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Technical Paper

Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Operate in Methane/Diesel Dual-Fuel Mode

2013-09-08
2013-24-0181
The need for a cleaner and less expensive alternative energy source to conventional petroleum fuels for powering the transportation sector has gained increasing attention during the past decade. Special attention has been directed towards natural gas (NG) which has proven to be a viable option due to its clean-burning properties, reduced cost and abundant availability, and therefore, lead to a steady increase in the worldwide vehicle population operated with NG. The heavy-duty vehicle sector has seen the introduction of natural gas first in larger, locally operated fleets, such as transit buses or refuse-haulers. However, with increasing expansion of the NG distribution network more drayage and long-haul fleets are beginning to adopt natural gas as a fuel.
Technical Paper

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of MY 2010 Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Measured Over a Cross-Continental Trip of USA

2013-09-08
2013-24-0170
The study was aimed at assessing in-use emissions of a USEPA 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle powered by a model year (MY) 2011 engine using West Virginia University's Transportable Emissions Measurement System (TEMS). The TEMS houses full-scale CVS dilution tunnel and laboratory-grade emissions measurement systems, which are compliant with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 40, Part 1065 [1] emissions measurement specifications. One of the specific objectives of the study, and the key topic of this paper, is the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) along with ammonia (NH3) and regulated emissions during real-world operation of a long-haul heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system for PM and NOx reduction, respectively.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter Emissions from Different Aftertreatment Technologies in a Wind Tunnel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0175
Stringent emission regulations have forced drastic technological improvements in diesel after treatment systems, particularly in reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. Those improvements generally regard the use of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and lately also the use of Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) systems along with improved engine control strategies for reduction of NOx emissions from these engines. Studies that have led to these technological advancements were made in controlled laboratory environment and are not representative of real world emissions from these engines or vehicles. In addition, formation and evolution of PM from these engines are extremely sensitive to overall changes in the dilution process.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Heavy-Duty Truck Diesel Particulate Matter Measurement:TEOM and Traditional Filter

2005-05-11
2005-01-2153
The Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) measures captured particle mass continuously on a small filter held on an oscillating element. In addition to traditional filter-based particulate matter (PM) measurement, a TEOM was used to characterize PM from the dilute exhaust of trucks examined in two phases (Phase 1.5 and Phase 2) of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Inventory Project E-55/E-59. Test schedules employed were the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) test schedule that consists of four modes (Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise), the HHDDT Short (HHDDT_S) which represents high-speed freeway operation, and the Heavy-Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). TEOM results were on average 6% lower than those from traditional particulate filter weighing. Data (in units of g/cycle) were examined by plotting cycle-averaged TEOM mass against filter mass. Regression (R2) values for these plots were from 0.88 to 0.99.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Correlation Study Using Linear Regression of PM and NOX for Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-1618
When heavy-duty truck emissions rates are expressed in distance-specific units (such as g/mile), average speed and the degree of transient behavior of the vehicle activity can affect the emissions rate. Previous one-dimensional studies have shown some correlation of distance-specific emissions rates between cycles. This paper reviews emissions data sets from the 5-mode CARB Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) Schedule, the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and an inspection and maintenance cycle, known as the AC5080. A heavy-duty chassis dynamometer was used for emissions characterization along with a full-scale dilution tunnel. The vehicle test weights were simulated at 56,000 lbs. Two-dimensional correlations were used to predict the emissions rate on one mode or cycle from the rates of two other modes or cycles.
Technical Paper

Number Concentration and Size Distributions of Nanoparticle Emissions during Low Temperature Combustion using Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1588
Abstract Due to tightening emission legislations, both within the US and Europe, including concerns regarding greenhouse gases, next-generation combustion strategies for internal combustion diesel engines that simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions while improving thermal efficiency have drawn increasing attention during recent years. In-cylinder combustion temperature plays a critical role in the formation of pollutants as well as in thermal efficiency of the propulsion system. One way to minimize both soot and NOx emissions is to limit the in-cylinder temperature during the combustion process by means of high levels of dilution via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) combined with flexible fuel injection strategies. However, fuel chemistry plays a significant role in the ignition delay; hence, influencing the overall combustion characteristics and the resulting emissions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Faceted Wing Sections for Low Reynolds Number Applications

