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Journal Article

Diesel Engine Size Scaling at Medium Load without EGR

2011-04-12
2011-01-1384
Several diffusion combustion scaling models were experimentally tested in two geometrically similar single-cylinder diesel engines with a bore diameter ratio of 1.7. Assuming that the engines have the same in-cylinder thermodynamic conditions and equivalence ratio, the combustion models primarily change the fuel injection pressure and engine speed in order to attain similar performance and emissions. The models tested include an extended scaling model, which scales diffusion flame lift-off length and jet spray penetration; a simple scaling model, which only scales spray penetration at equal mean piston speed; and a same speed scaling model, which holds crankshaft rotational velocity constant while also scaling spray penetration. Successfully scaling diffusion combustion proved difficult to accomplish because of apparent differences that remained in the fuel-air mixing and heat transfer processes.
Journal Article

Effect of Mesh Structure in the KIVA-4 Code with a Less Mesh Dependent Spray Model for DI Diesel Engine Simulations

2009-06-15
2009-01-1937
Two different types of mesh used for diesel combustion with the KIVA-4 code are compared. One is a well established conventional KIVA-3 type polar mesh. The other is a non-polar mesh with uniform size throughout the piston bowl so as to reduce the number of cells and to improve the quality of the cell shapes around the cylinder axis which can contain many fuel droplets that affect prediction accuracy and the computational time. This mesh is specialized for the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh. To prevent dramatic changes in spray penetration caused by the difference in cell size between the two types of mesh, a recently developed spray model which reduces mesh dependency of the droplet behavior has been implemented. For the ignition and combustion models, the Shell model and characteristic time combustion (CTC) model are employed.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty HCPC

2011-08-30
2011-01-1824
This paper concerns an innovative concept to control HCCI combustion in diesel-fuelled engines. It was named Homogenous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC) and operates on the split-cycle principle. In previous papers the feasibility of this combustion concept was shown for light-duty diesel engines. This paper illustrates a CFD study concerning a heavy-duty version of the HCPC engine. The engine displaces 13 liters and develops 700 kW indicated power at 2200 rpm with 49% maximum indicated efficiency and clean combustion.
Journal Article

Use of Detailed Kinetics and Advanced Chemistry-Solution Techniques in CFD to Investigate Dual-Fuel Engine Concepts

2011-04-12
2011-01-0895
A multi-component fuel model is used to represent gasoline in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a dual-fuel engine that combines premixed gasoline injection with diesel direct injection. The simulations employ detailed-kinetics mechanisms for both the gasoline and diesel surrogate fuels, through use of an advanced and efficient chemistry solver. The objective of this work is to elucidate kinetics effects of dual-fuel usage in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. The model is applied to simulate recent experiments on highly efficient RCCI engines. These engine experiments used a dual-fuel RCCI strategy with port-fuel-injection of gasoline and early-cycle, multiple injections of diesel fuel with a conventional diesel injector. The experiments showed that the US 2010 heavy-duty NO and soot emissions regulations were easily met without aftertreatment, while achieving greater than 50% net indicated thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Diesel Sprays Using an Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray and Atomization (ELSA) Model Coupled with Nozzle Flow

2011-04-12
2011-01-0386
High-pressure diesel sprays were simulated with an Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray and Atomization (ELSA) model, based on a multidimensional engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code KIVA-3V. The atomization of the dense liquid core in the near-nozzle region was modeled with turbulent mixing of the diesel fuel with the ambient gas. Under the continuum assumption of a fuel-air mixture in this region, two transport equations were solved for the liquid mass fraction and liquid surface area density. At a certain downstream location where the spray became dilute, a switch from the Eulerian to the Lagrangian approach was made to benefit from the advantages of the conventional Lagrangian droplet models, such as droplet collision and turbulent dispersion modeling. The droplet size and velocity to be initialized at this switch were determined by the local CFD cell properties.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Influence of Molecular Interactions on the Vaporization of Multi-component Fuel Sprays

