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Technical Paper

Improving Diesel Engine Performance Using Low and High Pressure Split Injections for Single Heat Release and Two-Stage Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0340
This study explores an Adaptive Injection Strategy (AIS) that employs multiple injections at both low and high pressures to reduce spray-wall impingement, control combustion phasing, and limit pressure rise rates in a Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) engine. Previous computational studies have shown that reducing the injection pressure of early injections can prevent spray-wall impingement caused by long liquid penetration lengths. This research focuses on understanding the performance and emissions benefits of low and high pressure split injections through experimental parametric sweeps of a 0.48 L single-cylinder test engine operating at 2000 rev/min and 5.5 bar nominal IMEP. This study examines the effects of 2nd injection pressure, EGR, swirl ratio, and 1st and 2nd injection timing, for both single heat release and two-peak high temperature heat release cases. In order to investigate the AIS concept experimentally, a Variable Injection Pressure (VIP) system was developed.
Technical Paper

Engine Development Using Multi-dimensional CFD and Computer Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0360
The present work proposes a methodology for diesel engine development using multi-dimensional CFD and computer optimization. A multi-objective genetic algorithm coupled with the KIVA3V Release 2 code was used to optimize a high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine for passenger car applications. The simulations were conducted using high-throughput computing with the CONDOR system. An automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with 11 variable piston bowl geometry parameters. The first step in the procedure was to search for an optimal nozzle and piston bowl design. In this case, spray targeting, swirl ratio, and piston bowl shape were optimized separately for two full-load cases using simpler efficient combustion models (the characteristic time scale model and the shell ignition model). The optimal designs from the two optimizations were then validated using a combustion model with detailed chemistry (KIVA-CHEMKIN model and ERC n-heptane mechanism).
Journal Article

An Optical Investigation of Ignition Processes in Fuel Reactivity Controlled PCCI Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0345
The ignition process of fuel reactivity controlled PCCI combustion was investigated using engine experiments and detailed CFD modeling. The experiments were performed using a modified all metal heavy-duty, compression-ignition engine. The engine was fueled using commercially available gasoline (PON 91.6) and ULSD diesel delivered through separate port and direct injection systems, respectively. Experiments were conducted at a steady state-engine load of 4.5 bar IMEP and speed of 1300 rev/min. In-cylinder optical measurements focused on understanding the fuel decomposition and fuel reactivity stratification provided through the charge preparation. The measurement technique utilized point location optical access through a modified cylinder head with two access points in the firedeck. Optical measurements of natural thermal emission were performed with an FTIR operating in the 2-4.5 μm spectral region.
Technical Paper

Efficient Simulation of Diesel Engine Combustion Using Realistic Chemical Kinetics in CFD

2010-04-12
2010-01-0178
Detailed knowledge of hydrocarbon fuel combustion chemistry has grown tremendously in recent years. However, the gap between detailed chemistry and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) remains, because of the high cost of solving detailed chemistry in a large number of computational cells. This paper presents the results of applying a suite of techniques aimed at closing this gap. The techniques include use of a surrogate blend optimizer and a guided mechanism reduction methodology, as well as advanced methods for efficiently and accurately coupling the pre-reduced kinetic models with the multidimensional transport equations. The advanced methods include dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) and dynamic cell clustering (DCC) algorithms.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Engine Design Constraints on Diesel Combustion System Size Scaling

2010-04-12
2010-01-0180
A set of scaling laws were previously developed to guide the transfer of combustion system designs between diesel engines of different sizes [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. The intent of these scaling laws was to maintain geometric similarity of key parameters influencing diesel combustion such as in-cylinder spray penetration and flame lift-off length. The current study explores the impact of design constraints or limitations on the application of the scaling laws and the effect this has on the ability to replicate combustion and emissions. Multi dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations were used to evaluate the relative impact of engine design parameters on engine performance under full load operating conditions. The base engine was first scaled using the scaling laws. Design constraints were then applied to assess how such constraints deviate from the established scaling laws and how these alter the effectiveness of the scaling effort.
Journal Article