2013-09-17
2013-01-2097
This paper documents the numerical and experimental investigation of a new type of wing section being developed at West Virginia University that shows good potential for use in wings in low Reynolds number flows. These wing sections have been designed with a minimum number of flat sides, or facets, which are arranged in such a way as to promote flow over the surface similar to traditional smooth airfoil shapes, but without the complexity of the typically highly contoured airfoil form. 2D numerical techniques have been employed to determine appropriate geometric limitations of the wing section facets, and finite span wings comprised of these faceted wing sections have been tested in wind tunnels in wing-only and wing-plus-body configurations to determine their basic aerodynamic performance. The latest results of these efforts, as well as some speculation as to the mechanisms at work are presented.
Journal Article

A De-Spin and Wings-Leveling Controller for a 40 mm Hybrid Projectile

2013-09-17
2013-01-2262
A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is a round that transforms into a UAV after being launched. Some HP's are fired from a rifled barrel and must be de-spun and wings-level for lifting surfaces to be deployed. Control surfaces and controllers for de-spinning and wings-leveling were required for initial design of an HP 40 mm. Wings, used as lifting surfaces after transformation, need to be very close to level with the ground when deployed. First, the tail surface area needed to de-spin a 40 mm HP was examined analytically and simulated. Next, a controller was developed to maintain a steady de-spin rate and to roll-level the projectile in preparation of wing deployment. The controller was split into two pieces, one to control de-spin, and the other for roll-leveling the projectile. An adaptable transition point for switching controllers was identified analytically and then adjusted by using simulations.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Projectile Transformation Condition Detection System for Extended Selectable Range

2013-09-17
2013-01-2203
A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is a tube launched munition that transforms into a gliding UAV, and is currently being researched at West Virginia University. In order to properly transform, the moment of transformation needs to be controlled. A simple timer was first envisioned to control transformation point for maximum distance. The distance travelled or range of an HP can directly be modified by varying the launch angle. In addition, an internal timer would need to be reprogrammed for any distance less than maximum range due to the nominal time to deployment varying with launch angle. A method was sought for automatic wing deployment that would not require reprogramming the round. A body angle estimation system was used to estimate the pitch of the HP relative to the Earth to determine when the HP is properly oriented for the designed glide slope angle. It also filters out noise from an inertial measurement unit (IMU).
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Blend Emissions of a 2007 Medium Heavy Duty Diesel Truck

2010-10-05
2010-01-1968
Biodiesel may be derived from either plant or animal sources, and is usually employed as a compression ignition fuel in a blend with petroleum diesel (PD). Emissions differences between vehicles operated on biodiesel blends and on diesel have been published previously, but data do not cover the latest engine technologies. Prior studies have shown that biodiesel offers advantages in reducing particulate matter, with either no advantage or a slight disadvantage for oxides of nitrogen emissions. This paper describes a recent study on the emissions impact of two biodiesel blends B20A, made from 20% animal fat (tallow) biodiesel and 80% PD, and B20B, obtained from 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% PD. These blends used the same PD fuel for blending and were contrasted with the same PD fuel as a reference. The research was conducted on a 2007 medium heavy-duty diesel truck (MHDDT), with an engine equipped with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Comparative Emissions from Diesel and Biodiesel Fueled Buses from 2002 to 2008 Model Years

