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Technical Paper

Off-normal Situations Related to the Operation of the Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System aboard the International Space Station

The Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System (OGS) is a main source of oxygen for crew breathing on the International Space Station (ISS) and the result of updating the Electron-V OGS that has been in successful operation for 17 years on Mir Space Station. The successful accomplishment of a manned flight program primarily has resulted in the stable operation of the system. The paper deals with analysis of off-normal situations related to the operation of the Electron-VM on board ISS. The system switching-off analysis based on the telemetry information processing and the results of the additional tests conducted under flight and ground conditions is performed. A principal cause of system switching-offs is a reduction in the pressure built by the circulating pumps due to ingress of gas bubbles into the suction pipeline. The results of the Electron-VM OGS switching-off analysis and the practical recommendations regarding its prevention are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Development and Operation of Separation and Heat-Transfer Equipment of Water Recovery Systems for Space Stations

The paper deals with description and results of long-term operation of separation and heat-and-mass transfer hardware incorporated in Mir's water recovery systems. Static separators outfitted with hydrophilic capillary/ porous elements, a rotary separator, a through-flow condenser/static separator combination, a membrane evaporator as well as separation and distillation schematics are reviewed. Operational and life performance data are discussed and recommendations for hardware use on ISS are made.
Technical Paper

A Physico/Chemical System for Hygiene Waste Water Recovery

The paper deals with some aspects and results of research in major processes and hardware of a system for hygiene waste water recovery and its architecture concepts. A principal system schematic and its functions on Mir space station are presented. It is shown that physico-chemical means ensure cost-effective recovery with minimum energy demand and resupply which is particulary important for long-duration space missions.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Regenerative Life Support System Functioning

The paper is devoted to consideration of the possible approach to forecasting functioning physico/chemical Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) in regular and off-normal conditions of operation on the basis of methods of mathematical simulation. Prediction of RLSS functioning under operating conditions represents the special interest for the analysis of off-normal situations, caused by development of a resource or presence that or that or of the other of failure of the equipment, or change of external conditions. In the given situations working mechanisms of transfer of mass and energy change not only characteristic and modes of operations of separate apparatus, but also, in a number of cases. The given peculiarities should be taken into account at formation of the formalized descriptions of the RLSS hardware.
Technical Paper

Problems of Developing Systems for Water Reclamation from Urine for Perspective Space Stations

The paper deals with possible performance enhancement of the system for water reclamation from urine based on a principle of atmospheric distillation. It is shown by way of example using the system operating on Mir that the introduction of heat energy recuperation, an increase in heat-and-mass transfer efficiency on evaporation and the optimization of the air flowrate in the distillation cycle allow a rise in the capacity of the distillation assembly and a reduction in specific energy. The system outfitted with a rotary evaporator/separator and a thermoelectric heat pump is reviewed. The design and experimental data verify the feasibility and benefits of the system updating.
Technical Paper

Systems for Water Reclamation from Humidity Condensate and Urine for Space Station

This paper deals with water reclamation from humidity condensate and urine schematics and processes realized on orbital space stations Salut and Mir. The results of research in updated processes and schematics for condensate separation, purification and distillation with heat energy recovery are described. It is shown that the processes and hardware make possible to reduce energy demand and the weight of the water recovery systems under operation on space stations.
Technical Paper

Testing and Operation of the Purification Unit of the System for Water Recovery from Humidity Condensate (WRS-C) with a Higher Content of Organic Contaminants

The paper presents the results of ground and flight (on OSS Mir) tests of an updated purification assembly of the WRS-C system outfitted with a filter-reactor. The tests have proved that the filter-reactor oxidizes effectively basic organic contaminants in humidity condensate including ethyleneglycol to ones that easily undergo sorption, enables the operation of the recovery system in the event of an off-design increase in organic contaminants in condensate and significantly improves the lifetime of the purification assembly. The data obtained confirm a wise selection of the purification assembly hardware for the system for water recovery from humidity condensate WRS-CM for the ISS service module.
Technical Paper

A Concept of Lunar Base Regenerative Water Management System Construction

A concept of developing a regenerative water management system (RWMS) for first lunar base missions is reviewed. The principal feature of the concept proposed is the maximum possible unification of RWMS for long-duration orbiting station and a lunar base with due regard to possible modification of the hardware for lunar gravity conditions. The paper is based on the expertise in research, development, testing and flight operation of RWMS in Russia. An upgraded RWMS of the International Space Station may be used for first lunar missions.
Technical Paper

Development of Urine Processor Distillation Hardware for Space Stations

This paper describes the results of research and tests of different patterns of distillation processes for water reclamation from urine accomplished by NIICHIMMASH in cooperation with other companies. Several typical patterns of evaporation to air flow from water-retentive porous bodies, from the surface confined by capillary/porous membranes and from free liquid surface in rotary units under atmospheric and reduced pressure are analyzed. Relevant condensation processes are reviewed. Performance data for distillation unit of SS MIR system for water reclamation from urine are outlined. The paper highlights the prospects of distillation hardware development.
Technical Paper

Experience in Development and Operation of Systems for Water Recovery from Humidity Condensate for Space Stations

The paper analyzes and summarizes experience in developing and flight operation of the system for potable water recovery from humidity condensate. The system schematic and its hardware are reviewed. The system performance data on Salut and Mir space stations are presented. Succession to the development of a similar system for the International Space Station (ISS) service module is shown.