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Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Comparison of an On-Board, Real-Time Electronic PM Sensor with Laboratory Instruments Using a 2009 Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle

EmiSense Technologies, LLC ( is commercializing its electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that is based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). To demonstrate the capability of this sensor for real-time PM measurements and on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to characterize the hydrodynamics of the sensor's housing and to develop an improved PM sensor housing with reproducible hydrodynamics and an internal baffle to minimize orientation effects. PM sensors with the improved housing were evaluated in the truck exhaust of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine tested on-road and on a chassis dynamometer at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) using their Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL).
Technical Paper

Investigation of Nozzle Clearance Effects on a Radial Turbine: Aerodynamic Performance and Forced Response

Variable nozzle turbine (VNT) technology has become a popular technology for diesel engine application. To pivot the nozzle vane and adjust the turbine operating condition, nozzle clearances are inevitable on both the hub and shroud side of turbine housing. Leakage flow formed inside the nozzle clearance leads to extra flow loss and makes the nozzle exit flow less uniform, thus further affects downstream aerodynamic performance of the rotor. As the leakage mixing with nozzle wake flow, the process is highly unsteady, which increases the fluctuation amplitude of transient load on the rotating turbine wheels. In present paper, firstly steady CFD analysis of a turbocharger turbine was performed at different nozzle openings. Then unsteady simulation of the turbine was carried out to investigate the interaction between the leakage flow through nozzle clearance and the main flow. Nozzle clearance's effect on turbine performance was investigated.
Journal Article

Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Turbocharger Performance on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

For diesel engines to meet current and future emissions levels, the amount of EGR required to reach these levels has increased dramatically. This increased EGR has posed big challenges for conventional turbocharger technology to meet the higher emissions requirements while maintaining or improving other vehicle attributes, to the extent that some OEMs resort to multiple turbocharger configurations. These configurations can include parallel, series sequential, or parallel - series turbocharger systems, which would inevitably run into other issues, such as cost, packaging, and thermal loss, etc. This study, as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (USDoE) sponsored research program, is focused on the experimental evaluation of the emission and performance of a modern diesel engine with an advanced single stage turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Boosted HCCI - Experimental Observations in a Single Cylinder Engine

Naturally aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) operational window is very limited due to inherent issues with combustion harshness. Load range can be extended for HCCI operation using a combination of intake boosting and cooled EGR. Significant range extension, up to 8bar NMEP at 1000RPM, was shown to be possible using these approaches in a single cylinder engine running residual trapping HCCI with 91RON fuel with a 12:1 compression ratio. Experimental results over the feasible speed / load range are presented in this paper for a negative valve overlap HCCI engine. Fuel efficiency advantage of HCCI was found to be around 15% at 2.62bar / 1500RPM over a comparable SI engine operating at the same compression ratio, and the benefit was reduced to about 5% (best scenario) as the load increased to 5bar at the same speed.
Journal Article

Review of Soot Deposition and Removal Mechanisms in EGR Coolers

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases in order to reduce NOX emissions. Engine coolant is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes fouling due to particulate soot deposition, condensation of hydrocarbon, water and acid. Fouling experience results in cooler effectiveness loss and pressure drop. In this study, possible soot deposition mechanisms are discussed and their orders of magnitude are compared. Also, probable removal mechanisms of soot particles are studied by calculating the forces acting on a single particle attached to the wall or deposited layer. Our analysis shows that thermophoresis in the dominant mechanism for soot deposition in EGR coolers and high surface temperature and high kinetic energy of soot particles at the gas-deposit interface can be the critical factor in particles removal.
Technical Paper

Design Details of the Compression Ignition Rotating Liner Engine. Reducing Piston Assembly Friction and Ring/Liner Wear in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

The Rotating Liner Engine (RLE) is an engine design concept where the cylinder liner rotates in order to reduce piston assembly friction and liner/ring wear. The reduction is achieved by the elimination of the mixed and boundary lubrication regimes that occur near TDC. Prior engines for aircraft developed during WW2 with partly rotating liners (Sleeve Valve Engines or SVE) have exhibited reduction of bore wear by factor of 10 for high BMEP operation, which supports the elimination of mixed lubrication near the TDC area via liner rotation. Our prior research on rotating liner engines experimentally proved that the boundary/mixed components near TDC are indeed eliminated, and a high friction reduction was quantified compared to a baseline engine. The added friction required to rotate the liner is hydrodynamic via a modest sliding speed, and is thus much smaller than the mixed and boundary friction that is eliminated.
Technical Paper

Coastdown Coefficient Analysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicles and Application to the Examination of the Effects of Grade and Other Parameters on Fuel Consumption