2010-10-05
2010-01-1967
Fuel economy and regulated emissions were measured from eight forty-foot transit buses operated on petroleum diesel and a “B20” blend of 80% diesel fuel and 20% biodiesel by volume. Use of biodiesel is attractive to displace petroleum fuel and reduce an operation's carbon footprint. Usually it is assumed that biodiesel will also reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to those of petroleum diesel. Model years of the vehicles evaluated were newer 2007-08 Gillig low-floor buses, 2005 Gillig Phantom buses, and a 2002 Gillig Phantom bus. Engine technology represented three different emissions standards, and included buses with OEM diesel particulate filters. Each bus was evaluated using two transient speed-time schedules, the Orange County Transit Authority (OCTA) driving schedule which represents moderate speed urban/suburban operation and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) which represents a mix of suburban and higher speed on-highway operation.
Technical Paper

Transient Response in a Dynamometer Power Absorption System

1992-02-01
920252
In order to obtain meaningful analyses of exhaust gas emissions and fuel economy for a heavy duty vehicle from a chassis dynamometer, the accurate simulation of road load characteristics is crucial. The adjusted amount of power to be absorbed by the chassis dynamometer during road driving of the tested vehicle needs to be calculated. In this paper, the performance of the chassis dynamometer under transient load cycle operations is discussed and the transient response of the power absorption system is presented. In addition, the design criteria of the chassis dynamometer used to test heavy duty vehicles under steady and transient load is described.
Technical Paper

Speciation of Heavy Duty Diesel Exhaust Emissions under Steady State Operating Conditions

1996-10-01
962159
Abstract This paper presents results from a study on speciation of the emission profiles and on the ozone forming potential of heavy-duty diesel exhaust under steady state engine operation. Very limited attempts have been made at determining the ozone forming potential of heavy duty diesel exhaust emissions. In this study a proportional sample of the dilute exhaust was drawn from a CFV-CVS system using a temperature controlled sampling line. The particulate matter was collected on a 70 mm Teflon coated glass fiber filter (TX40HI20WW), the semi-volatiles on XAD-2 copolymer resin and volatiles in Tedlar bags. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography after conditioning and chemical extractions. The initial phase of the study was directed towards developing techniques and establishing protocols to determine the ozone forming potential of heavy-duty diesel exhaust. A pre-chamber naturally aspirated engine was tested on steady-state modes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 of the ISO 8 mode cycle.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Bus Emissions: Review and Recent Data

1997-11-17
973203
Natural Gas engines are viewed as an alternative to diesel power in the quest to reduce heavy duty vehicle emissions in polluted urban areas. In particular, it is acknowledged that natural gas has the potential to reduce the inventory of particulate matter, and this has encouraged the use of natural gas engines in transit bus applications. Extensive data on natural gas and diesel bus emissions have been gathered using two Transportable Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratories, that employ chassis dynamometers to simulate bus inertia and road load. Most of the natural gas buses tested prior to 1997 were powered by Cummins L-10 engines, which were lean-burn and employed a mechanical mixer for fuel introduction. The Central Business District (CBD) cycle was used as the test schedule.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from In-Use Heavy Duty Vehicles Tested on a Transportable Transient Chassis Dynamometer

1992-11-01
922436
Exhaust gas composition and particulate matter emission levels were obtained from in-use heavy duty transit buses powered by 6V-92TA engines with different fuels. Vehicles discussed in this study were pulled out of revenue service for a day, in Phoenix, AZ, Pittsburgh, PA and New York, NY and tested on the Transportable Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory employing a transient chassis dynamometer. All the vehicles, with engine model years ranging from 1982 to 1992, were operated on the Federal Transit Administration Central Business District Cycle. Significant reductions in particulate matter emissions were observed in the 1990-1992 model year vehicles equipped with the trap oxidizer systems. Testing vehicles under conditions that represent “real world” situations confirmed the fact brought to light that emission levels are highly dependent upon the maintenance and operating conditions of the engines.
Technical Paper

A Study of Emissions from CNG and Diesel Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

