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Technical Paper

Spray Characterization of the Urea-Water Solution (UWS) Injected in a Hot Air Stream Analogous to SCR System Operating Conditions

The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system has great potential in reducing NOx emissions. The urea-water solution (UWS) is the preferred method on vehicles for obtaining the ammonia, the required reductant for SCR. The UWS spray is necessary to transform exhaust gas into nitrogen and water and plays an important role in the performance of this system. The UWS needs to be properly mixed with the exhaust gas coming from the engine before entering the SCR, therefore the solution must be injected in the exhaust pipe in a way that it completely vaporizes in order to reduce deposit formation and guaranteeing a proper functioning and durability of the NOx reduction system. Achieving complete vaporization of the UWS spray is not an easy task, mainly due to reduced package space. Another challenge for converting UWS to ammonia is the latent energy in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Flow and Spray Development One-Way Coupling Methodology for a Multi-Hole GDi Injector

The use of predictive models in the study of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) allows reducing developing cost and times. However, those models are challenging due to the complex and multi-phase phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber, but also because of the different spatial and temporal scales in different components of the injection systems. This work presents a methodology to accurately simulate the spray by Discrete Droplet Models (DDM) without experimentally measuring the injector mass flow rate and/or momentum flux. Transient nozzle flow simulations are used instead to define the injection conditions of the spray model. The methodology is applied to a multi-hole Gasoline Direct injection (GDi) injector. Firstly, the DDM constant values are calibrated comparing simulation results to Diffused Back-light Illumination (DBI) experimental technique results. Secondly, transient nozzle flow simulations are carried out.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Flow Simulation of GDi for Measuring Near-Field Spray Angle and Plume Direction

Experimental visualization of current gasoline direct injection (GDi) systems are even more complicated especially due to the proximity of spray plumes and the interaction between them. Computational simulations may provide additional information to understand the complex phenomena taking place during the injection process. Nozzle flow simulations with a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) approach can be used not only to analyze the flow inside the nozzle, but also the first 2-5 mm of the spray. A methodology to obtain plume direction and spray angle from the simulations is presented. Results are compared to experimental data available in the literature. It is shown that plume direction is well captured by the model, whilst the uncertainty of the spray angle measurements does not allow to clearly validate the developed methodology.
Journal Article

Schlieren Methodology for the Analysis of Transient Diesel Flame Evolution

Schlieren/shadowgraphy has been adopted in the combustion research as a standard technique for tip penetration analysis of sprays under diesel-like engine conditions. When dealing with schlieren images of reacting sprays, the combustion process and the subsequent light emission from the soot within the flame have revealed both limitations as well as considerations that deserve further investigation. Seeking for answers to such concerns, the current work reports an experimental study with this imaging technique where, besides spatial filtering at the Fourier plane, both short exposure time and chromatic filtering were performed to improve the resulting schlieren image, as well as the reliability of the subsequent tip penetration measurement. The proposed methodology has reduced uncertainties caused by artificial pixel saturation (blooming).
Technical Paper

Assessment on Internal Nozzle Flow Initialization in Diesel Spray Simulations

Proper initial conditions are essential to successfully perform a simulation, especially for highly transient problems such as Diesel spray injection. Until now, no much attention has been paid to the internal nozzle flow initialization because spray simulations are usually decoupled from the nozzle. However, new homogeneous models like Eulerian Spray Atomization (ESA) model allow to simulate the internal nozzle flow and the spray seamlessly. Therefore, the behavior of the spray for the first microseconds is highly influenced by the initial conditions inside the nozzle. Furthermore, last experiments confirm the presence of gas inside the nozzle between successive injections. This work deals with the initialization procedure in a way that mass flow rate and spray penetration curves are well predicted by the model.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Approach in the Impact of Electric Fields on Liquid Fuel Spray Injection

This publication is the result of a multidisciplinary collaboration between the academia and the industry. An attempt to pre-ionize and influence the trajectory and the fluid mechanics of the injected fuel into an experimental injection system by means of electromagnetic fields was made. This collaboration project started from research proposal, which aims at exploring the effects of a highly ionized environment on the fuel injection event and how the momentum of the injected fuel droplets may be affected by the electromagnetic fields in form of quantified variables, such as spray penetration, spreading angle and the spray axis angle. An influence of the applied electromagnetic field on the fuel spray depending on the electrode configuration was observed and is presented and discussed in this publication.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Emissions and Performances from Partially Premixed Compression Ignition Combustion using Gasoline and Spark Assistance

Several new combustion concepts have been developed during last decade with the aim of reducing pollutant emissions. Specifically, these strategies allow a simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot emissions by reducing the local combustion temperatures, enhancing the fuel/air mixing (PCCI, HCCI…). In spite of their benefits, these concepts present difficulties controlling the appropriate combustion phasing as well as high knocking levels and therefore, their operating range is reduced to low-medium loads. In this work gasoline is considered as a fuel in order to improve combustion strategies based on fully or partially premixed combustion in CI engines. Its use provides more flexibility to achieve lean and low combustion temperature, however the concept has demonstrated difficulty under light load conditions using gasoline with ON up to 95.
Technical Paper

