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Journal Article

Investigation of Combustion Robustness in Catalyst Heating Operation on a Spray Guided DISI Engine, Part II - Measurements of Spray Development, Combustion Imaging and Emissions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0603
In-cylinder spray imaging by Mie scattering has been taken with frame rates up to 27,000 fps, along with high speed video photography of chemiluminescence and soot thermal radiation. Spectroscopic measurements have confirmed the presence of OH*, CH* and C2* emissions lines, and their magnitude relative compared to soot radiation. Filtering for CH* has been used with both the high speed video and a Photo-Multiplier Tube (PMT). The PMT signals have been found to correlate with the rate of heat release derived from in-cylinder pressure measurements. A high power photographic strobe has been used to illuminate the fuel spray. Images show that the fuel spray can strike the ground strap of the spark plug, break up, and a fuel cloud then drifts over and under the strap through the spark plug gap. Tests have conducted at two different spark plug orientations using a single spark strategy.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Combustion and Particulate Emissions when Hydrogen is Aspirated into a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0580
A single-cylinder Gasoline Direct Injection Engine (GDI) engine with a centrally mounted spray-guided injection system (150 bar fuel pressure) has been operated with stoichiometric and rich mixtures. The base fuel was 65% iso-octane and 35% toluene; hydrogen was aspirated into a plenum in the induction system, and its equivalence ratios were set to 0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1. Ignition timing sweeps were conducted for each operating point. Combustion was speeded up by adding hydrogen as expected. In consequence the MBT ignition advance was reduced, as were cycle-by-cycle variations in combustion. Adding hydrogen led to the expected reduction in IMEP as the engine was operated at a fixed manifold absolute pressure (MAP). An engine model has also been set up using WAVE. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were measured with a Cambustion DMS500 particle sizer.
Technical Paper

Reduction of CO2 Emissions through Lubricant Thermal Management During the Warm Up of Passenger Car Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0892
Most major regional automotive markets have stringent legislative targets for vehicle greenhouse gas emissions or fuel economy enforced by fiscal penalties. Large improvements in vehicle efficiency on mandated test cycles have already taken place in some markets through the widespread adoption of technologies such as downsizing or dieselisation. There is now increased focus on approaches which give smaller, but significant incremental efficiency benefits, such as reducing parasitic losses due to engine friction. The reduction in tail pipe CO2 emissions through the reduction of engine friction using lubricants has been reported by many authors. However, opportunities also exist to reduce the lubricant viscosity during warm up by the thermal management of the lubricant mass.
Technical Paper

Spray Behaviour and Particulate Matter Emissions with M15 Methanol/Gasoline Blends in a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0991
Model M15 gasoline fuels have been created from pure fuel components, to give independent control of volatility, the heavy end content and the aromatic content, in order to understand the effect of the fuel properties on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel spray behaviour and the subsequent particulate number emissions. Each fuel was imaged at a range of fuel temperatures in a spray rig and in a motored optical engine, to cover the full range from non-flashing sprays through to flare flashing sprays. The spray axial penetration (and potential piston and liner impingement), and spray evaporation rate were extracted from the images. Firing engine tests with the fuels with the same fuel temperatures were performed and exhaust particulate number spectra captured using a DMS500 Mark II Particle Spectrometer.
Technical Paper

Cycle-to-Cycle Variation Analysis of Two-Colour PLIF Temperature Measurements Calibrated with Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy in a Firing GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0722
In-cylinder temperatures and their cyclic variations strongly influence many aspects of internal combustion engine operation, from chemical reaction rates determining the production of NOx and particulate matter to the tendency for auto-ignition leading to knock in spark ignition engines. Spatially resolved measurements of temperature can provide insights into such processes and enable validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations used to model engine performance and guide engine design. This work uses a combination of Two-Colour Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (TC-PLIF) and Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) to measure the in-cylinder temperature distributions of a firing optically accessible spark ignition engine. TC-PLIF performs 2-D temperature measurements using fluorescence emission in two different wavelength bands but requires calibration under conditions of known temperature, pressure and composition.
Technical Paper

