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Journal Article

Measures to Reduce Particulate Emissions from Gasoline DI engines

Particulate emission reduction has long been a challenge for diesel engines as the diesel diffusion combustion process can generate high levels of soot which is one of the main constituents of particulate matter. Gasoline engines use a pre-mixed combustion process which produces negligible levels of soot, so particulate emissions have not been an issue for gasoline engines, particularly with modern port fuel injected (PFI) engines which provide excellent mixture quality. Future European and US emissions standards will include more stringent particulate limits for gasoline engines to protect against increases in airborne particulate levels due to the more widespread use of gasoline direct injection (GDI). While GDI engines are typically more efficient than PFI engines, they emit higher particulate levels, but still meet the current particulate standards.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of Methanol Fueled Compression Ignition Engines for Passenger Cars and Light Duty Trucks

The paper describes the development of methanol fueled engines for passenger cars and light duty trucks working both on the compression ignition and glow plug assisted ignition principle. Special emphasis was laid on development and optimization of the combustion process for both the glow plug assisted and the compression ignition system, the application of the engine management system and the development of the exhaust after-treatment under steady state conditions on the engine dynamometer. The transient engine development in the test car was carried out on chassis dynamometer and under road conditions. The glow plug assisted direct injection methanol engine was in addition equipped with oxidation catalysts for this development program.
Technical Paper

The Interaction Between Diesel Fuel Density and Electronic Engine Management Systems

The influence of fuel density on exhaust emissions from diesel engines has been investigated in a number of studies and these have generally concluded that particulate emissions rise with increasing density This paper reviews recent work in this area, including the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) and reports on a complementary study conducted by CONCAWE, in cooperation with AVL List GmbH The project was carried out with a passenger car equipped with an advanced technology high speed direct injection turbocharged / intercooled diesel engine fitted with a complex engine management system which was referenced to a specific fuel density This production model featured electronic diesel control, closed loop exhaust gas recirculation and an exhaust oxidation catalyst Tests were carried out with two EPEFE fuels which excluded the influence of key fuel properties other than density (828 8 and 855 1 kg/m3) Engine operation was adjusted for changes in fuel density by resetting the electronic programmable, read-only memory to obtain the same energy output from the two test fuels In chassis dynamometer tests over the ECE15 + EUDC test cycle the major impact of fuel density on particulate emissions for advanced engine technology/engine management systems was established A large proportion of the density effect on particulate and NOx emissions was due to physical interaction between fuel density and the electronic engine management system Limited bench engine testing of the basic engine showed that nearly complete compensation of the density effect on smoke (particulate) emissions could be achieved when no advanced technology was applied
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Injection Equipment and Combustion System for DI Diesels Operated on Dimethyl Ether

The paper describes basic investigations towards identifying optimum specifications of fuel injection and combustion system parameters for a new alternative fuel, Dimethylether (DME), allowing liquid direct injection, compression ignition and smokeless combustion. Special emphasis is drawn on fuel injection equipment (FIE) parameter optimization using new development tools such as simulation techniques of the fuel system hydraulics and numerical identification methods to determine sofar unknown fuel data and flow phenomena of the new alternative fuel. Combustion system parameters are analyzed on a single cylinder test engine with respect to efficiency, gaseous emissions, and noise. Due to the particular properties of the fuel the engine parameter optimization was concentrated on new directions of system development thus allowing new solutions for FIE and combustion system, as described in this paper.