Optical Diagnostics and Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Spray Targeting Effects in Late-Injection Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion

2009-11-02
2009-01-2699
The effects of spray targeting on mixing, combustion, and pollutant formation under a low-load, late-injection, low-temperature combustion (LTC) diesel operating condition are investigated by optical engine measurements and multi-dimensional modeling. Three common spray-targeting strategies are examined: conventional piston-bowl-wall targeting (152° included angle); narrow-angle floor targeting (124° included angle); and wide-angle piston-bowl-lip targeting (160° included angle). Planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics in a heavy-duty direct-injection optical diesel engine provide two-dimensional images of fuel-vapor, low-temperature ignition (H2CO), high-temperature ignition (OH) and soot-formation species (PAH) to characterize the LTC combustion process.
Technical Paper

Investigation of NOx Predictions from Biodiesel-fueled HCCI Engine Simulations Using a Reduced Kinetic Mechanism

2010-04-12
2010-01-0577
A numerical study was performed to compare the formation of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), collectively termed NOx, resulting from biodiesel and diesel combustion in an internal combustion engine. It has been shown that biodiesel tends to increase NOx compared to diesel, and to-date, there is no widely accepted explanation. Many factors can lead to increased NOx formation and it was of interest to determine if fuel chemistry plays a significant role. Therefore, in order to isolate the fuel chemistry from mixing processes typical in a compression ignition engine, sprays were not considered in the present investigation. The current study compares the NOx formation of surrogates for biodiesel (as represented by methyl butanoate and n-heptane) and diesel (n-heptane) under completely homogeneous conditions. Combustion of each fuel was simulated using the Senkin code for both an adiabatic, constant volume reactor, and an adiabatic, single-zone HCCI engine model.
Journal Article

Validation of Mesh- and Timestep- Independent Spray Models for Multi-Dimensional Engine CFD Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0626
Resolution of droplet-scale processes occurring within engine sprays in multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations is not possible because impractically refined numerical meshes or time steps would be required. As a result, simulations that use coarse meshes and large time steps suffer from inaccurate predictions of mass, momentum and energy transfer between the spray drops and the combustion chamber gas, or poor prediction of droplet breakup and collision and coalescence processes. Several new spray models have been proposed to address these deficiencies, including use of an unsteady gas jet model to improve momentum transfer predictions in under-resolved regions of the spray, a vapor particle model to minimize numerical diffusion effects, and a Radius of Influence drop collision model to ensure consistent collision computations on different meshes.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Influence of Molecular Interactions on the Vaporization of Multi-component Fuel Sprays

2011-04-12
2011-01-0387
A vaporization model for realistic multi-component fuel sprays is described. The equilibrium at the interface between liquid droplets and the surrounding gas is obtained based on the UNIFAC method, which considers non-ideal molecular interactions that can greatly enhance or suppress the vaporization of the components in the system compared to predictions from ideal mixing using Raoult's Law, especially for polar fuels. The present results using the UNIFAC method are shown to be able to capture the azeotropic behaviors of polar molecule blends, such as mixtures of benzene and ethanol, benzene and iso-propanol, and ethanol and water [1]. Predicted distillation curves of mixtures of ethanol and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared to those from experiments, and the model gives good improvements on predictions of the distillation curves for initial ethanol volume fractions ranging from 0% to 100%.
Technical Paper

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Heavy-Duty Engine Operation at Mid-and High-Loads with Conventional and Alternative Fuels

2011-04-12
2011-01-0363
Engine experiments and multi-dimensional modeling were used to explore Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) to realize highly-efficient combustion with near zero levels of NOx and PM. In-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of a low reactivity fuel and optimized direct-injection of higher reactivity fuels was used to control combustion phasing and duration. In addition to injection and operating parameters, the study explored the effect of fuel properties by considering both gasoline-diesel dual-fuel operation, ethanol (E85)-diesel dual fuel operation, and a single fuel gasoline-gasoline+DTBP (di-tert butyl peroxide cetane improver). Remarkably, high gross indicated thermal efficiencies were achieved, reaching 59%, 56%, and 57% for E85-diesel, gasoline-diesel, and gasoline-gasoline+DTBP respectively.
Journal Article