2011-04-12
2011-01-0387
A vaporization model for realistic multi-component fuel sprays is described. The equilibrium at the interface between liquid droplets and the surrounding gas is obtained based on the UNIFAC method, which considers non-ideal molecular interactions that can greatly enhance or suppress the vaporization of the components in the system compared to predictions from ideal mixing using Raoult's Law, especially for polar fuels. The present results using the UNIFAC method are shown to be able to capture the azeotropic behaviors of polar molecule blends, such as mixtures of benzene and ethanol, benzene and iso-propanol, and ethanol and water [1]. Predicted distillation curves of mixtures of ethanol and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared to those from experiments, and the model gives good improvements on predictions of the distillation curves for initial ethanol volume fractions ranging from 0% to 100%.
Technical Paper

Coupling of Scaling Laws and Computational Optimization to Develop Guidelines for Diesel Engine Down-sizing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0836
The present work proposes a methodology for diesel engine development using scaling laws and computational optimization with multi-dimensional CFD tools. A previously optimized 450cc HSDI diesel engine was down-scaled to 400cc size using recently developed scaling laws. The scaling laws were validated by comparing the performance of these two engines, including pressure, HRR, peak and averaged temperature, and pollutant emissions. A novel optimization methodology, which is able to simultaneously optimize multiple operating conditions, was proposed. The method is based on multi-objective genetic algorithms, and was coupled with the KIVA3V Release 2 code to further optimize the down-scaled diesel engine. An adaptive multi-grid chemistry model was used in the KIVA3V code to reduce the computational cost of the optimization. The computations were conducted using high-throughput computing with the CONDOR system.
Technical Paper

Model Parameter Sensitivity of Mixing and UHC/CO Emissions in a PPCI, Low-Load Optical Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0844
The present study attempted to model experimental results obtained on an optical engine at the Sandia National Laboratory. Measurements of in-cylinder unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) distributions were provided using advanced optical diagnostics on a near production type piston. Previous multidimensional modeling provided accurate pressure profiles and heat release rate (HRR) predictions. However, the experimental UHC distribution was not matched, and the model predicted UHC extending from the bowl into the squish region in the expansion stroke. To explore the causes of this discrepancy a parametric study was performed using a variety of initial conditions, boundary conditions and model constants to explore their effects on the UHC distribution. Of the initial conditions, the swirl ratio was found to have the biggest impact on the UHC distribution.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flowfield Non-Uniformities on Emissions Predictions in HSDI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0821
The role of the fluid motion in a diesel engine on mixing and combustion was investigated using the CFD code Kiva-3v. The study considered pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion that is a hybrid combustion system characterized by early injection timings and high amounts of EGR dilution to delay the start and lower the temperature of combustion. The fuel oxidizer mixture is not homogeneous at the start of combustion and therefore requires further mixing for complete combustion. PCCI combustion systems are characterized by relatively high CO and UHC emissions. This work investigates attenuating CO emissions by enhancing mixing processes through non-uniform flowfield motions. The fluid motion was characterized by the amount of average angular rotation about the cylindrical axis (swirl ratio) and the amount of non-uniform motion imparted by the relative amounts of mass inducted through tangential and helical intake ports in a 0.5L HSDI diesel engine.
Journal Article

Combustion Model for Biodiesel-Fueled Engine Simulations using Realistic Chemistry and Physical Properties