To perform coastdown tests on heavy-duty trucks, both long acceleration and coasting distances are required. It is very difficult to find long flat stretches of road to conduct these tests; for a Class 8 truck loaded to 80,000 lb, about 7 miles of road is needed to complete the coastdown tests. In the present study, a method for obtaining coastdown coefficients from data taken on a road of variable grade is presented. To this end, a computer code was written to provide a fast solution for the coastdown coefficients. Class 7 and Class 8 trucks were tested with three different weight configurations: empty, “cubed-out” (fully loaded but with a payload of moderate density), and “weighed-out” (loaded to the maximum permissible weight).
Technical Paper

Optical and Infrared In-Situ Measurements of EGR Cooler Fouling

The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines has significant impacts on combustion and emissions. EGR can be used to reduce in-cylinder NOx production, reduce emitted particulate matter, and enable advanced forms of combustion. To maximize the benefits of EGR, the exhaust gases are often cooled with on-engine liquid to gas heat exchangers. A common problem with this approach is the build-up of a fouling layer inside the heat exchanger due to thermophoresis and condensation, reducing the effectiveness of the heat exchanger in lowering gas temperatures. Literature has shown the effectiveness to initially drop rapidly and then approach steady state after a variable amount of time. The asymptotic behavior of the effectiveness has not been well explained. A range of theories have been proposed including fouling layer removal, changing fouling layer properties, and cessation of thermophoresis.
Technical Paper

Analytical Assessment of Simplified Transient Fuel Tests for Vehicle Transient Fuel Compensation

Good air/fuel ratio (A/F) control is essential to high quality combustion performance, drivability and emissions in internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Cold start and transient fuel wall wetting effects cause significant A/F control challenges in port fuel injected (PFI) engines. Transient fuel compensation (TFC) strategies are used to help control the A/F during cold starts and transient load and RPM conditions for good vehicle performance, but developing optimum TFC strategies and calibrations in a vehicle with many competing effects is very difficult. Thus, simplified transient tests such as fuel or throttle perturbation tests are often used to develop and validate new strategies or calibrations for use in vehicle. This paper will illustrate the use of a validated physical model to analytically assess the value of fuel and throttle perturbation tests for developing a TFC calibration for vehicle use.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Evaporative Emissions of Oil-Fuel Mixtures

Motor vehicle hydrocarbon evaporative emissions are a crucial part of emissions regulations, and increasingly-stringent regulations stipulate essentially zero fuel-based hydrocarbon evaporative emissions. In port fuel injected engines, there is the potential for accumulation of PCV effluent in the intake system under certain vehicle operating conditions. The majority of this effluent is oil, but a percentage has been shown to be fuel. The percentage of fuel in this oil-fuel mixture in the intake is at a minimum equivalent to the fuel dilution level of the crankcase oil, and at times can be higher due to other sources of fuel, and fuel vapor, in the intake. This accumulation of liquid oil-fuel mixture can be a contributor of hydrocarbon evaporative emissions migrating out of the air induction system when subjected to transient temperatures while the engine is off.
Journal Article

Applications of CFD Modeling in GDI Engine Piston Optimization

This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address design challenges in GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine combustion system development. A Ford in-house developed CFD code MESIM (Multi-dimensional Engine Simulation) was applied to the study. Gasoline fuel is multi-component in nature and behaves very differently from the single component fuel representation under various operating conditions. A multi-component fuel model has been developed and is incorporated in MESIM code. To apply the model in engine simulations, a multi-component fuel recipe that represents the vaporization characteristics of gasoline is also developed using a numerical model that simulates the ASTM D86 fuel distillation experimental procedure. The effect of the multi-component model on the fuel air mixture preparations under different engine conditions is investigated. The modeling approach is applied to guide the GDI engine piston designs.
Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
Technical Paper

Improved Passage Design for a Spark Plug Mounted Pressure Transducer

Combustion chamber pressure measurement in engines via a passage is an old technique that is still widely used in engine research. This paper presents improved passage designs for an off-set electrode spark plug designed to accept a pressure transducer. The spark plug studied was the Champion model 304-063A. Two acoustic models were developed to compute the resonance characteristics. The new designs have a resonance frequency in a range higher than the fundamental frequency expected from knock so that the signal can be lowpass filtered to remove the resonance and not interfere with pressure signal components associated with combustion phenomena. Engine experiments verified the spark plug resonance behavior. For the baseline engine operating condition approximately 50 of 100 cycles had visible passage resonance in the measured pressure traces, at an average frequency of 8.03 kHz.
Technical Paper

