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Technical Paper

Emissions of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low Engine-Out NOx Calibrations to Meet 2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Standards

2009-04-20
2009-01-0909
For engine operations involving low load conditions for an extended amount of time, the exhaust temperature may be lower than that necessary to initiate the urea hydrolyzation. This would necessitate that the controller interrupt the urea supply to prevent catalyst fouling by products of ammonia decomposition. Therefore, it is necessary for the engine controller to have multiple calibrations available in regions of engine operation where the aftertreatment does not perform well, so that optimal exhaust conditions are guaranteed during the wide variety of engine operations. In this study the test engine was equipped with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), and programmed with two different engine calibrations, namely the low-NOx and the low fuel consumption (low-FC).
Technical Paper

PM Concentration and Size Distributions from a Heavy-duty Diesel Engine Programmed with Different Engine-out Calibrations to Meet the 2010 Emission Limits

2009-04-20
2009-01-1183
The temporary deactivation of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) device due to malfunction requires the engine control to engage multiple engine-out calibrations. Further, it is expected that emitted particles will be different in composition, size and morphology when an engine, which meets the 2010 particulate matter (PM) gravimetric limits, is programmed with multiple maps. This study investigated the correlation between SCR-out/engine-out PM emissions from an 11-liter Volvo engine. Measurement of PM concentrations and size distributions were conducted under steady state and transient cycles. Ion Chromatograph analysis on gravimetric filters at the SCR-out has revealed the presence of sulfates. Two different PM size-distributions were generated over a single engine test mode in the accumulation mode region with the aid of a design of experiment (DOE) tool. The SCR-out PM size distributions were found to correlate with the two engine-out distributions.
Technical Paper

Comparative Emissions from Diesel and Biodiesel Fueled Buses from 2002 to 2008 Model Years

2010-10-05
2010-01-1967
Fuel economy and regulated emissions were measured from eight forty-foot transit buses operated on petroleum diesel and a “B20” blend of 80% diesel fuel and 20% biodiesel by volume. Use of biodiesel is attractive to displace petroleum fuel and reduce an operation's carbon footprint. Usually it is assumed that biodiesel will also reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to those of petroleum diesel. Model years of the vehicles evaluated were newer 2007-08 Gillig low-floor buses, 2005 Gillig Phantom buses, and a 2002 Gillig Phantom bus. Engine technology represented three different emissions standards, and included buses with OEM diesel particulate filters. Each bus was evaluated using two transient speed-time schedules, the Orange County Transit Authority (OCTA) driving schedule which represents moderate speed urban/suburban operation and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) which represents a mix of suburban and higher speed on-highway operation.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Blend Emissions of a 2007 Medium Heavy Duty Diesel Truck

2010-10-05
2010-01-1968
Biodiesel may be derived from either plant or animal sources, and is usually employed as a compression ignition fuel in a blend with petroleum diesel (PD). Emissions differences between vehicles operated on biodiesel blends and on diesel have been published previously, but data do not cover the latest engine technologies. Prior studies have shown that biodiesel offers advantages in reducing particulate matter, with either no advantage or a slight disadvantage for oxides of nitrogen emissions. This paper describes a recent study on the emissions impact of two biodiesel blends B20A, made from 20% animal fat (tallow) biodiesel and 80% PD, and B20B, obtained from 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% PD. These blends used the same PD fuel for blending and were contrasted with the same PD fuel as a reference. The research was conducted on a 2007 medium heavy-duty diesel truck (MHDDT), with an engine equipped with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

ExhAUST: DPF Model for Real-Time Applications

2011-09-11
2011-24-0183
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are well assessed exhaust aftertreatment devices currently equipping almost every modern diesel engine to comply with the most stringent emission standards. However, an accurate estimation of soot content (loading) is critical to managing the regeneration of DPFs in order to attain optimal behavior of the whole engine-after-treatment assembly, and minimize fuel consumption. Real-time models can be used to address challenges posed by advanced control systems, such as the integration of the DPF with the engine or other critical aftertreatment components or to develop model-based OBD sensors. One of the major hurdles in such applications is the accurate estimation of engine Particulate Matter (PM) emissions as a function of time. Such data would be required as input data for any kind of accurate models. The most accurate way consists of employing soot sensors to gather the real transient soot emissions signal, which will serve as an input to the model.
Technical Paper