Transient Rate of Injection Effects on Spray Development

Transients in the rate of injection (ROI) with respect to time are ever-present in direct-injection engines, even with common-rail fueling. The shape of the injection ramp-up and ramp-down affects spray penetration and mixing, particularly with multiple-injection schedules currently in practice. Ultimately, the accuracy of CFD model predictions used to optimize the combustion process depends upon the accuracy of the ROI utilized as fuel input boundary conditions. But experimental difficulties in the measurement of ROI, as well as real-world affects that change the ROI from the bench to the engine, add uncertainty that may be mistaken for weaknesses in spray modeling instead of errors in boundary conditions. In this work we use detailed, time-resolved measurements of penetration at the Spray A conditions of the Engine Combustion Network to rigorously guide the necessary ROI shape required to match penetration in jet models that allow variable rate of injection.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the First Millimeters of the Diesel Spray by an Eulerian Spray Atomization Model Applied on ECN Spray A Injector

The Fick's law is commonly used to model diffusion problems, but from some time ago it has been also used to model liquid jet atomization and mixing into gaseous atmosphere under certain hypothesis. An OpenFOAM computer model based on this principle has been developed and validated on axisymmetric geometries. This model has also been used to study the atomization process on the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) single-hole Spray A injector. Results have been compared to X-Ray and Mie-Scattering experimental data, showing that the Fick's law and its variants predict well the liquid core but tend to over-predict the spray angle/width in the first millimeters after the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper

Mixture Model Approach for the Study of the Inner Flow Dynamics of an AdBlue Dosing System and the Characterization of the Near-Field Spray

Selective Catalytic Reduction stands for an effective methodology for the reduction of NOx emissions from Diesel engines and meeting current and future EURO standards. For it, the injection of Urea Water Solution (UWS) plays a major role in the process of reducing the NOx emissions. A LES approach for turbulence modelling allows to have a description of the physics which is a very useful tool in situations where experiments cannot be performed. The main objective of this study is to predict characteristics of the flow of interest inside the injector as well as spray morphology in the near field of the spray. For it, the nozzle geometry has been reconstructed from X-Ray tomography data, and an Eulerian-Eulerian approach commonly known as Mixture Model has been applied to study the liquid phase of the UWS with a LES approach for turbulence modeling. The injector unit is subjected to typical low-pressure working conditions.
Technical Paper

Schlieren Measurements of the ECN-Spray A Penetration under Inert and Reacting Conditions

In the wake of the Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames group (TNF) for atmospheric pressure flames, an open group of laboratories belonging to the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) agreed on a list of boundary conditions -called “Spray A”- to study the free diesel spray under steady-state conditions. Such conditions are relevant of a diesel engine operating at low temperature combustion conditions with moderate EGR, small nozzle and high injection pressure. The objective of this program is to accelerate the understanding of diesel flames, by applying each laboratory's knowledge and skills to a specific set of boundary conditions, in order to give an extensive and reliable experimental database to help spray modeling. In the present work, “Spray A” operating condition has been achieved in a constant pressure, continuous flow vessel. Schlieren high-speed imaging has been conducted to measure the spray penetration under evaporative conditions.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Behavior and Spray Characteristics of a Common Rail Diesel Injection System Using Gasoline Fuel

Regulations on emissions from diesel engines are becoming more stringent worldwide. Hence there is a great deal of interest in developing engine combustion systems that offer the fuel efficiency of a diesel engine, but with low smoke and NOx emissions. Thus, premixed compression ignition combustion is an interesting way to achieve a clean and efficient engine. However, using a high reactivity fuel such as diesel fuel leads to a complex and expensive engine design. A proven way to overcome this drawback is to actively control the reactivity of the fuel using low cetane fuels such as gasoline. This strategy has been explored with single and multiple cylinder engines. However no detailed and well conducted studies of the injection process were found related to the effects of gasoline use in a standard commercial compression ignition diesel engine injection system.
Technical Paper

Influence on Diesel Injection Characteristics and Behavior Using Biodiesel Fuels

The aim of this paper is to present an experimental study of the influence of using biodiesel blended fuels on a standard injection system taken from a DI commercial Diesel engine. The effects have been evaluated through injection rate measurements, spray momentum and spray visualization at ambient temperature (non-evaporating condition). These tests have been done using five different injection pressures, from 300 to 1600 bar, and three back pressures: 20, 50 and 80 bar. It is well known that fuel properties like density or kinematic viscosity are higher in vegetable oils and strongly affect how injection system operates. The tests showed that the use of biodiesel fuels leads to a higher mass flow when the injector is fully open. The spray pattern is also affected, biodiesel penetrates more and the spray is narrower. Some explanations are provided in this paper in order to understand better the injection process when vegetable oils are used.
Technical Paper