1993-10-01
932826
The West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory was employed to conduct chassis dynamometer tests in the field to measure the exhaust emissions from heavy-duty buses and trucks. This laboratory began operation in the field in January, 1992. During the period January, 1992 through June, 1993, over 150 city buses, trucks, and tractors operated by 18 different authorities in 11 states were tested by the facility. The tested vehicles were powered by 14 different types of engines fueled with natural gas (CNG or LNG), methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas (LPG), #2 diesel, and low sulfur diesel (#1 diesel or Jet A). Some of the tested vehicles were equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems. In this paper, a total of 12 CNG-fueled and #2 diesel-fueled transit buses equipped with Cummins L-10 engines, were chosen for investigation.
Technical Paper

Emissions Comparisons of Twenty-Six Heavy-Duty Vehicles Operated on Conventional and Alternative Fuels

1993-11-01
932952
Gaseous and particulate emissions from heavy-duty vehicles are affected by fuel types, vehicle/engine parameters, driving characteristics, and environmental conditions. Transient chassis tests were conducted on twenty-six heavy-duty vehicles fueled with methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), #1 diesel, and #2 diesel, using West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory. The vehicles were operated on the central business district (CBD) testing cycle, and regulated emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) were measured. Comparisons of regulated emissions results revealed that the vehicles powered on methanol and CNG produced much lower particulate emissions than the conventionally fueled vehicles.
Technical Paper

Use of the West Virginia University Truck Test Cycle to Evaluate Emissions from Class 8 Trucks

1995-02-01
951016
Emissions from light duty vehicles have traditionally been measured using a chassis dynamometer, while heavy duty testing has been based on engine dynamometers. However, the need for in-use vehicle emissions data has led to the development of two transportable heavy duty chassis dynamometers capable of testing buses and heavy trucks. A test cycle has been developed for Class 8 trucks, which typically have unsyncronized transmissions. This test cycle has five peaks, each consisting of an acceleration, cruise period, and deceleration, with speeds and acceleration requirements that can be met by virtually all vehicles in common service. Termed the “WVU 5 peak truck test”, this 8 km (5 mile) cycle has been used to evaluate the emissions from diesel and ethanol powered over-the-road tractors and from diesel and ethanol powered snow plows, all with Detroit Diesel 6V92 engines.
Technical Paper

Sampling Strategies for Characterization of the Reactive Components of Heavy Duty Diesel Exhaust Emissions

1994-11-01
942262
Techniques have been developed to sample and speciate dilute heavy duty diesel exhaust to determine the specific reactivities and the ozone forming potential. While the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) has conducted a comprehensive investigation to develop data on potential improvements in vehicle emissions and air quality from reformulated gasoline and various other alternative fuels. However, the development of sampling protocols and speciation of heavy duty diesel exhaust is still in its infancy [1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6]. This paper focuses on the first phase of the heavy duty diesel speciation program, that involves the development of a unique set of sampling protocols for the gas phase, semi-volatile and particulate matter from the exhaust of engines operating on different types of diesel fuel. Effects of sampling trains, sampling temperatures, semi-volatile adsorbents and driving cycles are being investigated.
Technical Paper

Respirable Particulate Genotoxicant Distribution in Diesel Exhaust and Mine Atmospheres

1992-09-01
921752
Results of a research effort directed towards identifying and measuring the genotoxic properties of respirable particulate matter involved in mining exposures, especially those which may synergistically affect genotoxic hazard, are presented. Particulate matter emissions from a direct injection diesel engine have been sampled and assayed to determine the genotoxic potential as a function of engine operating conditions. Diesel exhaust from a Caterpillar 3304 diesel engine, representative of the ones found in underground mines, rated 100 hp at 2200 rpm is diluted in a multi-tube mini-dilution tunnel and the particulate matter is collected on 70 mm fluorocarbon coated glass fiber filters as well as on 8″ x 10″ hi-volume filters. A six mode steady state duty cycle was used to relate engine operating conditions to the genotoxic potential.
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