Novel Metrics for Validation of PIV and CFD in IC Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0716
In-cylinder flow motion has a significant effect on mixture preparation and combustion. Therefore, it is vital that CFD engine simulations are capable of accurately predicting the in-cylinder velocity fields. High-speed planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiments have been performed on a single-cylinder GDI optical engine in order to validate CFD simulations for a range of engine conditions. Novel metrics have been developed to quantify the differences between experimental and simulated velocity fields in both alignment and magnitude. The Weighted Relevance Index (WRI) is a variation of the standard Relevance Index that accounts for the local velocity magnitudes to provide a robust comparison of the alignment between two vector fields. Similarly, the Weighted Magnitude Index (WMI) quantifies the differences in the local magnitudes of the two velocity fields.
Journal Article

In-Cylinder Temperature Measurements Using Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy and Two-Colour PLIF

2017-09-04
2017-24-0045
In-cylinder temperature measurements are vital for the validation of gasoline engine modelling and useful in their own right for explaining differences in engine performance. The underlying chemical reactions in combustion are highly sensitive to temperature and affect emissions of both NOx and particulate matter. The two techniques described here are complementary, and can be used for insights into the quality of mixture preparation by measurement of the in-cylinder temperature distribution during the compression stroke. The influence of fuel composition on in-cylinder mixture temperatures can also be resolved. Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) provides point temperature measurements with a pressure dependent precision in the range 0.1 to 1.0 % when the gas composition is well characterized and homogeneous; as the pressure increases the precision improves.
Technical Paper

Combustion Imaging and Analysis in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0045
A single cylinder Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine with optical access has been used for combustion studies with both early injection and late injection for stratified charge operation. Cylinder pressure records have been used for combustion analysis that has been synchronised with the imaging. A high speed cine camera has been used for imaging combustion within a cycle, while a CCD camera has been used for imaging at fixed crank angles, so as to obtain information on cycle-by-cycle variations. The CCD images have also been analysed to give information on the quantity of soot present during combustion. Tests have been conducted with a reference unleaded gasoline (ULG), and pure fuel components: iso-octane (a representative alkane), and toluene (a representative aromatic). The results show diffusion-controlled combustion occurring in so-called homogeneous combustion with early injection.
Technical Paper

Variable Valve Actuation Mechanisms and the Potential for their Application

1989-02-01
890673
The numerous variable valve actuation mechanisms for poppet valves need to be classified, if sensible comparisons are to be made, and one possible taxonomy is presented here. Not all the mechanisms proposed have been tested, but where they have it is usually with gasoline engines. It is well established that controlling the valve events can raise and flatten the torque curve. However, it is difficult to quantify and compare the gains in torque and consequential reduction in fuel consumption, as the results depend very much on the starting point. This is also the case when variable valve actuation is used to reduce engine emissions. Fortunately it is quite easy to realise suitable variable valve timing systems for controlling the valve overlap, and the point of inlet valve closure. The other main application to gasoline engines, is in obtaining load control without throttling.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0209
Particulate Emissions from Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion are routinely assumed to be negligible. It is shown here that this is not the case when HCCI combustion is implemented in a direct injection gasoline engine. The conditions needed to sustain HCCI operation were realized using the negative valve overlap method for trapping high levels of residual exhaust gases in the cylinder. Measurements of emitted particle number concentration and electrical mobility diameter were made with a Cambustion DMS500 over the HCCI operating range possible with this hardware. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were also measured. These data are presented and compared with similar measurements made under conventional spark ignition (SI) operation in the same engine. Under both SI and HCCI operation, a significant accumulation mode was detected with particle equivalent diameters between 80 and 100 nm.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter and Hydrocarbon Emissions Measurements: Comparing First and Second Generation DISI with PFI in Single Cylinder Optical Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-1263
A Spray Guided Direct Injection (SGDI) engine has been shown to emit less Particulate Matter (PM) than a first generation (wall guided) Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine. The reduction is attributed to the reduced incidence of fuel-wall impingement and higher fuel injection pressure. The extent to which this is true was investigated by comparison between single cylinder SGDI and DISI engines. Both engines were also operated with conventional port injection to provide a baseline. Feedgas PM number concentration and size spectra were measured using a Cambustion differential mobility spectrometer for the fuels iso-octane and toluene with a range of Air-Fuel Ratios (AFRs), ignition and injection timings.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Temperature Estimation from an Optical Spray-Guided DISI Engine with Color-Ratio Pyrometry (CRP)

