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Technical Paper

Water Analysis Results from Phase II of the NASA Early Human Testing Initiative 30-Day Closed Chamber Test

1997-07-01
972555
An important milestone in the ongoing effort by NASA to develop and refine closed-loop water recycling systems for human space flight was reached during the summer of 1996 with the successful completion of Phase II of the Lunar Mars Life Support Testing Program at Johnson Space Center. Part of Phase II involved testing a water-recycling system in a closed test chamber continuously occupied by four human subjects for thirty days. The Phase II crew began the test with a supply of water that had been processed and certified for human use. As the test progressed, humidity condensate, urine, and wastewater from personal hygiene and housekeeping activities were reclaimed and reused several times. Samples were collected from various points in the reclamation process during the thirty day test. The data verified the water-processing hardware can reliably remove wastewater contaminants and produce reclaimed water that meets NASA standards for hygiene- and potable-quality water.
Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis of Potable Water and Humidity Condensate Collected During the MIR-21 Mission

1997-07-01
972462
The primary source of potable water planned for the International Space Station will be generated from the reclamation of humidity condensate, urine, and hygiene waters. It is vital to crew health and performance that this reclaimed water be safe for human consumption, and that health risks associated with recycled water consumption be identified and quantified. Only recently has data been available on the chemical constituents in reclaimed waters generated in microgravity. Results for samples collected during Mir-21 reveal that both the reclaimed water and stored water are of potable quality, although the samples did not meet U.S. standards for total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, and turbidity.
Technical Paper

Risk Mitigation Water Quality Monitor

1997-07-01
972463
On the International Space Station (ISS), atmospheric humidity condensate and other waste waters will be recycled and treated to produce potable water for use by the crews. Space station requirements include an on-orbit capability for real-time monitoring of key water quality parameters, such as total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity, to ensure that crew health is protected for consumption of reclaimed water. The Crew Health Care System for ISS includes a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer that is currently being designed to meet this requirement. As part of the effort, a spacecraft TOC analyzer was developed to demonstrate the technology in microgravity and mitigate risks associated with its use on station. This analyzer was successfully tested on Shuttle during the STS-81 mission as a risk mitigation experiment. A total of six ground-prepared test samples and two Mir potable water samples were analyzed in flight during the 10-day mission.
Technical Paper

Potable Water Treatment and Transfer from Shuttle to Mir

1997-07-01
972461
To satisfy a requirement to supply water to Mir station, a process for treating iodinated water on the Shuttle was developed and implemented. The treatment system consists of packed columns for removing iodine and a syringe-based injection system for adding ionic silver, the biocide used in Mir water. Technical and potable grade water is produced and transferred in batches using collapsible 44-liter contingency water containers (CWCs). Silver is added to the water via injection of a solution from preloaded syringes. Minerals are also added to water destined for drinking. During the previous four Shuttle-Mir docking missions a total of 2781 liters (735 gallons) of water produced by the Shuttle fuel cells was processed using this method and transferred to Mir. To verify the quality of the processed water, samples were collected during flight and returned for chemical analysis.
Technical Paper

Solid Phase Extraction of Polar Compounds in Water

1997-07-01
972465
The Water and Food Analytical Laboratory, at the Johnson Space Center is developing an alternative to EPA Method 625 for analyzing semivolatile organic compounds in water. The current EPA method uses liquid-liquid extraction. The alternative method being developed differs in the sample preparation phase by replacing gravity-dependent liquid-liquid extraction with solid phase extraction (SPE). The ultimate goal is to incorporate the optimum SPE conditions into an automated sample preparation process. The method shows promise with regard to anticipated polar compounds. Fourteen SPE resins and nine elution solvents were compared. For typical analytes encountered by our laboratory, a styrene-divinylbenzene SPE resin and an elution solvent mixture of methylene chloride and ethyl ether were found to give the highest extraction recoveries. A study is in progress to remove water from the extracts before GC/MS analysis.
Technical Paper

Reduction in the Iodine Content of Shuttle Drinking Water: Lessons Learned

1999-07-12
1999-01-2117
Iodine is the disinfectant used in U.S. spacecraft potable water systems. Recent long-term testing on human subjects has raised concerns about excessive iodine consumption. Efforts to reduce iodine consumption by Shuttle crews were initiated on STS-87, using hardware originally designed to deiodinate Shuttle water prior to transfer to the Mir Space Station. This hardware has several negative aspects when used for Shuttle galley operations, and efforts to develop a practical alternative were initiated under a compressed development schedule. The alternative Low Iodine Residual System (LIRS) was flown as a Detailed Test Objective on STS-95. On-orbit, the LIRS imparted an adverse taste to the water due to the presence of trialkylamines that had not been detected during development and certification testing. A post-flight investigation revealed that the trialkylamines were released during gamma sterilization of the LIRS resin materials.
Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis and Water Recovery Testing of Shuttle-Mir Humidity Condensate