Railplug Ignition Operating Characteristics and Performance:A Review

The basic process of spark ignition in engines has changed little over the more than 100 years since its first application. The rapid evolution of several advanced engine concepts and the refinement of existing engine designs, especially applications of power boost technology, have led to a renewed interest in advanced spark ignition concepts. The increasingly large rates of in-cylinder dilution via EGR and ultra-lean operation, combined with increases in boost pressures are placing new demands on spark ignition systems. The challenge is to achieve strong and consistent ignition of the in-cylinder mixture in every cycle, to meet performance and emissions goals while maintaining or improving the durability of ignitor. The application of railplug ignition to some of these engine systems is seen as a potential alternative to conventional spark ignition systems that may lead to improved ignition performance.
Technical Paper

Transient Fuel Modeling and Control for Cold Start Intake Cam Phasing

Advancing intake valve timing shortly after engine crank and run-up can potentially reduce vehicle cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions in port fuel injected (PFI) engines equipped with intake variable cam timing (iVCT). Due to the cold metal temperatures, there can be significant accumulation of liquid fuel in the intake system and in the cylinder. This accumulation of liquid fuel provides potential sources for unburned hydrocarbons (HCs). Since the entire vehicle exhaust system is cold, the catalyst will not mitigate the release of unburned HCs. By advancing the intake valve timing and increasing valve overlap, liquid fuel vaporization in the intake system is enhanced thereby increasing the amount of burnable fuel in the cylinder. This increase in burnable HCs must be countered by a reduction in injector-delivered fuel via a compensator that reacts to cam movement.
Technical Paper

Spray Characterization in a DISI Engine During Cold Start: (2) PDPA Investigation

Droplet size and velocity measurements were taken under cold start conditions for a Direct Injection Spark Ignition engine to investigate the effect of transient conditions on spray development. The results show that during cold start, spray development depends primarily on fuel pressure, followed by Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP). The spray for this single hole, pressure-swirl fuel injector was characterized using phase Doppler interferometry. The fuel spray was characterized by three different regimes. Regime 1 comprised fuel pressures from 6 - 13 bar, MAPs from 0.7 - 1 bar, and was characterized by a large pre-spray along with large drop sizes. The spray profile resembled a solid cone. Regime 2 comprised fuel pressures from 30 - 39 bar and MAPs from 0.51 - 0.54 bar. A large pre-spray and large drop sizes were still present but reduced compared to Regime 1. The spray profile was mostly solid. Regime 3 comprised fuel pressures from 65 - 102 bar and MAPs from 0.36 - 0.46 bar.
Technical Paper

Spray Characterization in a DISI Engine During Cold Start: (1) Imaging Investigation

Spray angle and penetration length data were taken under cold start conditions for a Direct Injection Spark Ignition engine to investigate the effect of transient conditions on spray development. The results show that during cold start, spray development depends primarily on fuel pressure, followed by Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP). Injection frequency had little effect on spray development. The spray for this single hole, pressure-swirl fuel injector was characterized using high speed imaging. The fuel spray was characterized by three different regimes. Regime 1 comprised fuel pressures from 6 - 13 bar, MAPs from 0.7 - 1 bar, and was characterized by a large pre-spray along with large drop sizes. The spray angle and penetration lengths were comparatively small. Regime 2 comprised fuel pressures from 30 - 39 bar and MAPs from 0.51 - 0.54 bar. A large pre-spray and large drop sizes were still present but reduced compared to Regime 1.
Technical Paper

Further Development of an Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor and Its Application to Diesel Engine Transients

This paper presents the latest developments in the design and performance of an electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor developed at The University of Texas at Austin (UT) and suitable, with further development, for applications in active engine control of PM emissions. The sensor detects the carbonaceous mass component of PM in the exhaust and has a time-resolution less than 20 (ms), allowing PM levels to be quantified for engine transients. Sample measurements made with the sensor in the exhaust of a single-cylinder light duty diesel engine are presented for both steady-state and transient operations: a steady-state correlation with gravimetric filter measurements is presented, and the sensor response to rapid increases in PM emission during engine transients is shown for several different tip-in (momentary increases in fuel delivery) conditions.
Technical Paper

Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor – Mechanisms and Application in a Modern Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

An electronic particulate matter sensor (EPMS) developed at the University of Texas was used to characterize exhaust gases from a single-cylinder diesel engine and a light-duty diesel vehicle. Measurements were made during transient tip-in events with multiple sensor configurations in the single-cylinder engine. The sensor was operated in two modes: one with the electric field energized, and the other with no electric field present. In each mode, different characteristic signals were produced in response to a tip-in event, highlighting the two primary mechanisms of sensor operation. The sensor responded to both the natural charge of the particulate matter (PM) emitted from the engine, and was also found to create a signal by charging neutral particles. The characteristics of the two mechanisms of operation are discussed as well as their implications on the placement and operation of the sensor.