Advanced Modeling of Diesel Particulate Filters to Predict Soot Accumulation and Pressure Drop

2011-09-11
2011-24-0187
Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are recognized as the most efficient technology for particulate matter (PM) reduction, with filtration efficiencies in excess of 90%. Design guidelines for DPFs typically are: high removal efficiency, low pressure drop, high durability and capacity to resist high temperature excursions during regeneration events. The collected mass inside the trap needs to be periodically oxidized to regenerate the DPF. Thus, an in-depth understanding of filtration and regeneration mechanisms, together with the ability of predicting actual DPF conditions, could play a key role in optimizing the duration and number of regeneration events in case of active DPFs. Thus, the correct estimation of soot loading during operation is imperative for effectively controlling the whole engine-DPF assembly and simultaneously avoidingany system failure due to a malfunctioning DPF. A viable way to solve this problem is to use DPF models.
Technical Paper

Fresh and Aged SCRT Systems Retrofitted on a MY 1998 Class-8 Tractor: Investigation on In-use Emissions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0175
In order to comply with stringent 2010 US-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on-road, Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) emissions regulations, the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system has been judged by a multitude of engine manufacturers as the primary technology for mitigating emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). As virtually stand-alone aftertreatment systems, SCR technology further represents a very flexible and efficient solution for retrofitting legacy diesel engines as the most straightforward means of cost-effective compliance attainment. However, the addition of a reducing agent injection system as well as the inherent operation limitations of the SCR system due to required catalyst bed temperatures introduce new, unique problems, most notably that of ammonia (NH₃) slip.
Journal Article

Summary of In-use NOx Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1298
As part of the 1998 Consent Decrees concerning alternative ignition strategies between the six settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States government, the engine manufacturers agreed to perform in-use emissions measurements of their engines. As part of the Consent Decrees, pre- (Phase III, pre-2000 engines) and post- (Phase IV, 2001 to 2003 engines) Consent Decree engines used in over-the-road vehicles were tested to examine the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). A summary of the emissions of NOx and CO2 and fuel consumption from the Phase III and Phase IV engines are presented for 30 second “Not-to-Exceed” (NTE) window brake-specific values. There were approximately 700 Phase III tests and 850 Phase IV tests evaluated in this study, incorporating over 170 different heavy duty diesel engines spanning 1994 to 2003 model years. Test vehicles were operated over city, suburban, and highway routes.
Journal Article

A Work-Based Window Method for Calculating In-Use Brake-Specific NOx Emissions of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1301
A work-based window method has been developed to calculate in-use brake-specific oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for all engine speeds and engine loads. During an in-use test, engine speed and engine torque are read from the engine's electronic control unit, and along with time, are used to determine instantaneous engine power. Instantaneous work is calculated using this power and the time differential in the data collection. Work is then summed until the target amount of work is accumulated. The emissions levels are then calculated for that window of work. It was determined that a work window equal to the theoretical Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle work best provides a means of comparison to the FTP certification standard. Also, a failure criterion has been established based on the average amount of power generated in the work window and the amount of time required to achieve the target work window to determine if a particular work window is valid.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Characterization of a Urea-SCR Transit Bus

2012-06-01
2011-01-2469
West Virginia University characterized the emissions and fuel economy performance of a 30-foot 2010 transit bus equipped with urea selective catalytic reduction (u-SCR) exhaust aftertreatment. The bus was exercised over speed-time driving schedules representative of both urban and on-highway activity using a chassis dynamometer while the exhaust was routed to a full-scale dilution tunnel with research grade emissions analyzers. The Paris speed-time driving schedule was used to represent slow urban transit bus activity while the Cruise driving schedule was used to represent on-highway activity. Vehicle weights representative of both one-half and empty passenger loading were evaluated. Fuel economy observed during testing with the urban driving schedule was significantly lower (55%) than testing performed with the on-highway driving schedule.
Journal Article