1999-07-12
1999-01-2029
Humidity condensate collected and processed in-flight is an important component of a space station drinking water supply. Water recovery systems in general are designed to handle finite concentrations of specific chemical components. Previous analyses of condensate derived from spacecraft and ground sources showed considerable variation in composition. Consequently, an investigation was conducted to collect condensate on the Shuttle while the vehicle was docked to Mir, and return the condensate to Earth for testing. This scenario emulates an early ISS configuration during a Shuttle docking, because the atmospheres intermix during docking and the condensate composition should reflect that. During the STS-89 and STS-91 flights, a total volume of 50 liters of condensate was collected and returned. Inorganic and organic chemical analyses were performed on aliquots of the fluid.
Technical Paper

A Spectrophotometric Analyzer for Aqueous Samples in Microgravity

1999-07-12
1999-01-2032
The development of a spectrophotometric analyzer for use on water samples in microgravity environments is discussed. The instrument is constructed around a commercial spectrophotometer, the Hewlett-Packard HP8453, with a separate turbidimetric analyzer, here a modified Hach 2100P ratio turbidimeter. Flow-through sample cells were constructed for each instrument to support microgravity use and sample deaeration. Spectrophotometric analyses on aqueous samples on orbit are sensitive to the presence of undissolved gases in the samples. In a micro-g environment, free gas in samples can and does remain suspended, clouding the mixture and interfering with spectral optical density measurements. This paper discusses the design of a spectrophotometric analyzer, with particular emphasis on the merits of two approaches to eliminating free gas interferences in on-orbit water analyses: hyperbaric gas redissolution and deaeration across a hydrophobic membrane.
Technical Paper

Recent Experiences with Iodine Water Disinfection in Shuttle

1990-07-01
901356
Microbial proliferation in the STS potable water system is prevented by maintaining a 2-5 ppm iodine residual. The iodine is added to fuel cell water by an iodinated ion exchange resin in the Microbial Check Valve (MCV). Crew comments indicated excessive iodine in the potable water. To better define the problem, a method of in-flight iodine analysis was developed. Inflight analysis during STS-30 and STS-28 indicated iodine residuals were generally in the 9-13 ppm range. It was determined that the high iodine residual was caused by MCV influent temperatures in excess of 120 °F. This is well above the MCV operating range of 65-90 °F. The solution to this problem was to develop a resin suitable for the higher temperatures. Since 8 months were required to formulate a MCV resin suitable for the higher temperatures, a temporary solution was necessary. Two additional MCV's were installed on the chilled and ambient water lines leading into the galley to remove the excess iodine.
Technical Paper

Space Station Environmental Health System Water Quality Monitoring

1990-07-01
901351
One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them.
Technical Paper

A Volatile Organics Concentrator for Use in Monitoring Space Station Water Quality

1990-07-01
901352
The process used to identify, select and design an approach to the isolation and concentration of volatile organic compounds from a water sample prior to chemical analysis in a microgravity environment is described. The Volatile Organics Concentrator (VOC) system described in this paper has been designed for attachment to a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) for analysis of volatile organics in water on Space Station. In this work, in order to rank the many identified approaches, the system was broken into three critical areas. These were gases, volatile separation from water and water removal/GC/MS interface. Five options involving different gases (or combinations) for potential use in the VOC and GC/MS system were identified and ranked. Nine options for separation of volatiles from the water phase were identified and ranked. Seven options for use in the water removal/GC column and MS interface were also identified and included in overall considerations.
Technical Paper

Advanced Development of the Regenerative Microbial Check Valve

1993-07-01
932175
The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is a reloadable flow-through canister containing iodinated ion exchange resin, which is used aboard the Shuttle Orbiter as a disinfectant to maintain water potability. The MCV exhibits a significant contact kill and imparts a biocidal residual I2 concentration to the effluent. MCVs in current use have nominal 30 day lives. MCVs baselined for Space Station Freedom will have 90 day lives, and will require replacement 120 times over 30 years. Means to extend MCV life are desirable to minimize resupply penalties. New technology has been developed for fully autonomous in situ regeneration of an expended MCV canister. The Regenerative Microbial Check Valve (RMCV) consists of an MCV, a packed bed of crystalline I2, a flow diverter valve, an in-line iodine monitor and a microcontroller. During regeneration, flow is directed first through the packed I2 bed and then into the MCV where the resin is replenished.
Technical Paper

Electrochemical Ozone Generator for In Situ Sterilization of Potable Water and Wastewater

1993-07-01
932177
Disinfection of water and wastewater was proven to be feasible using a Breadboard Electrochemical Ozone Generator (EOG). A static gas/liquid separator, containing a microporous, hydrophobic membrane, was tested with the Breadboard EOG, and was found to increase the concentration of the ozone (O3) dissolved in the water. Distilled water and selected wastewaters were disinfected, achieving dissolved O3 concentrations up to 3 mg/L. The hardware is capable of operating in 0-g and 1-g environments. An end-item Electrochemical Ozonator (EO), sized to disinfect 116 kg of potable water per day, was projected to weigh 1.2 kg and consume only 18.5 W.
Technical Paper

