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Technical Paper

Diesel and CNG Transit Bus Emissions Characterization by Two Chassis Dynamometer Laboratories: Results and Issues

1999-05-03
1999-01-1469
Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found that oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses. It was observed that by varying the rapidity of pedal movement during accelerations in the Central Business District cycle (CBD), CO and PM emissions from the diesel buses could be varied by a factor of three or more.
Technical Paper

Reduction of PM Emissions from Refuse Trucks through Retrofit of Diesel Particulate Filters

2003-05-19
2003-01-1887
Diesel particulate matter emissions, because they do not disperse as readily gaseous emissions, have a very localized effect and eventually settle to the ground not far from where they were emitted. One subset of heavy-duty diesel vehicles that warrant further attention for controlling particulate emissions matter is sanitation trucks. Cummins Inc. and West Virginia University investigated particulate emissions reduction technologies for New York City Department of Sanitation refuse trucks under the EPA Consent Decree program. Regulated emissions were measured on four retrofitted sanitation trucks with and without the DPF installed. Cummins engines powered all of the retrofitted trucks. The Engelhard DPX reduced PM emissions by 97% and 84% on the New York Garbage Truck Cycle (NYGTC) and Orange County Refuse Truck Cycle (OCRTC) respectively. The Johnson-Matthey CRT system reduced PM emissions by 81% and 87% over the NYGTC and OCRTC respectively.
Technical Paper

Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from a Class-8 Heavy-duty Diesel Truck Tested in a Wind Tunnel

2003-05-19
2003-01-1894
In an effort to develop engine/vehicle test methods that will reflect real-world emission characteristics, West Virginia University (WVU) designed and conducted a study on a Class-8 tractor with an electronically controlled diesel engine that was mounted on a chassis dynamometer in the Old Dominion University Langley full-scale wind tunnel. With wind speeds set at 88 km/hr in the tunnel, and the tractor operating at 88 km/hr on the chassis dynamometer, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was employed for measuring PM size distributions and concentrations. The SMPS was housed in a container that was attached to a three-axis gantry in the wind tunnel. Background PM size-distributions were measured with another SMPS unit that was located upstream of the truck plume. Ambient temperatures were recorded at each of the sampling locations. The truck was also operated through transient tests with vehicle speeds varying from 65 to 88 km/hr, with a wind speed of 76 km/hr.
Technical Paper

HEAVY DUTY VEHICLE EXHAUST PLUME STUDY IN THE NASA/LANGLEY WIND TUNNEL

2003-05-19
2003-01-1895
Concern over health effects associated with diesel exhaust and debate over the influence of high number counts of particles in diesel exhaust prompted research to develop a methodology for diesel particulate matter (PM) characterization. As part of this program, a tractor truck with an electronically managed diesel engine and a dynamometer were installed in the Old Dominion University (ODU) Langley full-scale wind tunnel. This arrangement permitted repeat measurements of diesel exhaust under realistic and reproducible conditions and permitted examination of the steady exhaust plume at multiple points. Background particle size distribution was characterized using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). In addition, a remote sampling system consisting of a SMPS, PM filter arrangement, and carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer, was attached to a roving gantry allowing for exhaust plume sampling in a three dimensional grid. Raw exhaust CO2 levels and truck performance data were also measured.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Correlation Study Using Linear Regression of PM and NOX for Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-1618
When heavy-duty truck emissions rates are expressed in distance-specific units (such as g/mile), average speed and the degree of transient behavior of the vehicle activity can affect the emissions rate. Previous one-dimensional studies have shown some correlation of distance-specific emissions rates between cycles. This paper reviews emissions data sets from the 5-mode CARB Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) Schedule, the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and an inspection and maintenance cycle, known as the AC5080. A heavy-duty chassis dynamometer was used for emissions characterization along with a full-scale dilution tunnel. The vehicle test weights were simulated at 56,000 lbs. Two-dimensional correlations were used to predict the emissions rate on one mode or cycle from the rates of two other modes or cycles.
Technical Paper

Development of A Microwave Assisted Regeneration System for A Ceramic Diesel Particulate System

1999-10-25
1999-01-3565
Specific aspects of a study aimed at developing a microwave assisted regeneration system for diesel particulate traps are discussed. Results from thermal and microwave characteristic studies carried out in the initial phase of the study are reported. The critical parameters that need to be optimized, for achieving controlled regeneration, are microwave preheating time period, regenerative air supply, regenerative air temperature, and soot deposition. Using a 1000 W magnetron, power measurements were made to select the best waveguide configuration for optimized transmission. A six cylinder naturally aspirated, indirect injection diesel engine was retrofitted with a customized exhaust system that included a Corning EX80 (5.66″ × 6.00″) type ceramic particulate trap. An automated exhaust bypass system enabled trap loading and subsequent regeneration with a customized microwave regeneration system. The paper discusses the salient details of both on-line and off-line regeneration setups.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emission Measurements from Trucks and Buses using Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3525
Emissions from trucks and buses equipped with Caterpillar dual-fuel natural gas (DFNG) engines were measured at two chassis dynamometer facilities: the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Laboratory and the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA MTA). Emissions were measured over four different driving cycles. The average emissions from the trucks and buses using DFNG engines operating in dual-fuel mode showed the same trends in all tests - reduced oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and increased hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions - when compared to similar diesel trucks and buses. The extent of NOx reduction was dependent on the type of test cycle used.
Technical Paper

