flash boiling spray combustion in a SIDI optical engine under early injection has been conducted. The fuel, Iso-octane, was used across all tests. Three fuel spray conditions experimented in the study: normal liquid, transitional flash boiling and flare flash boiling sprays, within each case that Pa/Ps ratio was set in (>1), (0.3~1), and (<0.3) respectively. A small quartz insert on the piston enables optical access for observing combustion process; non-intrusive measurements on flame radicals has been carried out using a high-speed color camera.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Injector Configuration on the Spray Evaporation Characteristics under Superheated Conditions

In spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engines, the injector configuration plays an important role on influencing the spray atomization and evaporation. In order to optimize the injector configuration to generate a better fuel spray, the further study to understand the effect of injector configuration is needed. In this study, the influence of the hole length to diameter ratio (L/D) on the fuel spray evaporation is investigated in a constant volume chamber under various operating conditions. The laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) technique is utilized to capture the vapor fluorescence signal of fuel spray. The fuel sprays with the fuel temperature ranging from 45°C to 85°C and ambient pressure ranging from 20kPa to 100kPa are investigated to study the influences of superheated degree (SD) on the spray evaporation.
Journal Article

Analyzing the Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Vapor and Liquid Phases of Evaporating SIDI Sprays via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Technique

In this study, the spray characteristics of three multi-hole injectors, namely a 2-hole injector, a 4-hole injector, and a 6-hole injector were investigated under various superheated conditions. Fuel pressure was kept constant at 10MPa. Fuel temperature varied from 20°C to 85°C, and back pressure ranged from 20kPa to 100kPa. Both liquid phase and vapor phase of the spray were investigated via laser induced exciplex fluorescence technique. Proper orthogonal decomposition technique was applied to analyze the cycle-to-cycle variations of the liquid phase and vapor phase of the fuel spray separately. Effects of fuel temperature, back pressure, superheated degree and nozzle number on spray variation were revealed. It shows that higher fuel temperature led to a more stable spray due to enhanced evaporation which eliminated the fluctuating structures along the spray periphery. Higher back pressure led to higher spray variation due to increased interaction between spray and ambient air.
Technical Paper

Contrary Effects of Nozzle Length on Spray Primary Breakup under Subcooled and Superheated Conditions

Nozzle length has been proven influencing fuel spray characteristics, and subsequently fuel-air mixing and combustion processes. However, almost all existing related studies are conducted when fuel is subcooled, of which fuel evaporation is extremely weak, especially at the near nozzle region. In addition, injector tip can be heated to very high temperature in SIDI engines, which would trigger flash boiling fuel spray. Therefore, in this study, effect of nozzle length on spray characteristics is investigated under superheated conditions. Three single-hole injectors with different nozzle length were studied. High speed backlit imaging technique was applied to acquire magnified near nozzle spray images based on an optical accessible constant volume chamber. Fuel pressure was maintained at 15 MPa, and n-hexane was chosen as test fuel.
Technical Paper

Influence of Component Proportion on Multi-Component Surrogate Fuel Spray Characteristics under Subcooled and Superheated Conditions

Good comprehension of multi-component fuel spray behavior is essential for the improved performance of GDI engines. In this study, the spray characteristics of three distinct multi-component surrogate fuels with various proportions of n-pentane, iso-octane, and n-decane were investigated using multiple diagnostics including macroscopic imaging, planar laser Mie-scattering, and phase doppler interferometry (PDI). These surrogate fuels were used to mimic different distillation characteristics of regular unleaded gasoline with different vaporization behaviors. Test measurements show that under subcooled test conditions, the spray geometry is mainly influenced by dynamic viscosity. On the contrary, under superheated test conditions, spray geometry is controlled by the specific component of fuel which has the highest vapor pressure. A triangular methodology is created to evaluate the influence of component proportion on spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Pressure on Nozzle Internal Flow and Jet Breakup under Sub-Cooled and Flash Boiling Test Conditions

Injection pressure plays a vital role in spray break-up and atomization. High spray injection pressure is usually adopted to optimize the spray atomization in gasoline direct injection fuel system. However, higher injection pressure also leads to engine emission problem related to wall wetting. To solve this problem, researchers are trying to use flash boiling method to control the spray atomization process under lower injection test conditions. However, the effect of injection pressure on the spray atomization under flash boiling test condition has not been adequately investigated yet. In this study, quantitative study of internal flow and near nozzle spray breakup were carried out based on a two-dimensional transparent nozzle via microscopic imaging and phase Doppler interferometery. N-hexane was chosen as test fluid with different injection pressure conditions. Fuel temperature varied from 112°C to 148°C, which covered a wide range of superheated conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Port Water Injection Timing on Performance and Emissions in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Port water injection is considered as a promising strategy to further improve the combustion performance of internal combustion engines for its benefit in knock resistance by reducing the cylinder temperature. A thorough investigation of the port water injection technique is required to fully understand its effects on the engine combustion process. This study explores the potential of the port water injection technique in improving the performance of a turbo charged Gasoline Direct Injection engine. A 3D computational fluid dynamics model is applied to simulate the in-cylinder mixing and combustion for this engine both with and without water injection. Different water injection timings are investigated and it is found that the injection timing greatly effects the mass of water which enters the combustion chamber, both in liquid and vapor form.