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Development of a Variable Compression Ratio GTDI Engine with 2-Stage Turbocharging and Cooled External EGR

The benefits of adding variable compression ratio (VCR) capability to a Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) has been experimentally explored by AVL to quantify the potential efficiency improvements along with other combustion benefits and challenges. The development process is discussed along with key results showing how the combination of VCR, GDI, external cooled EGR and variable cam phasing was optimized to achieve maximum benefit. The concept demonstrates aggressive downsizing capability with BMEP levels above 40 bar BMEP with a two-stage turbocharging system on 95 RON gasoline. The iso-BSFC sweet spot was also improved with reduced BSFC over a broader operating range. The issues of knock, low speed pre-ignition, particulates and sensitivity to octane level and ambient temperature conditions were also investigated and are discussed. Engine level results are shown translated into predicted NEDU vehicle fuel economy improvements.
Journal Article

Measures to Reduce Particulate Emissions from Gasoline DI engines

Particulate emission reduction has long been a challenge for diesel engines as the diesel diffusion combustion process can generate high levels of soot which is one of the main constituents of particulate matter. Gasoline engines use a pre-mixed combustion process which produces negligible levels of soot, so particulate emissions have not been an issue for gasoline engines, particularly with modern port fuel injected (PFI) engines which provide excellent mixture quality. Future European and US emissions standards will include more stringent particulate limits for gasoline engines to protect against increases in airborne particulate levels due to the more widespread use of gasoline direct injection (GDI). While GDI engines are typically more efficient than PFI engines, they emit higher particulate levels, but still meet the current particulate standards.
Journal Article

Blowdown Interference on a V8 Twin-Turbocharged Engine

The exhaust blowdown pulse from each cylinder of a multi-cylinder engine propagates through the exhaust manifold and can affect the in-cylinder pressure of other cylinders which have open exhaust valves. Depending on the firing interval between cylinders connected to the same exhaust manifold, this blowdown interference can affect the exhaust stroke pumping work and the exhaust pressure during overlap, which in turn affects the residual fraction in those cylinders. These blowdown interference effects are much greater for a turbocharged engine than for one which is naturally aspirated because the volume of the exhaust manifolds is minimized to improve turbocharger transient response and because the turbines restrict the flow out of the manifolds. The uneven firing order (intervals of 90°-180°-270°-180°) on each bank of a 90° V8 engine causes the blowdown interference effects to vary dramatically between cylinders.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.