Review of Parameters Affecting Stability of Partially Filled Heavy-Duty Tankers

1999-11-15
1999-01-3709
Partially filled tanker trucks are susceptible to rollover instabilities due to fluid sloshing. Due to the catastrophic nature of accidents involving the rollover of tanker trucks, several investigations have been conducted on the parameters affecting stability of partially filled heavy-duty tankers. Since stability of heavy-duty tankers undergoing on-road maneuvers such as braking, and/or lane changing has been an issue that concerned many researchers for a long time, a literature review has been conducted which underlines the most important contributions in this field. This review covers work done in the field of fluid-structure interaction, yaw and roll stability of heavy-vehicles, and fluid-vehicle dynamic interaction. In addition, vehicle stability issues are addressed such as jack-knifing, side slipping, vehicle geometry and container geometry among others.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element Modeling Approach for Stability Analysis of Partially Filled Tanker Trucks

1999-11-15
1999-01-3708
The rollover threshold for a partially filled tanker truck carrying fluid cargo is of great importance due to the catastrophic nature of accidents involving such vehicles, particularly when payloads are toxic and flammable. In this paper, a method for determining the threshold of rollover stability of a specific tanker truck is presented using finite element analysis methods. This approach allows the consideration of many variables which had not been fully incorporated in past models, including nonlinear spring behavior and tank flexibility. The program uses simple mechanical pendulums to simulate the fluid sloshing affects, beam elements to match the torsional and bending stiffness of the tank, and spring damper elements to simulate the suspension. The finite element model of the tanker truck has been validated using data taken by the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center (ATC) on a M916A1 tractor/ Etnyre model 60PRS 6000 gallon trailer combination.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

1999-05-03
1999-01-1512
Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Soot Contaminated Oils to Wear-Part II

1999-05-03
1999-01-1519
Diesel soot interacts with the engine oil and leads to wear of engine parts. Engine oil additives play a crucial role in preventing wear by forming the anti-wear film between the wearing surfaces. The current study was aimed at investigating the interactions between engine soot and oil properties in order to develop high performance oils for diesel engines equipped with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). The effect of soot contaminated oil on wear of engine components was examined using a statistically designed experiment. To quantitatively analyze and simulate the extent of wear a three-body wear machine was designed and developed. The qualitative wear analysis was performed by examining the wear scars on an AISI 52100 stainless steel ball worn in the presence of oil test samples on a ball-on-flat disc setup. The three oil properties studied were base stock, dispersant level and zinc dithiophosphate level.
Technical Paper

Correlation Study of PM and NOx for Heavy-Duty Vehicles Across Multiple Drive Schedules

2004-10-25
2004-01-3022
When heavy-duty truck emissions are expressed in distance-specific units (such as g/mile), the values may depend strongly on the nature of the test cycle or schedule. Prior studies have compared emissions gained using different schedules and have proposed techniques for translating emissions factor rates between schedules. This paper reviews emissions data from the 5-mode CARB HHDDT Schedule, UDDS Schedule, and a steady-state cycle (AC5080), with reference to each other. NOX and PM emissions are the two components of emissions which are reviewed. A heavy-duty chassis dynamometer was used for emissions characterization along with a full scale dilution tunnel. The vehicle test weights were simulated at 30,000 lbs, 56,000 lbs, and 66,000 lbs. For each vehicle, average data from one mode or cycle have been compared with average data for a different mode or cycle.
Technical Paper

Examination of a Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Chassis Dynamometer Schedule

2004-10-25
2004-01-2904
Repeatable measurement of real-world heavy-duty diesel truck emissions requires the use of a chassis dynamometer with a test schedule that reasonably represents actual truck use. A new Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) schedule has been created that consists of four modes, termed Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise. The effect of driving style on emissions from the Transient Mode was studied by driving a 400 hp Mack tractor at 56,000 lbs. test weight in fashions termed “Medium”, “Good”, “Bad”, “Casual” and “Aggressive”. Although there were noticeable differences in the actual speed vs. time trace for these five styles, emissions of the important species oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM), varied little with a coefficient of variation (COV) of 5.13% on NOX and 10.68% on PM. Typical NOx values for the HHDDT Transient mode ranged from 19.9 g/mile to 22.75 g/mile. The Transient mode which was the most difficult mode to drive, proved to be repeatable.
Technical Paper

