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Journal Article

Sodium Contamination of Diesel Fuel, its Interaction with Fuel Additives and the Resultant Effects on Filter Plugging and Injector Fouling

2013-10-14
2013-01-2687
Diesel fuel distilled from crude oil should contain no greater than trace amounts of sodium. However, fuel specifications do not include sodium; there is a limit of five parts per million for the amount of sodium plus potassium in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) used as biodiesel. Sodium compounds are often used as the catalyst for the esterification process for producing FAME and sodium hydroxide is now commonly used in the refining process to produce ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel from crude oil. Good housekeeping should ensure that sodium is not present in the finished fuel. A finished fuel should not only be free of sodium but should also contain a diesel fuel additive package to ensures the fuel meets the quality standards introduced to provide reliable operation, along with the longevity of the fuel supply infrastructure and the diesel engines that ultimately burn this fuel.
Journal Article

Temperature Programmed Oxidation as a Technique for Understanding Diesel Fuel System Deposits

2010-05-05
2010-01-1475
The fuel injection equipment (FIE) has always been paramount to the performance of the Diesel engine. Increasingly stringent emissions regulations have dictated that the FIE becomes more precise and sophisticated. The latest generation FIE is therefore less tolerant to deposit formation than its less finely engineered predecessors. However, the latest emissions regulations make it increasingly difficult for engine manufacturers to comply without the use of exhaust aftertreatment. This aftertreatment often relies on catalytic processes that can be impaired by non-CHON (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen) components within the fuel. Fuel producers have therefore also been obliged to make major changes to try and ensure that with the latest technology engines and aftertreatment systems the fuel is still fit for purpose. However, there has recently been a significant increase in the incidence of reported problems due to deposit build-up within vehicle fuel systems.
Technical Paper

An Investigation Into Transient Diesel Spray Development Using High Speed Imaging In A Novel Optical Pressure Chamber

2011-08-30
2011-01-1836
The fuel economy and emissions performance of a Diesel engine is strongly influenced by the fuel injection process. This paper presents early results of an experimental investigation into diesel spray development carried out in a novel in-house developed optical pressure chamber capable of operating at pressure up to 50 bar and temperatures up to 900 K. The spatial evolution of a diesel spray tends to experience many transitory macroscopic phenomena that directly influence the mixing process. These phenomena are not considered highly reproducible and are extremely short lived, hence recording and understanding these transient effects is difficult. In this study, high-speed backlight-illuminated imaging has been employed in order to capture the transient dynamics of a short signal duration diesel spray injected into incremental back pressures and temperatures reaching a maximum of 10 bar and 473 K respectively.
Journal Article

Possible Mechanism for Poor Diesel Fuel Lubricity in the Field

2012-04-16
2012-01-0867
Traditionally, diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) has frequently relied on the diesel fuel to lubricate the moving parts. When ultra low sulphur diesel fuel was first introduced into some European markets in the early 1980's it rapidly became apparent that the process of removing the sulphur also removed other components that had bestowed the lubricating properties of the diesel fuel. Diesel fuel pump failures became prevalent. The fuel additive industry responded quickly and diesel fuel lubricity additives were introduced to the market. The fuel, additive and FIE industries expended much time and effort to develop test methods and standards to try and ensure this problem was not repeated. Despite this, there have recently been reports of fuel reaching the end user with lubricating performance below the accepted standards.
Technical Paper

Insights into Deposit Formation in High Pressure Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment

2010-10-25
2010-01-2243
The need to meet the US 2007 emissions legislation has necessitated a change in Diesel engine technology, particularly to the fuel injection equipment (FIE). At the same time as these engine technology changes, legislation has dictated a reduction in fuel sulphur levels and there has also been increased use of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel as a fuel blending component. The combination of changes to the engine and the fuel has apparently led to a sharp rise in the number of reports of field problems resulting from deposits within the FIE. The problem is usually manifested as a significant loss of power or the engine failing to start. These symptoms are often due to deposits to be found within the fuel injectors or to severe fouling of the fuel filter. The characteristics of the deposits found within different parts of the fuel system can be noticeably different.
Journal Article

A Novel Technique for Investigating the Nature and Origins of Deposits Formed in High Pressure Fuel Injection Equipment

2009-11-02
2009-01-2637
Recent developments in diesel fuel injection equipment coupled with moves to using ULSD and biodiesel blends has seen an increase in the number of reports, from both engine manufacturers and fleet operators, regarding fuel system deposit issues. Preliminary work performed to characterise these deposits showed them to be complicated mixtures, predominantly carbon like but also containing other possible carbon precursor materials. This paper describes the application of the combination of hydropyrolysis, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to the analysis of these deposits. It also discusses the insights that such analysis can bring to the constitution and origin of these deposits.
Technical Paper