Fuel Effects on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion at Low Load

2011-04-12
2011-01-0361
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition combustion (RCCI) has been demonstrated at mid to high loads [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] as a method to operate an internal combustion engine that produces low NOx and low PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. The current study investigates RCCI engine operation at loads of 2 and 4.5 bar gross IMEP at engine speeds between 800 and 1700 rev/min. This load range was selected to cover the range from the previous work of 6 bar gIMEP down to an off-idle load at 2 bar. The fueling strategy for the low load investigation consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of gasoline and early cycle, direct-injection of either diesel fuel or gasoline doped with 3.5% by volume 2-EHN (2-ethylhexyl nitrate). At these loads, engine operating conditions such as inlet air temperature, port fuel percentage, and engine speed were varied to investigate their effect on combustion.
Journal Article

Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion in Light- and Heavy-Duty Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0357
Single-cylinder engine experiments were used to investigate a fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) concept in both light- and heavy-duty engines and comparisons were made between the two engine classes. It was found that with only small changes in the injection parameters, the combustion characteristics of the heavy-duty engine could be adequately reproduced in the light-duty engine. Comparisons of the emissions and performance showed that both engines can simultaneously achieve NOx below 0.05 g/kW-hr, soot below 0.01 g/kW-hr, ringing intensity below 4 MW/m2, and gross indicated efficiencies above 50 per cent. However, it was found that the peak gross indicated efficiency of the baseline light-duty engine was approximately 7 per cent lower than the heavy-duty engine. The energy balances of the two engines were compared and it was found that the largest factor contributing to the lower efficiency of the light-duty engine was increased heat transfer losses.
Journal Article

Computational Optimization of a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Conventional Gasoline

2011-04-12
2011-01-0356
The potential of low temperature combustion to yield low NOx and soot while maintaining diesel-like thermal efficiencies has been demonstrated through countless studies. Methods of achieving low temperature combustion are just as numerous and they range from using high cetane number fuels, like diesel, with large amounts of exhaust gas recirculation, to completely premixing a high octane number fuel, like gasoline, and approaching an HCCI-like condition. The potential of operating a heavy-duty compression ignition engine fueled with conventional gasoline in a partially premixed combustion mode to have high thermal efficiency and low emissions has been demonstrated in this study. The objective of this work was to optimize the engine using computational tools. The KIVA3V-CHEMKIN code, a multi-dimensional engine CFD model was coupled to a Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA II), which is a multi-objective genetic algorithm.
Technical Paper