Creation and Evaluation of a Medium Heavy-Duty Truck Test Cycle

2003-10-27
2003-01-3284
The California Air Resources Board (ARB) developed a Medium Heavy-Duty Truck (MHDT) schedule by selecting and joining microtrips from real-world MHDT. The MHDT consisted of three modes; namely, a Lower Speed Transient, a Higher Speed Transient, and a Cruise mode. The maximum speeds of these modes were 28.9, 58.2 and 66.0 mph, respectively. Each mode represented statistically selected truck behavior patterns in California. The MHDT is intended to be applied to emissions characterization of trucks (14,001 to 33,000lb gross vehicle weight) exercised on a chassis dynamometer. This paper presents the creation of the MHDT and an examination of repeatability of emissions data from MHDT driven through this schedule. Two trucks were procured to acquire data using the MHDT schedule. The first, a GMC truck with an 8.2-liter Isuzu engine and a standard transmission, was tested at laden weight (90% GVW, 17,550lb) and at unladen weight (50% GVW, 9,750lb).
Technical Paper

Comparison of Heavy-Duty Truck Diesel Particulate Matter Measurement:TEOM and Traditional Filter

2005-05-11
2005-01-2153
The Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) measures captured particle mass continuously on a small filter held on an oscillating element. In addition to traditional filter-based particulate matter (PM) measurement, a TEOM was used to characterize PM from the dilute exhaust of trucks examined in two phases (Phase 1.5 and Phase 2) of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Inventory Project E-55/E-59. Test schedules employed were the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) test schedule that consists of four modes (Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise), the HHDDT Short (HHDDT_S) which represents high-speed freeway operation, and the Heavy-Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). TEOM results were on average 6% lower than those from traditional particulate filter weighing. Data (in units of g/cycle) were examined by plotting cycle-averaged TEOM mass against filter mass. Regression (R2) values for these plots were from 0.88 to 0.99.
Technical Paper

Number Concentration and Size Distributions of Nanoparticle Emissions during Low Temperature Combustion using Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1588
Due to tightening emission legislations, both within the US and Europe, including concerns regarding greenhouse gases, next-generation combustion strategies for internal combustion diesel engines that simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions while improving thermal efficiency have drawn increasing attention during recent years. In-cylinder combustion temperature plays a critical role in the formation of pollutants as well as in thermal efficiency of the propulsion system. One way to minimize both soot and NOx emissions is to limit the in-cylinder temperature during the combustion process by means of high levels of dilution via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) combined with flexible fuel injection strategies. However, fuel chemistry plays a significant role in the ignition delay; hence, influencing the overall combustion characteristics and the resulting emissions.
Technical Paper

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of MY 2010 Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Measured Over a Cross-Continental Trip of USA

2013-09-08
2013-24-0170
The study was aimed at assessing in-use emissions of a USEPA 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle powered by a model year (MY) 2011 engine using West Virginia University's Transportable Emissions Measurement System (TEMS). The TEMS houses full-scale CVS dilution tunnel and laboratory-grade emissions measurement systems, which are compliant with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 40, Part 1065 [1] emissions measurement specifications. One of the specific objectives of the study, and the key topic of this paper, is the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) along with ammonia (NH3) and regulated emissions during real-world operation of a long-haul heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system for PM and NOx reduction, respectively.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Operate in Methane/Diesel Dual-Fuel Mode

2013-09-08
2013-24-0181
The need for a cleaner and less expensive alternative energy source to conventional petroleum fuels for powering the transportation sector has gained increasing attention during the past decade. Special attention has been directed towards natural gas (NG) which has proven to be a viable option due to its clean-burning properties, reduced cost and abundant availability, and therefore, lead to a steady increase in the worldwide vehicle population operated with NG. The heavy-duty vehicle sector has seen the introduction of natural gas first in larger, locally operated fleets, such as transit buses or refuse-haulers. However, with increasing expansion of the NG distribution network more drayage and long-haul fleets are beginning to adopt natural gas as a fuel.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter Emissions from Different Aftertreatment Technologies in a Wind Tunnel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0175
Stringent emission regulations have forced drastic technological improvements in diesel after treatment systems, particularly in reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. Those improvements generally regard the use of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and lately also the use of Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) systems along with improved engine control strategies for reduction of NOx emissions from these engines. Studies that have led to these technological advancements were made in controlled laboratory environment and are not representative of real world emissions from these engines or vehicles. In addition, formation and evolution of PM from these engines are extremely sensitive to overall changes in the dilution process.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Faceted Wing Sections for Low Reynolds Number Applications

2013-09-17
2013-01-2097
This paper documents the numerical and experimental investigation of a new type of wing section being developed at West Virginia University that shows good potential for use in wings in low Reynolds number flows. These wing sections have been designed with a minimum number of flat sides, or facets, which are arranged in such a way as to promote flow over the surface similar to traditional smooth airfoil shapes, but without the complexity of the typically highly contoured airfoil form. 2D numerical techniques have been employed to determine appropriate geometric limitations of the wing section facets, and finite span wings comprised of these faceted wing sections have been tested in wind tunnels in wing-only and wing-plus-body configurations to determine their basic aerodynamic performance. The latest results of these efforts, as well as some speculation as to the mechanisms at work are presented.
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