2006-04-03
2006-01-1198
Color-ratio pyrometry (CRP) is a technique for estimating the temperature and loading of soot, based on its thermal emission spectrum. This technique is contrasted with conventional two-color pyrometry which requires absolute measurements of the radiation intensity, either at two specific wavelengths or ranges of wavelengths. CRP uses two ratios, obtained by measuring the radiation intensity for three wavelengths or wavelength bands. CRP has been implemented here by using a digital CCD camera, and full details of the calibration are reported. Because of uncertainties in the emissivity of reference sources (such as tungsten ribbon lamps, in which the emissivity depends on temperature and wavelength), then a spectroscopic calibration of the CCD camera has been used. Use of a CCD camera is not straightforward because of internal digital signal processing (DSP), so full details are given of the calibration and technique implementation.
Technical Paper

Cold Start Particulate Emissions from a Second Generation DI Gasoline Engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1931
Spray guided Direct Injection Gasoline Engines are a key enabler to reducing CO2 emissions and improving the fuel economy of light duty vehicles. Particulate emissions from these engines have been shown to be lower than from first generation direct injection gasoline engines, but they may still be significantly higher than port fuel injected engines due to the reduced time available for mixture preparation and increased incidence of fuel impingement on the piston crown and combustion chamber surfaces. These factors are particularly severe in the period following a cold start. Both nuclei and accumulation mode particle size and number concentration were measured using a Cambustion differential mobility spectrometer. These data are reported for different coolant temperature intervals during the warm-up period. The bulk composition was determined using thermo-gravimetric analysis, and PM mass fractions are given for different volatility ranges and for elemental carbon.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Non-Ideal Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium and Non-Ideal Liquid Diffusion on Multi-Component Droplet Evaporation for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0924
A model for the evaporation of a multi-component fuel droplet is presented that takes account of temperature dependent fuel and vapour properties, evolving droplet internal temperature distribution and composition, and enhancement to heat and mass transfer due to droplet motion. The effect on the internal droplet mixing of non-ideal fluid diffusion is accounted for. Activity coefficients for vapour-liquid equilibrium and diffusion coefficients are determined using the UNIFAC method. Both well-mixed droplet evaporation (assuming infinite liquid mass diffusivity) and liquid diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation (iteratively solving the multi-component diffusion equation) have been considered. Well-mixed droplet evaporation may be applicable with slow evaporation, for example early gasoline direct injection; diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation must be considered when faster evaporation is encountered, for example when injection is later, or when the fuel mixture is non-ideal.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1558
The use of direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines for passenger cars has increased; providing greater specific performance and lower CO₂ emissions. DISI engines, however, produce more particulate matter (PM) emissions than Port-Fuel-Injected (PFI) engines. Forthcoming European exhaust emissions legislation is addressing concerns over health effects of PM emissions. Accordingly, research into PM emission formation has increased. A model developed by Aikawa et al., (2010) for PFI engines correlated PM number emissions with the vapor pressure and the double bond equivalent (DBE) of the components of the fuel. However there was no independent control of these parameters. This study investigates a particulate emissions index for DISI engines.
Technical Paper

Conversion of a Diesel Engine for Gaseous Fuel Operation at High Compression Ratio