Preliminary Systems Evaluation for a Guidable Extended Range Tube Launched-UAV

2011-10-18
2011-01-2559
Tube Launched-Unmanned Air Vehicles (TL-UAV) are munitions that alter their trajectories during flight to enhance the capabilities by possibly extending range, increasing loiter time through gliding, and/or having guided targeting capabilities. Traditional munition systems, specifically the tube-launched mortar rounds, are not guided. Performance of these "dumb" munitions could be enhanced by updating to TL-UAV and still utilize existing launch platforms with standard propellant detonation firing methods. The ability to actively control the flight path and extend range of a TL-UAV requires multiple onboard systems which need to be identified, integrated, assembled, and tested to meet cooperative function requirements. The main systems, for a mortar-based TL-UAV being developed at West Virginia University (WVU), are considered to be a central hub to process information, aerodynamic control devices, flight sensors, a video camera system, power management, and a wireless transceiver.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Wing Stowing Designs Focused on Increased Continuous Payload Volume for Projectile Applications

2011-10-18
2011-01-2782
West Virginia University's Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department is studying the benefits of continuous payload volume in transforming projectiles. Continuous payload volume is the single largest vacancy in a vehicle that may be utilized. Currently there is a market for transforming projectiles, which are gun launched (or tube launched) vehicles stowed in an initial configuration; which deploy wings once exiting the launcher to become small unmanned aircraft. WVU's proposed design uses a helical hinge, which allows the wing sections to be externally stowed outside the UAV's fuselage. Additionally, the design positions the vehicles wing sections sub-bore (or smaller than the guns internal diameter), and flush (smooth and planer) to the surface of the fuselage. The typical transforming winged projectile design considered, stores its wing sections along the center axis of the fuselage. This bisects the payload space and limits the continuous payload carrying potential.
Technical Paper

Development of A Microwave Assisted Regeneration System for A Ceramic Diesel Particulate System

1999-10-25
1999-01-3565
Specific aspects of a study aimed at developing a microwave assisted regeneration system for diesel particulate traps are discussed. Results from thermal and microwave characteristic studies carried out in the initial phase of the study are reported. The critical parameters that need to be optimized, for achieving controlled regeneration, are microwave preheating time period, regenerative air supply, regenerative air temperature, and soot deposition. Using a 1000 W magnetron, power measurements were made to select the best waveguide configuration for optimized transmission. A six cylinder naturally aspirated, indirect injection diesel engine was retrofitted with a customized exhaust system that included a Corning EX80 (5.66″ × 6.00″) type ceramic particulate trap. An automated exhaust bypass system enabled trap loading and subsequent regeneration with a customized microwave regeneration system. The paper discusses the salient details of both on-line and off-line regeneration setups.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emission Measurements from Trucks and Buses using Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3525
Emissions from trucks and buses equipped with Caterpillar dual-fuel natural gas (DFNG) engines were measured at two chassis dynamometer facilities: the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Laboratory and the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA MTA). Emissions were measured over four different driving cycles. The average emissions from the trucks and buses using DFNG engines operating in dual-fuel mode showed the same trends in all tests - reduced oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and increased hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions - when compared to similar diesel trucks and buses. The extent of NOx reduction was dependent on the type of test cycle used.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element Modeling Approach for Stability Analysis of Partially Filled Tanker Trucks

1999-11-15
1999-01-3708
The rollover threshold for a partially filled tanker truck carrying fluid cargo is of great importance due to the catastrophic nature of accidents involving such vehicles, particularly when payloads are toxic and flammable. In this paper, a method for determining the threshold of rollover stability of a specific tanker truck is presented using finite element analysis methods. This approach allows the consideration of many variables which had not been fully incorporated in past models, including nonlinear spring behavior and tank flexibility. The program uses simple mechanical pendulums to simulate the fluid sloshing affects, beam elements to match the torsional and bending stiffness of the tank, and spring damper elements to simulate the suspension. The finite element model of the tanker truck has been validated using data taken by the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center (ATC) on a M916A1 tractor/ Etnyre model 60PRS 6000 gallon trailer combination.
Technical Paper