2011-04-12
2011-01-0831
Biodiesel-fueled engine simulations were performed using the KIVA3v-Release 2 code coupled with Chemkin-II for detailed chemistry. The model incorporates a reduced mechanism that was created from a methyl decanoate/methyl-9-decenoate mechanism developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A combination of Directed Relation Graph, chemical lumping, and limited reaction rate tuning was used to reduce the detailed mechanism from 3299 species and 10806 reactions to 77 species and 209 reactions. The mechanism was validated against its detailed counterpart and predicted accurate ignition delay times over a range of relevant operating conditions. The mechanism was then combined with the ERC PRF mechanism to include n-heptane as an additional fuel component. The biodiesel mechanism was applied in KIVA using a discrete multi-component model with accurate physical properties for the five common components of real biodiesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Assessment of RNG Turbulence Modeling and the Development of a Generalized RNG Closure Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0829
RNG k-ε closure turbulence dissipation equations are evaluated employing the CFD code KIVA-3V Release 2. The numerical evaluations start by considering simple jet flows, including incompressible air jets and compressible helium jets. The results show that the RNG closure turbulence model predicts lower jet tip penetration than the "standard" k-ε model, as well as being lower than experimental data. The reason is found to be that the turbulence kinetic energy is dissipated too slowly in the downstream region near the jet nozzle exit. In this case, the over-predicted R term in RNG model becomes a sink of dissipation in the ε-equation. As a second step, the RNG turbulence closure dissipation models are further tested in complex engine flows to compare against the measured evolution of turbulence kinetic energy, and an estimate of its dissipation rate, during both the compression and expansion processes.
Journal Article

Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime

2011-04-12
2011-01-1182
An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline (termed GDICI for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition) in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. As an aid to plan engine experiments at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min), exploration of operating conditions was first performed numerically employing a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion. Operation ranges of a light-duty diesel engine operating with GDICI combustion with constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions were identified as functions of injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation rate and the fuel split ratio of double-pulse injections.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Piston Heat Transfer in a Light Duty Engine Under Conventional Diesel, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Regimes

2014-04-01
2014-01-1182
Abstract An experimental study has been conducted to provide insight into heat transfer to the piston of a light-duty single-cylinder research engine under Conventional Diesel (CDC), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion regimes. Two fast-response surface thermocouples embedded in the piston top measured transient temperature. A commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit thermocouple signals from the moving piston. A detailed comparison was made between the different combustion regimes at a range of engine speed and load conditions. The closed-cycle integrated and peak heat transfer rates were found to be lower for HCCI and RCCI when compared to CDC. Under HCCI operation, the peak heat transfer rate showed sensitivity to the 50% burn location.
Journal Article

Improved Chemical Kinetics Numerics for the Efficient Simulation of Advanced Combustion Strategies

2014-04-01
2014-01-1113
The incorporation of detailed chemistry models in internal combustion engine simulations is becoming mandatory as local, globally lean, low-temperature combustion strategies are setting the path towards a more efficient and environmentally sustainable use of energy resources in transportation. In this paper, we assessed the computational efficiency of a recently developed sparse analytical Jacobian chemistry solver, namely ‘SpeedCHEM’, that features both direct and Krylov-subspace solution methods for maximum efficiency for both small and large mechanism sizes. The code was coupled with a high-dimensional clustering algorithm for grouping homogeneous reactors into clusters with similar states and reactivities, to speed-up the chemical kinetics solution in multi-dimensional combustion simulations.
Journal Article

A Zero-Dimensional Phenomenological Model for RCCI Combustion Using Reaction Kinetics

2014-04-01
2014-01-1074
Homogeneous low temperature combustion is believed to be a promising approach to resolve the conflict of goals between high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Disadvantageously for this kind of combustion, the whole process depends on chemical kinetics and thus is hard to control. Reactivity controlled combustion can help to overcome this difficulty. In the so-called RCCI (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion concept a small amount of pilot diesel that is injected directly into the combustion chamber ignites a highly diluted gasoline-air mixture. As the gasoline does not ignite without the diesel, the pilot injection timing and the ratio between diesel and gasoline can be used to control the combustion process. A phenomenological multi-zone model to predict RCCI combustion has been developed and validated against experimental and 3D-CFD data. The model captures the main physics governing ignition and combustion.
Technical Paper