1991-02-01
910849
A Waukesha VR 220 naturally aspirated Diesel Engine has been modified to operate with a high compression ratio fast-burn spark-ignition combustion system. Since the application of greatest interest is for Combined Heat and Power (CHP), the majority of data have been obtained with the engine operating at full throttle and 1500 rpm. The philosophy of the open chamber combustion system design is described, and this includes a discussion on the selection of the compression ratio. Results are presented for the energy balance and the emissions, for a wide range of air fuel ratios. The experiments have been conducted with natural gas and natural gas/carbon dioxide mixtures (to simulate bio-gas). Comparisons are made with the baseline engine performance data, some of which has been published earlier(1)*.
Technical Paper

Particulate and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spray Guided Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine with Oxygenate Fuel Blends

2007-04-16
2007-01-0472
The blending of oxygenated compounds with gasoline is projected to increase because oxygenate fuels can be produced renewably, and because their high octane rating allows them to be used in substitution of the aromatic fraction in gasoline. Blending oxygenates with gasoline changes the fuels' properties and can have a profound affect on the distillation curve, both of which are known to affect engine-out emissions. In this work, the effect of blending methanol and ethanol with gasoline on unburned hydrocarbon and particulate emissions is experimentally determined in a spray guided direct injection engine. Particulate number concentration and size distribution were measured using a Cambustion DMS500. These data are presented for different air fuel ratios, loads, ignition timings and injection timings. In addition, the ASTM D86 distillation curve was modeled using the binary activity coefficients method for the fuel blends used in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Optical Techniques that can be Applied to Investigate GDI Engine Combustion

2017-09-04
2017-24-0046
The increased efficiency and specific output with Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines are well known, but so too are the higher levels of Particulate Matter emissions compared with Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. To minimise Particulate Matter emissions, then it is necessary to understand and control the mixture preparation process, and important insights into GDI engine mixture preparation and combustion can be obtained from optical access engines. Such data is also crucial for validating models that predict flows, sprays and air fuel ratio distributions. The purpose of this paper is to review a number of optical techniques; the interpretation of the results is engine specific so will not be covered here. Mie scattering can be used for semi-quantitative measurements of the fuel spray and this can be followed with Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) for determining the air fuel ratio and temperature distributions.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Particulate Measurements from a DISI Vehicle: A Comparison of DMS500, ELPI, CPC and PASS

2006-04-03
2006-01-1077
A Cambustion Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS500), Dekati Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI), TSI Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and AVL Photo-Acoustic Soot Sensor (PASS) were compared for measurements of emitted Particulate Matter (PM) from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) vehicle on the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and at steady speed operating points. The exhaust was diluted in a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) before being measured. Transient size spectral data from the DMS500 and ELPI is presented. PM Number rate and total PM number emissions are presented for the DMS500, ELPI and CPC. The DMS500 and ELPI data are post-processed for PM mass, and presented with data from the PASS. The instrument responses were correlated against each other. Qualitative agreement was generally found between all instruments. The agreement was closer for PM mass measurements than for measurements of PM number.
Technical Paper

Particle Number Emissions from a Range of European Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0786
In light of forthcoming particle number legislation for light-duty passenger vehicles, time-resolved Particle Mass (PM) and Particle Number (PN) emissions over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) are reported for four current vehicle technologies; modern diesel, with and without a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) gasoline and multi-point Port Fuel Injection (PFI) gasoline. The PN and PM emissions were ordered (highest to lowest) according to: Non-DPF diesel ≻ DISI ≻ PFI ~ DPF diesel. Both the non-DPF diesel and DISI vehicles emitted PN and PM continuously over the NEDC. This is in contrast with both the DPF diesel and PFI vehicles which emitted nearly all their PN and PM during the first 200 seconds. The PFI result is thought to be a consequence of cold-start mixture preparation whilst several possible explanations are offered for the DPF diesel trend.
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