Review of Parameters Affecting Stability of Partially Filled Heavy-Duty Tankers

1999-11-15
1999-01-3709
Partially filled tanker trucks are susceptible to rollover instabilities due to fluid sloshing. Due to the catastrophic nature of accidents involving the rollover of tanker trucks, several investigations have been conducted on the parameters affecting stability of partially filled heavy-duty tankers. Since stability of heavy-duty tankers undergoing on-road maneuvers such as braking, and/or lane changing has been an issue that concerned many researchers for a long time, a literature review has been conducted which underlines the most important contributions in this field. This review covers work done in the field of fluid-structure interaction, yaw and roll stability of heavy-vehicles, and fluid-vehicle dynamic interaction. In addition, vehicle stability issues are addressed such as jack-knifing, side slipping, vehicle geometry and container geometry among others.
Technical Paper

Mutagenic Potential of Particulate Matter from Diesel Engine Operation on Fischer-Tropsch Fuel as a Function of Engine Operating Conditions and Particle Size

2002-05-06
2002-01-1699
Further growth of diesel engines in the light-duty and heavy-duty vehicular market is closely linked to the potential health risks of diesel exhaust. The California Air Resources Board and the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment have identified diesel exhaust as a toxic air contaminant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that diesel particulate is a probable human carcinogen [1]. Cleaner burning liquid fuels, such as those derived from natural gas via the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, offer a potentially economically viable alternative to standard diesel fuel while providing reduced particulate emissions. Further understanding of FT operation may be realized by investigating the differences in toxicity and potential health effects between particulate matter(PM) derived from FT fuel and that derived from standard Federal diesel No. 2 (DF).
Technical Paper

Measurement of Brake-specific NOX Emissions using Zirconia Sensors for In-use, On-board Heavy-duty Vehicle Applications

2002-05-06
2002-01-1755
Emissions tests for heavy -duty diesel-fueled engines and vehicles are normally performed using engine dynamometers and chassis dynamometers, respectively, with laboratory grade gaseous concentration measurement analyzers and supporting test equipment. However, a considerable effort has been recently expended on developing in-use, on-board tools to measure brake-specific emissions from heavy -duty vehicles with the highest degree of accuracy and precision. This alternative testing methodology would supplement the emissions data that is collected from engine and chassis dynamometer tests. The on-board emissions testing methodology entails actively recording emissions and vehicle operating parameters (engine speed and load, vehicle speed etc.) from vehicles while they are operating on the road. This paper focuses on in-use measurements of NOX with zirconium oxide sensors and other portable NOX detectors.
Technical Paper

Development and Initial Use of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Test Schedule for Emissions Characterization

2002-05-06
2002-01-1753
In characterizing the emissions from mobile sources, it is essential that the vehicle be exercised in a way that reasonably represents typical in-use behavior. A heavy-heavy duty diesel truck (HHDDT) test schedule was developed from speed-time data gathered during two Air Resources Board-sponsored truck activity programs. The data were divided into four modes, termed Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise Modes, in order of increasing speed. For the last three modes, speed-time schedules were created that represented all the data in that mode. Statistical parameters such as average speed, stops per unit distance, kinetic energy, maximum speed and acceleration and deceleration values were considered in arriving at these schedules. The schedules were evaluated using two Class 8 over-the-road tractors on a chassis dynamometer. Emissions were measured using a full-scale dilution tunnel, filtration for particulate matter (PM), and research grade analyzers for the gases.
Technical Paper

Determination of In-Use Brake-Specific Emissions from Off-Road Equipment Powered by Mechanically Controlled Diesel Engines

2002-05-06
2002-01-1756
Exhaust emissions from off-highway diesel engines are a significant contributor of both oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) to air inventories. Yet, emissions research activities aimed solely at the off-highway arena have been minimal - largely overshadowed by the extensive efforts directed toward the on-highway sector. However, with current trends indicating that the performance of these off-highway vehicles will become increasingly more scrutinized by federal regulatory agencies, augmentation of current research efforts will be necessary. The global objective for this study was to collect vehicle activity information for diesel-powered off-highway vehicles while they were operated in the field. Engine speed and raw exhaust CO2 concentrations were recorded and then used to create engine dynamometer test cycles. The engine was exercised according to these cycles in the laboratory so that the mass emissions rates of exhaust gas pollutants could be measured.
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