Soot Model Calibration Based on Laser Extinction Measurements

In this work a detailed soot model based on stationary flamelets is used to simulate soot emissions of a reactive Diesel spray. In order to represent soot formation and oxidation processes properly, a calibration of the soot reaction rates has to be performed. This model calibration is usually performed on basis of engine out soot measurements. Contrary to this, in this work the soot model is calibrated on local soot concentrations along the spray axis obtained from laser extinction chamber measurements. The measurements are performed with B7 certification Diesel and a series production multihole injector to obtain engine similar boundary conditions. In order to ensure that the flow and mixture field is captured well by the CFD-simulation, the simulated liquid penetration lengths and flame lift-off lengths are compared to chamber measurements.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Particle Emission with Two Different Injectors in a CAI 2-Stroke Gasoline Engine

Nowadays the main part of investigations in controlled auto-ignition (CAI) engines are centered on performance or some engine processes simulation, leaving aside particle number (PN) emission. The present work is focused on this last topic: PN emission analysis using two different injectors in a 2-stroke CAI engine, and a global comparison of PN emission of this engine with its homonymous 4-stroke engines at two operating conditions. The study was performed in a single-cylinder gasoline engine with 0.3 l displacement, equipped with an air-assisted direct-injection (DI) fuel injection system. Concerning the injectors evaluated, significant differences in PN emission have been found. When the I160X injector (narrow spray angle) was used, PN emissions were reduced. The spray cone angle during the injection event appears to be a key factor for PN emission reduction.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Geometry Size Influence on Reactive Spray Development: From Spray B to Heavy Duty Applications

In the present work a constant-pressure flow facility able to reach 15 MPa ambient pressure and 1000 K ambient temperature has been employed to carry out experimental studies of the combustion process at Diesel engine like conditions. The objective is to study the effect of orifice diameter on combustion parameters as lift-off length, ignition delay and flame penetration, assessing if the processing methodologies used for a reference nozzle are suitable in heavy duty applications. Accordingly, three orifice diameter were studied: a spray B nozzle, with a nominal diameter of 90 μm, and two heavy duty application nozzles (diameter of 194 μm and 228 μm respectively). Results showed that nozzle size has a substantial impact on the ignition event, affecting the premixed phase of the combustion and the ignition location. On the lift-off length, increasing the nozzle size affected the combustion morphology, thus the processing methodology had to be modified from the ECN standard methodology.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Soot Concentration in a Prototype Multi-Hole Diesel Injector by High-Speed Color Diffused Back Illumination Technique

A prototype multi-hole diesel injector operating with n-heptane fuel from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bar under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution in the fuel jet from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used as a result of the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. The experiments performed in this work used one wavelength provide information about physical of the soot properties, experimental results variating the operational conditions show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in ambient temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in ambient density.
Technical Paper

On the Influence of Manifold Geometry on Exhaust Noise

The influence of manifold geometry on exhaust noise is studied. First, a linear description of the problem is presented, so that potential relevant factors may be identified. Then a full non-linear simulation is performed, for a simple geometry, in order to check, in more realistic conditions, the ideas obtained from the linear theory. The results indicate that, although some qualitative trends may be obtained from the linear analysis, the role of back-reaction of the manifold on the engine (a non-linear coupling effect) may be determinant.
Technical Paper

The Use of Transfer Matrix for the Design of Interferencial Systems in Exhaust Mufflers

One of the main problems in the design of exhaust silencers is the attenuation of low frequency noise. At these frequencies is where the influence of the engine has more importance; moreover, low frequency noise has the possibility of interaction with the mechanical resonances of the exhaust line, producing additional noise and vibration highly disturbing. A suitable solution to this problem is the use of the interferencial behaviour between two acoustic parallel paths, which produces high attenuation at a given frequency associated with the difference between the acoustic lengths of both paths. In the present paper, a general expression for the 4-pole transfer matrix of an interferencial system with two arbitrary branches is presented, which is applied to a simple but realistic exhaust silencer. Results are compared with the transmission loss measured with a modified impulse method, with good agreement between the model and the measurements.
Journal Article

Aging of a Multi-Hole Diesel Injector and Its Effect on the Rate of Injection

In order to comply with the increasingly restrictive limits of emissions and fuel consumption, researches are focusing on improving the efficiency of combustion engines. In this area, the aging of the injector and its effect on the injection development is not entirely analyzed. In this work, the rate of injection of a diesel injector at different stages of its lifetime is analyzed. To this end, a multi-hole piezoelectric injector was employed, comparing the injection rate measured at the beginning of its lifetime to the rate provided by the injector after aging, maintaining the same boundary conditions in both measurements. Injection pressures up to 200 MPa were used throughout the experiments. The results showed that the steady-state rate of injection was lower after the injector aged. Furthermore, the injector took a longer time to close the needle and end the injection, in comparison with the measurements done at earlier stages of its lifetime.