Possible Influence of High Injection Pressure on Diesel Fuel Stability: A Review and Preliminary Study

2009-06-15
2009-01-1878
Recent developments in diesel engines and fuel injection equipment combined with the change to ULSD and bio-blends have resulted in increased reports regarding deposits within injectors and filters. A review of known fuel degradation mechanisms and other relevant chemistries suggests the effects of high pressure and high shear environments should be examined as the most probable causes of increasing deposit formation. Existing fuel quality tests do not correlate with reported fouling propensity. Analytical studies have shown that there are only subtle chemical changes for the materials within the standard diesel boiling range. The implications for further scientific study are discussed.
Journal Article

Influence of High Injection Pressure on Diesel Fuel Stability: A Study of Resultant Deposits

2009-06-15
2009-01-1877
Recent developments in diesel engines and fuel injection equipment together with the move to ULSD and bio-blends have seen an increase in reports regarding deposits in both injectors and filters. Historically deposits have been generated from a number of sources: bio-contamination, both aerobic and non-aerobic, water contamination, lube oil adulteration, additives, dirt, metals in fuel, and biodiesel degradation. These may be ascribed to “poor housekeeping,” incorrect additivation, deliberate adulteration or some combination. However the recently observed deposits differ from these. The deposits are described and indicate possible precursor molecules that support proposed mechanisms and their ability to form filter deposits.
Technical Paper

A Novel Fuel Borne Catalyst Dosing System for Use with a Diesel Particulate Filter

2003-03-03
2003-01-0382
A novel dosing system for fuel borne catalyst (FBC), used to assist regeneration with a diesel particulate filter (DPF), has been developed. The system was designed for on-board vehicle use to overcome problems encountered with batch dosing systems. Important design features were simplicity, to minimise system cost, and the use of in-line dosing rather than batch dosing linked to tank refuelling. The paper describes the development of the dosing system which continuously doses FBC into the fuel line feeding the engine injection pump. The theoretical considerations behind the concept are explored, together with the realities imposed by fuelling regimes in which a variable proportion of the fuel flowing through the injection pump is passed back to the fuel tank. Two types of system are considered, ie where 1) FBC is added to the fuel in direct proportion to the flow rate of fuel and 2) FBC is added at a constant time-based rate.
Technical Paper

Fuel Additive Performance Evaluation for Volume Production Application of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-1286
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology is becoming increasingly established as a practical method for control of particulate emissions from diesel engines. In the year 2000, production vehicles with DPF systems, using metallic fuel additive to assist regeneration, became available in Europe. These early examples of first generation DPF technology are forerunners of more advanced systems likely to be needed by many light-duty vehicles to meet Euro IV emissions legislation scheduled for 2005. Aspects requiring attention in second generation DPF systems are a compromise between regeneration kinetics and ash accumulation. The DPF regeneration event is activated by fuel injection, either late in the combustion cycle (late injection), or after normal combustion (post injection), leading to increased fuel consumption. Therefore for optimum fuel economy, the duration of regeneration and/or the soot ignition temperature must be minimised.
Technical Paper

Operating Experience of Diesel Vehicles Equipped with Particulate Filters and Using Fuel Additive for Regeneration

2000-03-06
2000-01-0474
Work was carried out on three passenger cars and a light truck. The test vehicles were chosen to cover a range of engine technologies. Different DPF technologies were also employed. The programme showed that an improved fuel additive based on the combination of iron and strontium compounds would allow all four vehicles to be successfully operated under a wide range of conditions. The three passenger cars were driven over the road for considerable distances. Regeneration of the DPF was successfully achieved under normal operating conditions in all the vehicles without recourse to use of additional heaters, fuel injection or other technique to assist regeneration. Fuel additive treat rate was low, suggesting that long-term operation without significant ash accumulation in the DPF could be achieved.
Technical Paper

The Effect of DI Nozzle Fouling on Fuel Spray Characteristics

1992-10-01
922232
The atomisation characteristics of DI diesel engine fuel injection nozzles have been the subject of intensive study over the last decade. Much of this work has been related to clean, single hole nozzles spraying into quiescent air, at either ambient conditions or elevated pressures and temperatures. Experience shows that fuel injector nozzles may foul very rapidly in field service, and that this might have a significant effect on the performance of the engine particularly with regard to emissions. The build up of material on the injector nozzle can be controlled by the addition of suitable fuel additives. This paper describes test procedures developed to assess deposit build up and to indicate the efficacy of keep clean additives. The paper then goes on to describe high speed photographic techniques for studying the fuel spray characteristics of clean and fouled injectors in a firing engine.
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