Effects of Temporal and Spatial Distributions of Ignition and Combustion on Thermal Efficiency and Combustion Noise in DICI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1248
Abstract The effects of the temporal and spatial distributions of ignition timings of combustion zones on combustion noise in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition (DICI) engine were studied using experimental tests and numerical simulations. The experiments were performed with different fuel injection strategies on a heavy-duty diesel engine. Cylinder pressure was measured with the sampling intervals of 0.1°CA in order to resolve noise components. The simulations were performed using the KIVA-3V code with detailed chemistry to analyze the in-cylinder ignition and combustion processes. The experimental results show that optimal sequential ignition and spatial distribution of combustion zones can be realized by adopting a two-stage injection strategy in which the proportion of the pilot injection fuel and the timings of the injections can be used to control the combustion process, thus resulting in simultaneously higher thermal efficiency and lower noise emissions.
Journal Article

Modeling the Ignitability of a Pilot Injection for a Diesel Primary Reference Fuel: Impact of Injection Pressure, Ambient Temperature and Injected Mass

2014-04-01
2014-01-1258
In this paper, we studied the accuracy of computational modeling of the ignition of a pilot injectionin the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) light-duty optical engine facility, using the physical properties of a cetane/iso-cetane Diesel Primary Reference Fuel (DPRF) mixture and the reaction kinetics of a well-validated mechanism for primary reference fuels. Local fuel-air equivalence ratio measurements from fuel tracer based planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) experiments were used to compare the mixture formation predictions with KIVA-ERC-based simulations. The effects of variations in injection mass from 1 mg to 4 mg, in-cylinder swirl ratio, and near-TDC temperatures on non-combusting mixture preparation were analyzed, to assess the accuracy of the model in capturing average jet behavior, despite its inability to model the non-negligible jet-by-jet variations seen in the experiments.
Journal Article

Transient RCCI Operation in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0050
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and PM emissions, while maintaining high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI steady-state performance studies provided a fundamental understanding of the RCCI combustion process in steady-state, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine tests. The current study investigates RCCI and conventional diesel combustion (CDC) operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine over transient operating conditions. In this study, a high-bandwidth, transient-capable engine test cell was used and multi-cylinder engine RCCI combustion is compared to CDC over a step load change from 1 to 4 bar BMEP at 1,500 rev/min. The engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for the RCCI tests and used the same ULSD for the CDC tests.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of Soot and NOX Emissions by Means of the HCPC Concept: Complying with the Heavy Duty EURO 6 Limits without Aftertreatment System

2013-09-08
2013-24-0093
Due to concerns regarding pollutant and CO2 emissions, advanced combustion modes that can simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions and improve thermal efficiency have been widely investigated. The main characteristic of the new combustion strategies, such as HCCI and LTC, is that the formation of a homogenous mixture or a controllable stratified mixture is required prior to ignition. The major issue with these approaches is the lack of a direct method for the control of ignition timing and combustion rate, which can be only indirectly controlled using high EGR rates and/or lean mixtures. Homogeneous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC) is based on the split-cycle principle. Intake and compression phases are performed in a reciprocating external compressor, which drives the air into the combustor cylinder during the combustion process, through a transfer duct. A transfer valve is positioned between the compressor cylinder and the transfer duct.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Modeling Using a Level Set Method with Detailed Chemistry

2006-04-03
2006-01-0243
A level set method (G-equation)-based combustion model incorporating detailed chemical kinetics has been developed and implemented in KIVA-3V for Spark-Ignition (SI) engine simulations for better predictions of fuel oxidation and pollutant formation. Detailed fuel oxidation mechanisms coupled with a reduced NOX mechanism are used to describe the chemical processes. The flame front in the spark kernel stage is tracked using the Discrete Particle Ignition Kernel (DPIK) model. In the G-equation model, it is assumed that after the flame front has passed, the mixture within the mean flame brush tends to local equilibrium. The subgrid-scale burnt/unburnt volumes of the flame containing cells are tracked for the primary heat release calculation. A progress variable concept is introduced into the turbulent flame speed correlation to account for the laminar to turbulent evolution of the spark kernel flame.
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