Treatment Bed Microbiological Control

1987-07-01
871492
The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.
Technical Paper

Test Results of a Shower Water Recovery System

1987-07-01
871512
A shower test was conducted recently at NASA-JSC in which waste water was reclaimed and reused. Test subjects showered in a prototype whole body shower following a protocol similar to that anticipated for Space Station. The waste water was purified using reverse osmosis followed by filtration through activated carbon and ion exchange resin beds. The reclaimed waste water was maintained free of microorganisms by using both heat and iodine. This paper discusses the test results, including the limited effectiveness of using iodine as a disinfectant and the evaluation of a Space Station candidate soap for showering. In addition, results are presented on chemical and microbial impurity content of water samples obtained from various locations in the water recovery process.
Technical Paper

Total Organic Carbon Analyzer

1991-07-01
911434
Development and testing of a high sensitivity monitor for the measurement of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in water without gravity-dependent components and using minimal chemical reagents has been performed. A breadboard instrument was constructed and tested for linearity, selectivity, and day-to-day reproducibility. The instrument has a linear response for a wide range of organic compounds over a range from 20 ppb C to 50 ppm C, with excellent day-to-day reproducibility. The upper level can be extended to ∼100 ppm C by changing the operating conditions of the analyzer. The selectivity of the instrument has been determined and no interference is observed except for high concentrations (> 10 ppm) of iodine, hypochlorous acid, sodium nitrite and sodium sulfide.
Technical Paper

Regenerable Biocide Delivery Unit

1991-07-01
911406
The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is used on the Space Shuttle to impart an iodine residual to the drinking water to maintain microbial control. Approximately twenty MCV locations have been identified in the Space Station Freedom design, each with a 90 day life. This translates to 2400 replacement units in 30 years of operation. An in situ regeneration concept has been demonstrated that will reduce this replacement requirement to less than 300 units based on data to date and potentially fewer as further regenerations are accomplished. A totally automated system will result in significant savings in crew time, resupply requirements and replacement costs. An additional feature of the device is the ability to provide a concentrated biocide source (200 mg/liter of I2) that can be used to superiodinate systems routinely or after a microbial upset. This program was accomplished under NASA Contract Number NAS9-18113.
Technical Paper

Development and (Evidence for) Destruction of Biofilm with Pseudomonas aeruginosa as Architect

1991-07-01
911404
Disinfection and maintenance of an acceptable level of asepsis in spacecraft potable water delivery systems is a formidable task. The major area of research for this project has been to monitor the formation and growth of biofilm, and biofilm attached microorganisms, on stainless steel surfaces (specifically coupons), and the use of ozone for the elimination of these species in a closed loop system. A number of different techniques have been utilized during the course of a typical run. Scraping and sonication of coupon surfaces with subsequent plating as well as epifluorescence microscopy have been utilized to enumerate biofilm protected Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, scanning electron microscopy is the method of choice to examine the integrity of the biofilm. For ozone determinations, the indigo decolorization spectrophotometric method seems most reliable. Both high- and low-nutrient cultured P. aeruginosa organisms were the target species for the ozone disinfection experiments.
Technical Paper

Biofilm Formation and Control in a Simulated Spacecraft Water System: Two-Year Results

1991-07-01
911403
The ability of iodine to maintain microbial water quality in a simulated spacecraft water system is being studied. An iodine level of about 2.0 mg/L is maintained by passing ultrapure influent water through an iodinated ion exchange resin. Six liters are withdrawn daily and the chemical and microbial quality of the water is monitored regularly. Stainless steel coupons used to monitor biofilm formation are being analyzed by culture methods, epifluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Results from the first two years of operation show a single episode of high bacterial colony counts in the iodinated system. This growth was apparently controlled by replacing the iodinated ion exchange resin. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the iodine has limited but not completely eliminated the formation of biofilm during the first two years of operation.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Capillary Electrophoresis for In-flight Ionic Contaminant Monitoring of SSF Potable Water

1992-07-01
921268
Until 1989, ion chromatography (IC) was the baseline technology selected for the Specific Ion Analyzer, an in-flight inorganic water quality monitor being designed for Space Station Freedom. Recent developments in capillary electrophoresis (CE) may offer significant savings of consumables, power consumption, and weight/volume allocation, relative to IC technology. A thorough evaluation of CE's analytical capability, however, is necessary before one of the two techniques is chosen. Unfortunately, analytical methods currently available for inorganic CE are unproven for NASA's target list of anions and cations. Thus, CE electrolyte chemistry and methods to measure the target contaminants must be first identified and optimized. This paper reports the status of a study to evaluate CE's capability with regard to inorganic and carboxylate anions, alkali and alkaline earth cations, and transition metal cations.
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