Assessment of RNG Turbulence Modeling and the Development of a Generalized RNG Closure Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0829
RNG k-ε closure turbulence dissipation equations are evaluated employing the CFD code KIVA-3V Release 2. The numerical evaluations start by considering simple jet flows, including incompressible air jets and compressible helium jets. The results show that the RNG closure turbulence model predicts lower jet tip penetration than the "standard" k-ε model, as well as being lower than experimental data. The reason is found to be that the turbulence kinetic energy is dissipated too slowly in the downstream region near the jet nozzle exit. In this case, the over-predicted R term in RNG model becomes a sink of dissipation in the ε-equation. As a second step, the RNG turbulence closure dissipation models are further tested in complex engine flows to compare against the measured evolution of turbulence kinetic energy, and an estimate of its dissipation rate, during both the compression and expansion processes.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flowfield Non-Uniformities on Emissions Predictions in HSDI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0821
The role of the fluid motion in a diesel engine on mixing and combustion was investigated using the CFD code Kiva-3v. The study considered pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion that is a hybrid combustion system characterized by early injection timings and high amounts of EGR dilution to delay the start and lower the temperature of combustion. The fuel oxidizer mixture is not homogeneous at the start of combustion and therefore requires further mixing for complete combustion. PCCI combustion systems are characterized by relatively high CO and UHC emissions. This work investigates attenuating CO emissions by enhancing mixing processes through non-uniform flowfield motions. The fluid motion was characterized by the amount of average angular rotation about the cylindrical axis (swirl ratio) and the amount of non-uniform motion imparted by the relative amounts of mass inducted through tangential and helical intake ports in a 0.5L HSDI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Coupling of Scaling Laws and Computational Optimization to Develop Guidelines for Diesel Engine Down-sizing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0836
The present work proposes a methodology for diesel engine development using scaling laws and computational optimization with multi-dimensional CFD tools. A previously optimized 450cc HSDI diesel engine was down-scaled to 400cc size using recently developed scaling laws. The scaling laws were validated by comparing the performance of these two engines, including pressure, HRR, peak and averaged temperature, and pollutant emissions. A novel optimization methodology, which is able to simultaneously optimize multiple operating conditions, was proposed. The method is based on multi-objective genetic algorithms, and was coupled with the KIVA3V Release 2 code to further optimize the down-scaled diesel engine. An adaptive multi-grid chemistry model was used in the KIVA3V code to reduce the computational cost of the optimization. The computations were conducted using high-throughput computing with the CONDOR system.
Journal Article

Combustion Model for Biodiesel-Fueled Engine Simulations using Realistic Chemistry and Physical Properties

2011-04-12
2011-01-0831
Biodiesel-fueled engine simulations were performed using the KIVA3v-Release 2 code coupled with Chemkin-II for detailed chemistry. The model incorporates a reduced mechanism that was created from a methyl decanoate/methyl-9-decenoate mechanism developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A combination of Directed Relation Graph, chemical lumping, and limited reaction rate tuning was used to reduce the detailed mechanism from 3299 species and 10806 reactions to 77 species and 209 reactions. The mechanism was validated against its detailed counterpart and predicted accurate ignition delay times over a range of relevant operating conditions. The mechanism was then combined with the ERC PRF mechanism to include n-heptane as an additional fuel component. The biodiesel mechanism was applied in KIVA using a discrete multi-component model with accurate physical properties for the five common components of real biodiesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Model Parameter Sensitivity of Mixing and UHC/CO Emissions in a PPCI, Low-Load Optical Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0844
The present study attempted to model experimental results obtained on an optical engine at the Sandia National Laboratory. Measurements of in-cylinder unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) distributions were provided using advanced optical diagnostics on a near production type piston. Previous multidimensional modeling provided accurate pressure profiles and heat release rate (HRR) predictions. However, the experimental UHC distribution was not matched, and the model predicted UHC extending from the bowl into the squish region in the expansion stroke. To explore the causes of this discrepancy a parametric study was performed using a variety of initial conditions, boundary conditions and model constants to explore their effects on the UHC distribution. Of the initial conditions, the swirl ratio was found to have the biggest impact on the UHC distribution.
Journal Article

Use of Detailed Kinetics and Advanced Chemistry-Solution Techniques in CFD to Investigate Dual-Fuel Engine Concepts

2011-04-12
2011-01-0895
A multi-component fuel model is used to represent gasoline in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a dual-fuel engine that combines premixed gasoline injection with diesel direct injection. The simulations employ detailed-kinetics mechanisms for both the gasoline and diesel surrogate fuels, through use of an advanced and efficient chemistry solver. The objective of this work is to elucidate kinetics effects of dual-fuel usage in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. The model is applied to simulate recent experiments on highly efficient RCCI engines. These engine experiments used a dual-fuel RCCI strategy with port-fuel-injection of gasoline and early-cycle, multiple injections of diesel fuel with a conventional diesel injector. The experiments showed that the US 2010 heavy-duty NO and soot emissions regulations were easily met without aftertreatment, while achieving greater than 50% net indicated thermal efficiency.
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